Essay about college life experience
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How to about college Get Into Business School with a Low GPA. Yes, itís true! You can get into a well-respected MBA program with low grades from college. Whether you are an international student or a U.S. student, you donít have to throw your dreams of going to shopping a top business school away just because you didnít earn strong grades in college. I consider a low GPA to be anything under 3.6 . I know, I know, I set the about college life experience bar really high.
However, admission to top business schools is extraordinarily competitive, and there are many other applicants who will have achieved high grades in college while also excelling in other areas of their profile. Iím sure that when you googled ďhow to great get into business school with a low GPA,Ē you were not thinking of a GPA of 3.5 as low. Youíre probably asking about someone who has a GPA that is in the under 3.0 range. Well, thereís still hope. Make sure you follow the advice below and check off as many of the essay college actions as you can.
Why do business schools care about your college GPA? Even though business school differs from ocr religious essays college, it is still an academic program toward the awarding of a professional degree. Your performance in college gives insight into your dedication as a student, your scholastic aptitude, and your ability to essay about college life effectively manage your time. If you perform very well in college, there is a good chance that you are well-prepared to perform well in graduate school. If you perform poorly in college, thatís a red flag to june 2008 contests the Admissions Committee that you may not be cut out for the rigors of the MBA classroom.
1. Score very well on the GMAT or GRE. Here are some GMAT score guidelines for those of essay college, you with low GPAs. 700+: excellent. Great job! You are ready to move on to a different part of essay 2012, improving your candidacy.
650 Ė 690: strong. Consider retaking the test to get in the 700 score range. However, do not prioritize getting an even higher score on the GMAT over your essays, which are extremely important. 600 Ė 640: fine. This is the range in which I scored. (I received a 620 on essay about life experience the GMAT and was admitted to HBS and waitlisted at essay Stanford GSB.) This is not a strong score for applying to Top 10 MBA programs, especially if you have a low GPA.
However, you could still have a fighting chance at essay experience Top 25 business school programs if you take action on recommendations made in this post. If you have a low GPA and a GMAT score in essay this range, I recommend you apply to at least 7 schools, and make sure you take all the essay life experience other actions in this blog post. 500 Ė 590: poor. I do not recommend that you apply to a Top 25 business school if your score is in 2008 contests this range and life, you have a low GPA. Iíve had clients get into Top 25 business schools with either a low GMAT score or low grades, but I rarely have seen people get admitted to a Top 25 school with low scores in both areas. under 500: If you are scoring under 500 on essay contests the GMAT, you probably need to wait at least a year to apply to business school and focus on about college life experience the fundamentals of mathematics, grammar, and reading comprehension. Being On Time To Work. I think that many people who score in this range would be well served to about life experience start at essay the material one learns in a U.S. public school in 6th grade and master those concepts before moving on essay about life experience to more advanced concepts. Without a strong foundation, it is very difficult to perform well on standardized tests. I recommend applying to business school with 2-5 years of work experience with increasing responsibility. You should have a professional, salaried job where you are regularly working in and nature teams , working on projects with measurable, quantifiable results , and hopefully, interacting with clients . Promotions, awards, and being selected for special training programs are all signs of strong work performance.
You should take the following courses and earn a B+ or better in each course: You should take a college-level version of the about college experience course. Being On Time To Work. You can take the course at a community college, junior college, or 4-year college or university. Coursera is an option but a less desirable one in my opinion. An excellent way to get your supplemental coursework achieved is through HBX CORe, which is a selective pre-MBA coursework program offered by Harvard Business School. Iíve had several clients successfully complete HBX CORe, and college life, I think it will only become increasingly expensive and challenging to get into, so go ahead and take it while you can! Many applicants underestimate the importance of strong essays when applying to business school. Studies Essays. In my opinion, once youíve gotten over the hurdle of a ďgood enoughĒ GPA and GMAT score, they are the most important part of the essay about college life application. Your MBA admission essays should be: within the word limit. If youíre having trouble getting your essay into the word limit, consider using our essay editing service so we can help you get it down while still maintaining your voice and keeping your message intact. Do not submit an essay that is even one word over one hundred essays 2nd edition the word limit. About Experience. specific and detailed.
When you are as specific as possible about your goals, experiences, and reasons for applying, you make your essay more memorable and more persuasive. Make sure that when telling stories, you use my Juicy Story Framework. In your optional essay, you should succinctly discuss your poor grades, why they occurred, what you learned from the experience, and what specific resources and strategies you will use to one hundred 2nd edition make sure you maintain strong academic performance. I bet youíre thinking this: But I donít want to draw attention to my bad grades! Well, guess what!
You arenít tricking anyone by ignoring your bad grades; all you are doing by college life experience not addressing them is making it look like you donít think they are that big of a deal. Studies. You show self-awareness and a sense of being proactive when you address your bad grades in your optional essay and give a specific action plan for making sure you donít repeat that poor performance in graduate school. Most MBA programs have three rounds of admission: Round 1, Round 2, and Round 3. There are far fewer spots left in college experience the MBA class in Round 3, and one hundred, I rarely suggest that people apply in Round 3. If you have a low GPA, your chances of being admitted during Round 3 are that much lower. About College. If you find yourself tempted to apply in Round 3 with a low GPA, consider how ahead of the game you will be if you switch your focus now to applying Round 1 for the subsequent admission year. Rather than having a few weeks to submit your application, you now have 6+ months to make sure you put together the strongest application possible. A low GPA doesnít have to ruin your goal of attending a top MBA program. However, there are specific action steps you need to make sure you take. Do you have a low GPA? What actions steps have you taken to make yourself a stronger applicant to your dream school? Kaneisha Grayson is the founder of shopping, The Art of Applying.
She is a graduate of Pomona College, Harvard Business School, and Harvard Kennedy School. Kaneisha was admitted to HBS HKS while a senior in college to the program now known as HBS 2+2. While at Harvard, Kaneisha was a Center for Public Leadership Fellow, earned Second-Year Honors at essay life HBS (top 20% of second-year students), completed the From Harvard Square to the Oval Office political campaign practicum for a select group of women students, and was awarded a $10,000 entrepreneurship grant to start The Art of Applying. Prompts 2012. She lives in life experience Austin, Texas with her husband and their many books. 32 Comments > How to Get Into Business School with a Low GPA. Thanks for this post Ė I found it very helpful. June Contests. I looked into about experience HBX CORe per your recommendation, and it seems like a great choice. Iím curious Ė do you see that HBX CORe is accepted (and itís program respected) by MBA programs outside of great, Harvardís? Iím interested in applying, although Iíd like to about college do a program that will have an one hundred 2nd edition, equal impact across all of my applications and I know HBX CORe is still relatively new.
Have you seen applicant success stories using HBX CORe at other programs outside of Harvardís? Hi Annelise, for the most impact across all of your MBA applications, I suggest you take your supplemental courses at a community college, junior college, or 4-year college or university. Iím a big fan of HBX CORe, but I consider it the best option among online course options. However, for now, an in-person class where you receive a real grade on a real transcript is the about college life preferred way to go. Itís very interesting may I get the 2008 contests chance to join hard are please.
What if you have a low undergraduate GPA, but an life experience, excellent graduate GPA? Iím considering getting a MBA or a business degree in addition to what I already have. Which GPA is weighed more? Hi Jersey, while having a strong GPA in being to work a graduate program is a good thing and will be positive for your application, the most heavily weighted GPA will be your undergraduate GPA since that is the measuring stick by essay about college life which all applicants can be compared. Thanks for your question! I am from India and the local community college options are limited. I have a considerably low GPA and wanted to know from on time to work you what are the good online courses that I could pursue to help strengthen my application? Hi Priyom, I recommend you do a quick online search for what youíre looking for college, or consider taking the courses at some local four-year universities if you can. Iíd be happy to have my team do a search for you for some online courses through our email coaching service if you are interested.
Love this! You mention that Iíd need 2 to 5 years work experience? Iím Canadian with a low GPA. Shopping About. After undergrad I did graduate school then got funding to essay about college life start my own company. Is this considered ďwork experienceĒ? Hi Allie, running a startup or small business does indeed count as work experience. You will want to ocr religious studies give lots of numbers to college life quantify the results of on time essay, your efforts running a business (revenue, profit margin, number of life, clients or customers, number of employees, etc.).
I wanted to ask that I have a GMAT score of june contests, 726 and experience, undergrad GPA-2.8/4. Do I have a chance of getting into top 20 business schools considering I do well on my essays? Hi Yatharth, congrats on being to work essay your excellent GMAT score! I donít provide profile evaluations in about the comments. I need to review your profile in-depth to assess your chances. One Hundred Great Essays 2nd Edition. This is a service called a Deep Dive that I offer.
Thank you for commenting! thanks for the great article. I have a super low GPA of about college, 2.53 in one hundred essays 2nd edition my bachelors of engineering. About College Experience. I am yet to take the about essay GMAT test. I have just started preparing for it and was planning on taking it around december end. I just checked a couple of schools and it seems like the Round 2 deadline for 2017 is life jan first week. After reading your article I believe i should be applying in Round 1 or Round 2. But given the amount of time I have, it looks like I would only be able to apply in one hundred 2nd edition Round 3. Essay About College Life. Do you recommend that at all? And what ranked schools should I be looking at uc college essay with a super low GPA. Hi AJ, I donít recommend anyone apply to business school in Round 3 unless you are fine with possibly having to reapply to business school in a following year. For your 2.53 GPA, I recommend applying to 6-12 schools ranked 30-50 in the popular MBA rankings. You should also take all the steps outlined in the article above.
Best of luck! I have a bachelors degree in law from the about college experience university of essays, papua new guinea. Essay About Life Experience. gpa of 2.98. I have worked as a legal advisor for three years. My high school gpa us 3.8. I also have obtained a degree in psychology with a gpa of 3.5. About. What are my chances? Hi David, I do not provide profile evaluations in the comments section. You can get an in-depth profile evaluation during a Deep Dive. Best of luck! Hi, Thank you for your tips.
Iím international student I just done my BS degree from US college with 3.0 GPA. I also have more than 4 years of work experience. Now Iím looking to about apply for Harvard MBA program and iím wondering if I can waive the GMAT/GRE test somehow!! Hi Shaqaq, there is no way to waive the GMAT/GRE requirement for Harvard Business School. Excellent article. This topic of june, low GPA and getting into HBS directly applies to college experience my story and I wanted to get your insight on essay this. My background Ė I am an Indian national, schooled in essay about Dubai (A grades throughout), completed undergraduate degree in economics at june essay University of Michigan, Ann Arbor with a GPA of 2.0 (this is the essay about major issue), then did investment banking in Singapore for 2 years, then worked at the World Bank on large deals in Sub Saharan Africa and Latin America for 3 years, and now for essay 2012, the past 2 years working for a top-notch private equity firm. My GMAT score is about college life experience 720. I have done a lot of community work through my family foundation on ocr religious studies education and essay college life, schools for great essays 2nd edition, the underprivileged.
I have two HBS alums who can swear by me and essay life, write me the best recommendation letters because I have closely worked with them and 2008 essay, they value my skills. Now as you can see I have all the essay about life experience ingredients except my GPA which is by far the essay lowest of the low. Please advice whether HBS MBA is still possible? Hi Ron, I donít provide profile evaluations in the comments. This would be appropriate for a Deep Dive. However, I would strongly encourage you to apply to essay about college HBS and any other school that interests you. If you donít apply, you have a 0% chance of prompts, admission, no matter how hard the school is to get into. Best of essay about college life experience, luck! This article is romanticism and nature really helpful in understanding alot of misconceptions about getting admissions to about college life HBS or top business schools. Is there any admission program for foriegn students to apply at HBS or other top business schools with low or mid-level GPA? Hi Joel, Iím glad you found the article helpful!
International students with a low or mid-level GPA should apply to business school through the regular admissions process just like everyone else. If you are able to work with the help of an being on time to work essay, admissions consultant (hopefully us!), the expert help could be very valuable in helping you best present your self despite your imperfect numbers. Thanks for commenting! Hi! I found this article interesting as someone with a 3.5 GPA (more technically reported as a 3.562 on my transcriptÖ).
My concern is not so much the overall GPA but that I did get 2 Cís during the 2nd half of essay college, my academic career and whether or not I should address them specifically. My concern is that the frank reason why that happened is essays I became rather depressed in essay life experience college and really lost motivation to participate. Most of my other success is probably due to my aptitude for exams and I can only guess some luck. I donít feel that will come across well in an essay so am not sure what to 2008 essay do. Thank you for essay college experience, any further advice. Hi Emily, congrats on doing so well in essays college!
Depression is a real (and fairly common) issue that people deal with while in college. If the about life experience Cís on your transcript are in one hundred 2nd edition your major or in a class important to the type of degree to which you are applying, then I recommend addressing them in your optional essay. Hereís a link with articles on essay life experience how to write an optional essay. Studies. Best of luck and donít worry too much about those Cís. I had two Cís on my transcript as well! This article has cleared a lot of the confusion surrounding admissions to HBS or top business schools. I have a 2.7 GPA and a 700 GMAT score. Two years of work experience at an FMCG and I have my own social venture on the side. Do you think I have a chance of getting in to HBS? Hi Sam, I canít give you a clear idea of your chances of about, admission without having a more in-depth understanding of your background and romanticism and nature, goals. This would be an essay life experience, appropriate question for a Deep Dive.
That said, you need to take the steps outlined in this article to mitigate your low GPA for applying to any Top 25 MBA program. Thanks for your question and best of essays 2nd edition, luck! Is a Ďpassí from HBX CORe considered bad? I studied it while having a job, so could not put in 100% effort.. Hi Cherry, I wouldnít say a ďpassĒ is considered bad in and of itself. However, I donít think itís a boost to your application to HBS specifically if you share that you received a ďpass.Ē My understanding is that a ďpassĒ is one of the essay college life experience lower designations you can receive, which is a direct comparison between you and others who completed the program. Thanks for your question! How do students self-report their GPA typically? Is it cumulative GPA, last two semester GPAís, average GPA, major GPA? I know UCLA Anderson is most interested in the upper classes GPA of the last two years opposed to essays freshman and sophomore, which case Iíll be in luck because Iíll be hovering just at a 3.6 from college life a non-target school.
Thoughts? Great question, Joseph! Unless stated otherwise, grad schools want to know your cumulative, entire GPA from all of college. Hi Kaneisha, Iím hoping to attend Harvard or Stanford for my MBA and essays, am probably going to end up with a GPA between 3.5 and 3.8 from a US News top 15 university with a highly regarded econ department. Essay About College Experience. Iíve always been a strong test taker so Iím not particularly worried about the GMAT however I donít want to go into business after I graduate from june 2008 essay college and would prefer to college life do something like the peace corps, teach for america or the navy. The rationale is simply that Iíll be spending 10-15 years in business after I graduate from being to work essay business school anyway and college life, when Iím young Iíd like to travel and try something I wonít be able to justify doing post business school.
Do you think this would substantially hurt my chances? Second question (sorry), if I have a choice bewteen getting a GPA towards the top end of that spectrum (3.7-3.8) and being President of the student government and engaging in some other extracurriculars but getting a 3.5 what would you recommend? Last question, despite my decent overall GPA, I bombed both Calc II and being essay, Microeconomics with Cís, I got a B in Calc I and an A+ in essay college life macroeconomics and ocr religious studies, an A in a 300-level statistics class. Is there anything I should do to rectify this/how much will it affect my application? Thanks for your help! Hi Jeremy, thanks for all of your interesting questions!
Iíll handle them one by about college experience one. First of all, congrats on performing so well in essays college. 1) Will Peace Corps / Teach for America (TFA) / another fellowship hurt my chances of essay college life, being admitted to and nature business school? Definitely not! I was a Rotary Ambassadorial Scholar before going to business school, and lots of our clients do Peace Corps, Teach for about college life experience, America, Kiva Fellows, Venture for America, and being to work, other similar programs. If youíre interested in those programs, apply to all the ones that interest you. These kinds of programs are seen as positives by Admissions Committees, and life, you can even sometimes receive fee waivers or special fellowships for ocr religious, having completed the programs.
For example, here are the about life benefits that TFA alumni receive. 2. Should I aim for the highest GPA possible or get a good enough GPA (3.5 Ė 3.7) and aim to President of the romanticism Student Government? I recommend you participate in the extracurricular and about college experience, leadership activities that you can while still maintaining a 3.6 GPA or higher. If you can be President of the Student Government as well as get a 3.6 GPA or higher, go for it! If youíll be spreading yourself too thin, I recommend choosing an activity that will allow you to exercise teamwork and leadership skills while still maintaining high grades. 3) I bombed both Calc II and Microeconomics with Cís, I got a B in Calc I and an A+ in macroeconomics and one hundred great essays, an A in a 300-level statistics class. Is there anything I should do to rectify this/how much will it affect my application? I recommend you retake Microeconomics at a community college or online and earn a B+ or better.
I donít think you necessarily need to college retake Calc II since you got a B in Calc I. It could be helpful to your profile to retake Calc I and get an A. A highly recommended option is to take HBX CORe. You are welcome! Best of luck with applying. Donít hesitate to reach out if we can help you with your grad school applications.
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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an essay life, average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of ocr religious, what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. Essay Experience? She created an prompts, example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of about life experience, relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great?
Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of prompts, recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from essay college life experience having to guess or mistaking you for romanticism someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and experience online professional profiles to june 2008 essay, differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. Life Experience? 3. Ocr Religious Studies Essays? It includes a single phone number and essay life email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address.
4. Essays? It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. About Experience? Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what youÄôre great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the uc college essay prompts 2012, most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to essay experience, another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. Romanticism And Nature Essays? 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the essay about college life, right candidates.
You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. Being To Work Essay? This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to essay about college experience, work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of uc college 2012, a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the essay life experience, name of the 2012, company.
While the company size is helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an about life, accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on uc college the company size ÄĒ assuming it's similar to your goals ÄĒ and less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine.. Essay College Life Experience? 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your teamÄôs projects and uc college essay prompts 2012 initiatives.
As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. About Life? 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the uc college prompts 2012, result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the about college experience, business's vendor relationships. 13. About? White space draws the about, reader's eyes to important points.
Recruiters do not spend a lot of romanticism essays, time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of about college life, text. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to shopping about essay, scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. Essay About Life? It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in one hundred great essays 2nd edition, first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says.
You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the essay life, applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. One Hundred 2nd Edition? It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in about life experience, the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and great essays 2nd edition charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of essay college, your resume, says Augustine.
Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. Uc College Essay? It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to about college experience, include this line. Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on one hundred a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.
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Essay on ďMy experience of college lifeĒ Complete Essay for Class 10
conclusion chapter The Origin of essay college life, Species. Chapter 14: Recapitulation and Conclusion. by Charles Darwin. Recapitulation of the difficulties on the theory of Natural Selection - Recapitulation of the general and special circumstances in its favour - Causes of the general belief in the immutability of species - How far the theory of natural selection may be extended - Effects of its adoption on being to work, the study of essay life, Natural history - Concluding remarks. s this whole volume is one long argument, it may be convenient to the reader to have the leading facts and inferences briefly recapitulated. That many and grave objections may be advanced against the theory of descent with modification through natural selection, I do not deny. Prompts! I have endeavoured to give to them their full force. Nothing at first can appear more difficult to about experience, believe than that the more complex organs and shopping about instincts should have been perfected not by means superior to, though analogous with, human reason, but by the accumulation of innumerable slight variations, each good for about college life the individual possessor. Nevertheless, this difficulty, though appearing to our imagination insuperably great, cannot be considered real if we admit the following propositions, namely, -- that gradations in the perfection of any organ or instinct, which we may consider, either do now exist or could have existed, each good of its kind, -- that all organs and instincts are, in ever so slight a degree, variable, -- and, lastly, that there is a struggle for existence leading to the preservation of each profitable deviation of structure or instinct.
The truth of these propositions cannot, I think, be disputed. It is, no doubt, extremely difficult even to conjecture by what gradations many structures have been perfected, more especially amongst broken and essay failing groups of essay life, organic beings; but we see so many strange gradations in nature, as is proclaimed by the canon, `Natura non facit saltum,' that we ought to be extremely cautious in saying that any organ or instinct, or any whole being, could not have arrived at its present state by many graduated steps. There are, it must be admitted, cases of special difficulty on the theory of natural selection; and one of the most curious of june 2008 essay contests, these is the about college experience, existence of two or three defined castes of one hundred great essays, workers or sterile females in the same community of ants but I have attempted to show how this difficulty can be mastered. With respect to the almost universal sterility of essay college experience, species when first crossed, which forms so remarkable a contrast with the almost universal fertility of june essay contests, varieties when crossed, I must refer the experience, reader to the recapitulation of the june 2008 essay, facts given at the end of the college life experience, eighth chapter, which seem to ocr religious studies essays, me conclusively to show that this sterility is college life no more a special endowment than is the 2008 contests, incapacity of two trees to be grafted together, but that it is incidental on constitutional differences in the reproductive systems of the intercrossed species. We see the truth of this conclusion in the vast difference in the result, when the same two species are crossed reciprocally; that is, when one species is first used as the father and then as the mother. The fertility of varieties when intercrossed and of their mongrel offspring cannot be considered as universal; nor is their very general fertility surprising when we remember that it is not likely that either their constitutions or their reproductive systems should have been profoundly modified. Moreover, most of the varieties which have been experimentised on have been produced under domestication; and as domestication apparently tends to eliminate sterility, we ought not to expect it also to produce sterility. The sterility of hybrids is a very different case from that of first crosses, for college their reproductive organs are more or less functionally impotent; whereas in being on time essay first crosses the organs on both sides are in a perfect condition. As we continually see that organisms of all kinds are rendered in some degree sterile from about college, their constitutions having been disturbed by slightly different and new conditions of life, we need not feel surprise at hybrids being in some degree sterile, for their constitutions can hardly fail to have been disturbed from being compounded of two distinct organisations.
This parallelism is supported by on time to work, another parallel, but directly opposite, class of facts; namely, that the essay life, vigour and fertility of all organic beings are increased by prompts 2012, slight changes in their conditions of life, and that the offspring of slightly modified forms or varieties acquire from being crossed increased vigour and fertility. So that, on essay college experience, the one hand, considerable changes in shopping the conditions of life and crosses between greatly modified forms, lessen fertility; and on the other hand, lesser changes in essay about the conditions of life and crosses between less modified forms, increase fertility. Turning to geographical distribution, the difficulties encountered on the theory of descent with modification are grave enough. All the individuals of the same species, and all the species of the same genus, or even higher group, must have descended from common parents; and therefore, in however distant and isolated parts of the world they are now found, they must in the course of successive generations have passed from ocr religious essays, some one part to the others. We are often wholly unable even to conjecture how this could have been effected. Essay About Life! Yet, as we have reason to believe that some species have retained the same specific form for very long periods, enormously long as measured by years, too much stress ought not to be laid on the occasional wide diffusion of the great essays, same species; for during very long periods of time there will always be a good chance for essay about college life experience wide migration by many means. A broken or interrupted range may often be accounted for by the extinction of the species in essay contests the intermediate regions. It cannot be denied that we are as yet very ignorant of the full extent of the various climatal and geographical changes which have affected the earth during modern periods; and such changes will obviously have greatly facilitated migration. As an example, I have attempted to show how potent has been the influence of the Glacial period on the distribution both of the same and essay life of representative species throughout the world. We are as yet profoundly ignorant of the many occasional means of 2nd edition, transport. With respect to distinct species of the same genus inhabiting very distant and isolated regions, as the process of modification has necessarily been slow, all the means of migration will have been possible during a very long period; and consequently the difficulty of the wide diffusion of species of the same genus is in some degree lessened.
As on the theory of natural selection an interminable number of intermediate forms must have existed, linking together all the species in college experience each group by gradations as fine as our present varieties, it may be asked, Why do we not see these linking forms all around us? Why are not all organic beings blended together in an inextricable chaos? With respect to one hundred great essays 2nd edition, existing forms, we should remember that we have no right to expect (excepting in rare cases) to discover directly connecting links between them, but only between each and some extinct and supplanted form. Even on a wide area, which has during a long period remained continuous, and of which the climate and other conditions of life change insensibly in college experience going from a district occupied by one species into another district occupied by a closely allied species, we have no just right to expect often to find intermediate varieties in the intermediate zone. For we have reason to believe that only a few species are undergoing change at any one period; and all changes are slowly effected.
I have also shown that the intermediate varieties which will at first probably exist in the intermediate zones, will be liable to be supplanted by the allied forms on either hand; and the latter, from existing in 2008 greater numbers, will generally be modified and improved at a quicker rate than the intermediate varieties, which exist in lesser numbers; so that the intermediate varieties will, in the long run, be supplanted and essay about college experience exterminated. On this doctrine of the and nature essays, extermination of an infinitude of connecting links, between the living and essay college experience extinct inhabitants of the on time to work essay, world, and at each successive period between the extinct and still older species, why is not every geological formation charged with such links? Why does not every collection of fossil remains afford plain evidence of the gradation and experience mutation of the forms of life? We meet with no such evidence, and this is the most obvious and prompts forcible of the about life, many objections which may be urged against my theory. Why, again, do whole groups of allied species appear, though certainly they often falsely appear, to have come in about essay suddenly on the several geological stages? Why do we not find great piles of strata beneath the Silurian system, stored with the essay college, remains of the progenitors of the Silurian groups of fossils? For certainly on my theory such strata must somewhere have been deposited at these ancient and utterly unknown epochs in the world's history.
I can answer these questions and ocr religious grave objections only on the supposition that the essay, geological record is june 2008 essay far more imperfect than most geologists believe. It cannot be objected that there has not been time sufficient for any amount of organic change; for about college experience the lapse of time has been so great as to be utterly inappreciable by ocr religious studies essays, the human intellect. Life Experience! The number of specimens in all our museums is absolutely as nothing compared with the countless generations of countless species which certainly have existed. We should not be able to recognise a species as the parent of any one or more species if we were to examine them ever so closely, unless we likewise possessed many of the intermediate links between their past or parent and present states; and these many links we could hardly ever expect to discover, owing to being to work, the imperfection of the geological record. Numerous existing doubtful forms could be named which are probably varieties; but who will pretend that in future ages so many fossil links will be discovered, that naturalists will be able to decide, on the common view, whether or not these doubtful forms are varieties? As long as most of the links between any two species are unknown, if any one link or intermediate variety be discovered, it will simply be classed as another and distinct species. About Life Experience! Only a small portion of the world has been geologically explored. Only organic beings of certain classes can be preserved in a fossil condition, at 2008 contests, least in any great number. Widely ranging species vary most, and varieties are often at first local, -- both causes rendering the discovery of intermediate links less likely. Local varieties will not spread into other and about distant regions until they are considerably modified and improved; and when they do spread, if discovered in studies essays a geological formation, they will appear as if suddenly created there, and will be simply classed as new species.
Most formations have been intermittent in their accumulation; and their duration, I am inclined to believe, has been shorter than the average duration of specific forms. Successive formations are separated from each other by enormous blank intervals of time; for experience fossiliferous formations, thick enough to resist future degradation, can be accumulated only where much sediment is deposited on the subsiding bed of the sea. During the alternate periods of elevation and of stationary level the romanticism essays, record will be blank. During these latter periods there will probably be more variability in the forms of essay about college life, life; during periods of subsidence, more extinction. With respect to ocr religious essays, the absence of fossiliferous formations beneath the college experience, lowest Silurian strata, I can only recur to the hypothesis given in the ninth chapter. June 2008 Contests! That the life, geological record is imperfect all will admit; but that it is imperfect to june essay, the degree which I require, few will be inclined to admit. College! If we look to long enough intervals of time, geology plainly declares that all species have changed; and they have changed in and nature essays the manner which my theory requires, for they have changed slowly and in a graduated manner. We clearly see this in the fossil remains from consecutive formations invariably being much more closely related to each other, than are the fossils from formations distant from each other in time.
Such is the sum of the several chief objections and difficulties which may justly be urged against my theory; and I have now briefly recapitulated the answers and explanations which can be given to them. I have felt these difficulties far too heavily during many years to doubt their weight. But it deserves especial notice that the more important objections relate to questions on which we are confessedly ignorant; nor do we know how ignorant we are. We do not know all the possible transitional gradations between the simplest and the most perfect organs; it cannot be pretended that we know all the varied means of Distribution during the long lapse of years, or that we know how imperfect the Geological Record is. Grave as these several difficulties are, in my judgement they do not overthrow the theory of about, descent with modification. Now let us turn to essay prompts, the other side of the argument.
Under domestication we see much variability. College Experience! This seems to be mainly due to the reproductive system being eminently susceptible to changes in the conditions of life so that this system, when not rendered impotent, fails to reproduce offspring exactly like the parent-form. Variability is governed by ocr religious studies, many complex laws, -- by about experience, correlation of growth, by use and disuse, and by the direct action of the physical conditions of life. There is much difficulty in essays ascertaining how much modification our domestic productions have undergone; but we may safely infer that the amount has been large, and that modifications can be inherited for long periods. As long as the conditions of essay college, life remain the same, we have reason to believe that a modification, which has already been inherited for many generations, may continue to be inherited for an almost infinite number of 2008 essay, generations. On the other hand we have evidence that variability, when it has once come into play, does not wholly cease; for new varieties are still occasionally produced by about, our most anciently domesticated productions. Man does not actually produce variability; he only unintentionally exposes organic beings to new conditions of life, and then nature acts on the organisation, and causes variability. But man can and does select the about essay, variations given to him by nature, and essay college thus accumulate them in any desired manner. Essays 2nd Edition! He thus adapts animals and plants for his own benefit or pleasure.
He may do this methodically, or he may do it unconsciously by preserving the individuals most useful to him at the time, without any thought of altering the breed. It is about college life experience certain that he can largely influence the character of romanticism, a breed by selecting, in each successive generation, individual differences so slight as to be quite inappreciable by an uneducated eye. Experience! This process of romanticism, selection has been the great agency in the production of the most distinct and useful domestic breeds. That many of the about, breeds produced by man have to a large extent the character of natural species, is shown by the inextricable doubts whether very many of them are varieties or aboriginal species. There is no obvious reason why the romanticism and nature, principles which have acted so efficiently under domestication should not have acted under nature. In the preservation of favoured individuals and races, during the constantly-recurrent Struggle for Existence, we see the essay, most powerful and ever-acting means of selection.
The struggle for existence inevitably follows from the high geometrical ratio of increase which is common to all organic beings. This high rate of increase is proved by calculation, by the effects of a succession of peculiar seasons, and by the results of naturalisation, as explained in the third chapter. More individuals are born than can possibly survive. A grain in the balance will determine which individual shall live and shopping which shall die, -- which variety or species shall increase in number, and essay which shall decrease, or finally become extinct. As the individuals of the same species come in all respects into the closest competition with each other, the struggle will generally be most severe between them; it will be almost equally severe between the varieties of the great 2nd edition, same species, and next in severity between the species of the same genus. But the essay about life, struggle will often be very severe between beings most remote in the scale of nature. The slightest advantage in one being, at any age or during any season, over those with which it comes into competition, or better adaptation in to work essay however slight a degree to the surrounding physical conditions, will turn the balance. With animals having separated sexes there will in most cases be a struggle between the males for possession of the females. The most vigorous individuals, or those which have most successfully struggled with their conditions of life, will generally leave most progeny. But success will often depend on essay college life experience, having special weapons or means of about, defence, or on the charms of the males; and the slightest advantage will lead to essay about college life experience, victory. As geology plainly proclaims that each land has undergone great physical changes, we might have expected that organic beings would have varied under nature, in 2nd edition the same way as they generally have varied under the changed conditions of domestication.
And if there be any variability under nature, it would be an unaccountable fact if natural selection had not come into play. It has often been asserted, but the assertion is quite incapable of life experience, proof, that the essay prompts 2012, amount of variation under nature is a strictly limited quantity. Man, though acting on external characters alone and often capriciously, can produce within a short period a great result by adding up mere individual differences in college life experience his domestic productions; and every one admits that there are at least individual differences in june essay contests species under nature. But, besides such differences, all naturalists have admitted the existence of varieties, which they think sufficiently distinct to be worthy of record in systematic works. No one can draw any clear distinction between individual differences and slight varieties; or between more plainly marked varieties and essay college life subspecies, and species.
Let it be observed how naturalists differ in the rank which they assign to the many representative forms in Europe and North America. If then we have under nature variability and a powerful agent always ready to act and select, why should we doubt that variations in any way useful to beings, under their excessively complex relations of life, would be preserved, accumulated, and inherited? Why, if man can by patience select variations most useful to himself, should nature fail in shopping about selecting variations useful, under changing conditions of life, to her living products? What limit can be put to college life experience, this power, acting during long ages and rigidly scrutinising the whole constitution, structure, and habits of each creature, -- favouring the good and rejecting the bad? I can see no limit to being on time essay, this power, in slowly and beautifully adapting each form to life, the most complex relations of life. Uc College Prompts! The theory of natural selection, even if we looked no further than this, seems to me to be in itself probable. I have already recapitulated, as fairly as I could, the essay, opposed difficulties and objections: now let us turn to the special facts and arguments in favour of the theory. On the view that species are only strongly marked and permanent varieties, and that each species first existed as a variety, we can see why it is that no line of essays, demarcation can be drawn between species, commonly supposed to have been produced by essay college experience, special acts of creation, and varieties which are acknowledged to have been produced by essay, secondary laws.
On this same view we can understand how it is that in each region where many species of a genus have been produced, and where they now flourish, these same species should present many varieties; for life experience where the manufactory of species has been active, we might expect, as a general rule, to find it still in action; and this is the case if varieties be incipient species. Moreover, the 2008 essay contests, species of the large genera, which afford the essay college experience, greater number of varieties or incipient species, retain to essays, a certain degree the character of varieties; for they differ from each other by a less amount of difference than do the species of smaller genera. The closely allied species also of the larger genera apparently have restricted ranges, and they are clustered in little groups round other species -- in which respects they resemble varieties. These are strange relations on the view of each species having been independently created, but are intelligible if all species first existed as varieties. As each species tends by its geometrical ratio of reproduction to increase inordinately in number; and as the modified descendants of each species will be enabled to increase by so much the more as they become more diversified in habits and structure, so as to be enabled to seize on many and widely different places in the economy of essay college life, nature, there will be a constant tendency in natural selection to preserve the most divergent offspring of any one species.
Hence during a long-continued course of modification, the slight differences, characteristic of varieties of the great 2nd edition, same species, tend to be augmented into the greater differences characteristic of species of the same genus. New and improved varieties will inevitably supplant and exterminate the older, less improved and intermediate varieties; and thus species are rendered to essay about college, a large extent defined and distinct objects. Dominant species belonging to the larger groups tend to give birth to new and dominant forms; so that each large group tends to become still larger, and at the same time more divergent in character. Uc College 2012! But as all groups cannot thus succeed in increasing in size, for the world would not hold them, the more dominant groups beat the essay about college life, less dominant. This tendency in 2008 essay the large groups to essay about, go on increasing in size and diverging in character, together with the almost inevitable contingency of much extinction, explains the about, arrangement of all the forms of life, in groups subordinate to college life experience, groups, all within a few great classes, which we now see everywhere around us, and which has prevailed throughout all time. This grand fact of the grouping of being to work essay, all organic beings seems to about life experience, me utterly inexplicable on the theory of and nature essays, creation. As natural selection acts solely by accumulating slight, successive, favourable variations, it can produce no great or sudden modification; it can act only by very short and slow steps. Hence the canon of `Natura non facit saltum,' which every fresh addition to our knowledge tends to essay college life experience, make more strictly correct, is on this theory simply intelligible. We can plainly see why nature is prodigal in variety, though niggard in innovation. But why this should be a law of nature if each species has been independently created, no man can explain.
Many other facts are, as it seems to me, explicable on this theory. How strange it is that a bird, under the form of one hundred great essays, woodpecker, should have been created to prey on insects on the ground; that upland geese, which never or rarely swim, should have been created with webbed feet; that a thrush should have been created to about life, dive and feed on sub-aquatic insects; and that a petrel should have been created with habits and structure fitting it for shopping essay the life of an auk or grebe! and essay about college life experience so on in endless other cases. Being On Time To Work Essay! But on about, the view of each species constantly trying to increase in number, with natural selection always ready to adapt the slowly varying descendants of each to and nature, any unoccupied or ill-occupied place in nature, these facts cease to be strange, or perhaps might even have been anticipated. As natural selection acts by competition, it adapts the life experience, inhabitants of each country only in relation to the degree of perfection of their associates; so that we need feel no surprise at the inhabitants of any one country, although on the ordinary view supposed to have been specially created and adapted for that country, being beaten and supplanted by the naturalised productions from another land. Being On Time Essay! Nor ought we to marvel if all the contrivances in about college experience nature be not, as far as we can judge, absolutely perfect; and if some of them be abhorrent to our ideas of fitness. We need not marvel at the sting of the bee causing the bee's own death; at drones being produced in such vast numbers for one single act, and uc college prompts 2012 being then slaughtered by their sterile sisters; at the astonishing waste of pollen by our fir-trees; at the instinctive hatred of the queen bee for her own fertile daughters; at ichneumonidae feeding within the live bodies of caterpillars; and at other such cases. Essay! The wonder indeed is, on about essay, the theory of about college life experience, natural selection, that more cases of the want of and nature essays, absolute perfection have not been observed. The complex and little known laws governing variation are the essay, same, as far as we can see, with the laws which have governed the production of one hundred great, so-called specific forms. In both cases physical conditions seem to have produced but little direct effect; yet when varieties enter any zone, they occasionally assume some of the characters of the species proper to that zone. In both varieties and species, use and disuse seem to essay about, have produced some effect; for it is difficult to resist this conclusion when we look, for instance, at the logger-headed duck, which has wings incapable of flight, in romanticism essays nearly the same condition as in the domestic duck; or when we look at the burrowing tucutucu, which is occasionally blind, and then at essay about, certain moles, which are habitually blind and have their eyes covered with skin; or when we look at the blind animals inhabiting the dark caves of America and Europe.
In both varieties and species correction of growth seems to have played a most important part, so that when one part has been modified other parts are necessarily modified. In both varieties and species reversions to long-lost characters occur. How inexplicable on the theory of ocr religious essays, creation is the occasional appearance of experience, stripes on the shoulder and legs of the several species of the horse-genus and in their hybrids! How simply is this fact explained if we believe that these species have descended from a striped progenitor, in romanticism and nature the same manner as the several domestic breeds of pigeon have descended from the blue and essay college life experience barred rock-pigeon! On the contests, ordinary view of each species having been independently created, why should the specific characters, or those by college life experience, which the species of the same genus differ from each other, be more variable than the generic characters in prompts 2012 which they all agree? Why, for instance, should the colour of a flower be more likely to vary in any one species of a genus, if the essay experience, other species, supposed to have been created independently, have differently coloured flowers, than if all the being to work, species of the genus have the same coloured flowers? If species are only well-marked varieties, of which the characters have become in essay about college life a high degree permanent, we can understand this fact; for essay 2012 they have already varied since they branched off from a common progenitor in certain characters, by which they have come to be specifically distinct from essay life, each other; and therefore these same characters would be more likely still to be variable than the generic characters which have been inherited without change for an enormous period. It is inexplicable on the theory of creation why a part developed in a very unusual manner in any one species of a genus, and therefore, as we may naturally infer, of great importance to the species, should be eminently liable to variation; but, on and nature, my view, this part has undergone, since the several species branched off from a common progenitor, an unusual amount of variability and modification, and therefore we might expect this part generally to experience, be still variable. But a part may be developed in the most unusual manner, like the wing of a bat, and yet not be more variable than any other structure, if the part be common to many subordinate forms, that is, if it has been inherited for a very long period; for in this case it will have been rendered constant by long-continued natural selection.
Glancing at instincts, marvellous as some are, they offer no greater difficulty than does corporeal structure on the theory of the about essay, natural selection of successive, slight, but profitable modifications. Essay About College Life Experience! We can thus understand why nature moves by graduated steps in endowing different animals of the same class with their several instincts. I have attempted to show how much light the principle of gradation throws on the admirable architectural powers of the hive-bee. Habit no doubt sometimes comes into play in modifying instincts; but it certainly is not indispensable, as we see, in and nature the case of neuter insects, which leave no progeny to inherit the effects of long-continued habit. On the view of all the species of the same genus having descended from a common parent, and essay about life having inherited much in common, we can understand how it is that allied species, when placed under considerably different conditions of life, yet should follow nearly the same instincts; why the essays 2nd edition, thrush of South America, for instance, lines her nest with mud like our British species.
On the view of instincts having been slowly acquired through natural selection we need not marvel at some instincts being apparently not perfect and liable to mistakes, and at many instincts causing other animals to suffer. If species be only well-marked and permanent varieties, we can at once see why their crossed offspring should follow the same complex laws in about life experience their degrees and kinds of romanticism essays, resemblance to essay about experience, their parents, -- in being absorbed into each other by successive crosses, and in uc college essay prompts 2012 other such points, -- as do the college, crossed offspring of acknowledged varieties. On the other hand, these would be strange facts if species have been independently created, and varieties have been produced by secondary laws. If we admit that the geological record is imperfect in essays an extreme degree, then such facts as the record gives, support the theory of descent with modification. New species have come on the stage slowly and at successive intervals; and the amount of change, after equal intervals of time, is widely different in different groups.
The extinction of species and of whole groups of species, which has played so conspicuous a part in the history of the about college experience, organic world, almost inevitably follows on the principle of natural selection; for old forms will be supplanted by new and improved forms. Neither single species nor groups of species reappear when the chain of ordinary generation has once been broken. The gradual diffusion of uc college essay 2012, dominant forms, with the college life, slow modification of their descendants, causes the forms of shopping essay, life, after long intervals of time, to appear as if they had changed simultaneously throughout the world. The fact of the essay about, fossil remains of each formation being in some degree intermediate in character between the fossils in the formations above and below, is simply explained by to work, their intermediate position in the chain of essay about, descent. The grand fact that all extinct organic beings belong to the same system with recent beings, falling either into the same or into intermediate groups, follows from the living and the extinct being the offspring of common parents. Being On Time To Work Essay! As the groups which have descended from an ancient progenitor have generally diverged in character, the progenitor with its early descendants will often be intermediate in character in comparison with its later descendants; and thus we can see why the more ancient a fossil is, the oftener it stands in some degree intermediate between existing and allied groups. Recent forms are generally looked at as being, in some vague sense, higher than ancient and extinct forms; and they are in so far higher as the later and more improved forms have conquered the older and essay about experience less improved organic beings in the struggle for life.
Lastly, the law of the n='448' long endurance of allied forms on the same continent, -- of marsupials in Australia, of shopping essay, edentata in America, and other such cases, -- is intelligible, for within a confined country, the recent and the extinct will naturally be allied by college life experience, descent. Looking to geographical distribution, if we admit that there has been during the long course of ages much migration from one part of the ocr religious studies, world to essay about experience, another, owing to former climatal and geographical changes and to the many occasional and unknown means of dispersal, then we can understand, on the theory of descent with modification, most of the great leading facts in Distribution. We can see why there should be so striking a parallelism in the distribution of shopping about essay, organic beings throughout space, and in their geological succession throughout time; for in both cases the beings have been connected by the bond of ordinary generation, and the means of modification have been the same. We see the full meaning of the wonderful fact, which must have struck every traveller, namely, that on the same continent, under the most diverse conditions, under heat and life experience cold, on mountain and lowland, on deserts and to work marshes, most of the inhabitants within each great class are plainly related; for they will generally be descendants of the essay about life experience, same progenitors and early colonists. On Time Essay! On this same principle of former migration, combined in most cases with modification, we can understand, by the aid of the Glacial period, the identity of college life experience, some few plants, and the close alliance of many others, on essay, the most distant mountains, under the most different climates; and likewise the close alliance of some of the inhabitants of the sea in the northern and southern temperate zones, though separated by the whole intertropical ocean. Although two areas may present the about college experience, same physical conditions of june 2008, life, we need feel no surprise at their inhabitants being widely different, if they have been for a long period completely separated from each other; for as the relation of organism to organism is the most important of all relations, and as the two areas will have received colonists from some third source or from each other, at various periods and in different proportions, the course of essay life, modification in the two areas will inevitably be different.
On this view of migration, with subsequent modification, we can see why oceanic islands should be inhabited by few species, but of these, that many should be peculiar. We can clearly see why those animals which cannot cross wide spaces of june, ocean, as frogs and terrestrial mammals, should not inhabit oceanic islands; and why, on the other hand, new and peculiar species of bats, which can traverse the ocean, should so often be found on islands far distant from any continent. Such facts as the presence of peculiar species of bats, and the absence of all other mammals, on oceanic islands, are utterly inexplicable on the theory of independent acts of creation. The existence of closely allied or representative species in any two areas, implies, on essay life experience, the theory of descent with modification, that the same parents formerly inhabited both areas; and we almost invariably find that wherever many closely allied species inhabit two areas, some identical species common to both still exist. Studies Essays! Wherever many closely allied yet distinct species occur, many doubtful forms and varieties of the same species likewise occur. It is essay about experience a rule of high generality that the inhabitants of each area are related to the inhabitants of the nearest source whence immigrants might have been derived. Shopping Essay! We see this in nearly all the plants and animals of the Galapagos archipelago, of essay about experience, Juan Fernandez, and of the other American islands being related in the most striking manner to the plants and animals of the june 2008 contests, neighbouring American mainland; and those of the college life experience, Cape de Verde archipelago and and nature other African islands to the African mainland. It must be admitted that these facts receive no explanation on college experience, the theory of romanticism and nature, creation. The fact, as we have seen, that all past and present organic beings constitute one grand natural system, with group subordinate to group, and with extinct groups often falling in between recent groups, is intelligible on essay about college, the theory of natural selection with its contingencies of extinction and divergence of character.
On these same principles we see how it is, that the mutual affinities of the species and genera within each class are so complex and circuitous. We see why certain characters are far more serviceable than others for prompts 2012 classification; -- why adaptive characters, though of paramount importance to the being, are of hardly any importance in classification; why characters derived from essay about life, rudimentary parts, though of no service to the being, are often of essay, high classificatory value; and why embryological characters are the most valuable of all. The real affinities of college experience, all organic beings are due to inheritance or community of descent. The natural system is a genealogical arrangement, in essays which we have to discover the lines of descent by the most permanent characters, however slight their vital importance may be. The framework of bones being the same in the hand of a man, wing of essay about, a bat, fin of the one hundred great essays 2nd edition, porpoise, and leg of the horse, -- the same number of vertebrae forming the neck of the giraffe and of the elephant, -- and innumerable other such facts, at once explain themselves on the theory of descent with slow and essay experience slight successive modifications.
The similarity of pattern in the wing and leg of a bat, though used for such different purposes, -- in ocr religious essays the jaws and legs of a crab, -- in the petals, stamens, and pistils of a flower, is likewise intelligible on the view of the gradual modification of parts or organs, which were alike in the early progenitor of each class. On the principle of successive variations not always supervening at college experience, an early age, and being inherited at a corresponding not early period of life, we can clearly see why the embryos of essays, mammals, birds, reptiles, and fishes should be so closely alike, and should be so unlike the adult forms. We may cease marvelling at college life experience, the embryo of an june, air-breathing mammal or bird having branchial slits and arteries running in loops, like those in a fish which has to breathe the air dissolved in water, by about life, the aid of well-developed branchiae. Disuse, aided sometimes by natural selection, will often tend to reduce an organ, when it has become useless by changed habits or under changed conditions of life; and we can clearly understand on this view the meaning of rudimentary organs. Essays! But disuse and experience selection will generally act on to work essay, each creature, when it has come to maturity and has to play its full part in the struggle for existence, and will thus have little power of acting on an organ during early life; hence the organ will not be much reduced or rendered rudimentary at this early age. The calf, for instance, has inherited teeth, which never cut through the gums of the upper jaw, from an early progenitor having well-developed teeth; and we may believe, that the teeth in the mature animal were reduced, during successive generations, by disuse or by the tongue and palate having been fitted by natural selection to life, browse without their aid; whereas in the calf, the teeth have been left untouched by selection or disuse, and on the principle of essay prompts 2012, inheritance at corresponding ages have been inherited from a remote period to the present day. On the view of each organic being and each separate organ having been specially created, how utterly inexplicable it is that parts, like the teeth in essay about experience the embryonic calf or like the june 2008 essay contests, shrivelled wings under the soldered wing-covers of some beetles, should thus so frequently bear the plain stamp of inutility!
Nature may be said to have taken pains to reveal, by rudimentary organs and by homologous structures, her scheme of modification, which it seems that we wilfully will not understand. I have now recapitulated the chief facts and considerations which have thoroughly convinced me that species have changed, and are still slowly changing by the preservation and accumulation of successive slight favourable variations. Why, it may be asked, have all the most eminent living naturalists and geologists rejected this view of the mutability of species? It cannot be asserted that organic beings in a state of nature are subject to no variation; it cannot be proved that the amount of variation in essay about life experience the course of long ages is a limited quantity; no clear distinction has been, or can be, drawn between species and well-marked varieties. It cannot be maintained that species when intercrossed are invariably sterile, and varieties invariably fertile; or that sterility is a special endowment and sign of creation. The belief that species were immutable productions was almost unavoidable as long as the history of the world was thought to be of one hundred 2nd edition, short duration; and now that we have acquired some idea of the lapse of essay about college life, time, we are too apt to assume, without proof, that the geological record is so perfect that it would have afforded us plain evidence of the mutation of species, if they had undergone mutation. But the chief cause of our natural unwillingness to being to work essay, admit that one species has given birth to other and distinct species, is that we are always slow in admitting any great change of which we do not see the intermediate steps. The difficulty is the same as that felt by about college experience, so many geologists, when Lyell first insisted that long lines of inland cliffs had been formed, and great valleys excavated, by the slow action of the coast-waves. The mind cannot possibly grasp the full meaning of the term of a hundred million years; it cannot add up and perceive the full effects of many slight variations, accumulated during an almost infinite number of generations. Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume under the form of an abstract, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of 2012, years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as the `plan of creation,' `unity of design,' c., and to think that we give an explanation when we only college life experience restate a fact.
Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to one hundred great, the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject my theory. A few naturalists, endowed with much flexibility of mind, and who have already begun to about, doubt on the immutability of species, may be influenced by this volume; but I look with confidence to the future, to young and rising naturalists, who will be able to view both sides of the question with impartiality. Whoever is led to believe that species are mutable will do good service by conscientiously expressing his conviction; for only thus can the ocr religious studies essays, load of prejudice by which this subject is overwhelmed be removed. Several eminent naturalists have of late published their belief that a multitude of reputed species in each genus are not real species; but that other species are real, that is, have been independently created. This seems to essay experience, me a strange conclusion to arrive at.
They admit that a multitude of essays, forms, which till lately they themselves thought were special creations, and which are still thus looked at about college, by the majority of naturalists, and which consequently have every external characteristic feature of true species, -- they admit that these have been produced by variation, but they refuse to extend the same view to other and very slightly different forms. And Nature Essays! Nevertheless they do not pretend that they can define, or even conjecture, which are the created forms of life, and which are those produced by secondary laws. They admit variation as a vera causa in essay college experience one case, they arbitrarily reject it in another, without assigning any distinction in the two cases. The day will come when this will be given as a curious illustration of the blindness of preconceived opinion. These authors seem no more startled at a miraculous act of one hundred great essays, creation than at an ordinary birth. But do they really believe that at innumerable periods in the earth's history certain elemental atoms have been commanded suddenly to flash into living tissues?
Do they believe that at each supposed act of creation one individual or many were produced? Were all the infinitely numerous kinds of animals and about college plants created as eggs or seed, or as full grown? and in the case of mammals, were they created bearing the false marks of about, nourishment from the essay, mother's womb? Although naturalists very properly demand a full explanation of every difficulty from those who believe in the mutability of species, on their own side they ignore the whole subject of the first appearance of species in what they consider reverent silence. It may be asked how far I extend the doctrine of the modification of great essays, species. The question is difficult to answer, because the more distinct the forms are which we may consider, by so much the arguments fall away in force.
But some arguments of the life, greatest weight extend very far. All the members of whole classes can be connected together by essays 2nd edition, chains of affinities, and all can be classified on the same principle, in groups subordinate to essay college life experience, groups. And Nature! Fossil remains sometimes tend to fill up very wide intervals between existing orders. Organs in a rudimentary condition plainly show that an early progenitor had the organ in a fully developed state; and college life experience this in some instances necessarily implies an about, enormous amount of modification in the descendants. About College Experience! Throughout whole classes various structures are formed on the same pattern, and at an embryonic age the species closely resemble each other. Therefore I cannot doubt that the shopping about, theory of essay about college life experience, descent with modification embraces all the members of the same class. I believe that animals have descended from at most only four or five progenitors, and plants from an equal or lesser number. Analogy would lead me one step further, namely, to the belief that all animals and plants have descended from some one prototype.
But analogy may be a deceitful guide. Uc College Essay! Nevertheless all living things have much in common, in their chemical composition, their germinal vesicles, their cellular structure, and their laws of essay college life experience, growth and reproduction. Being Essay! We see this even in so trifling a circumstance as that the same poison often similarly affects plants and animals; or that the poison secreted by the gall-fly produces monstrous growths on the wild rose or oak-tree. Experience! Therefore I should infer from analogy that probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on this earth have descended from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed. When the views entertained in this volume on the origin of species, or when analogous views are generally admitted, we can dimly foresee that there will be a considerable revolution in natural history. Systematists will be able to pursue their labours as at present; but they will not be incessantly haunted by the shadowy doubt whether this or that form be in essence a species. This I feel sure, and I speak after experience, will be no slight relief. The endless disputes whether or not some fifty species of British brambles are true species will cease. Systematists will have only to decide (not that this will be easy) whether any form be sufficiently constant and uc college essay prompts 2012 distinct from other forms, to be capable of definition; and if definable, whether the differences be sufficiently important to deserve a specific name. This latter point will become a far more essential consideration than it is at present; for differences, however slight, between any two forms, if not blended by intermediate gradations, are looked at essay about college life experience, by most naturalists as sufficient to raise both forms to the rank of species.
Hereafter we shall be compelled to acknowledge that the essays, only distinction between species and well-marked varieties is, that the latter are known, or believed, to be connected at the present day by essay about college life, intermediate gradations, whereas species were formerly thus connected. Hence, without quite rejecting the consideration of the present existence of intermediate gradations between any two forms, we shall be led to weigh more carefully and to value higher the actual amount of difference between them. It is quite possible that forms now generally acknowledged to be merely varieties may hereafter be thought worthy of specific names, as with the primrose and cowslip; and in this case scientific and common language will come into accordance. In short, we shall have to treat species in the same manner as those naturalists treat genera, who admit that genera are merely artificial combinations made for june 2008 convenience. This may not be a cheering prospect; but we shall at least be freed from the vain search for the undiscovered and undiscoverable essence of the term species. The other and more general departments of natural history will rise greatly in essay college interest. Shopping About Essay! The terms used by naturalists of affinity, relationship, community of type, paternity, morphology, adaptive characters, rudimentary and aborted organs, c., will cease to college life, be metaphorical, and june essay will have a plain signification. When we no longer look at essay about college experience, an organic being as a savage looks at a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension; when we regard every production of nature as one which has had a history; when we contemplate every complex structure and instinct as the summing up of many contrivances, each useful to being to work, the possessor, nearly in about life experience the same way as when we look at any great mechanical invention as the summing up of the labour, the experience, the reason, and even the blunders of numerous workmen; when we thus view each organic being, how far more interesting, I speak from experience, will the study of natural history become! A grand and june 2008 contests almost untrodden field of inquiry will be opened, on the causes and laws of variation, on correlation of growth, on the effects of use and essay disuse, on the direct action of external conditions, and so forth. The study of domestic productions will rise immensely in value.
A new variety raised by man will be a far more important and interesting subject for study than one more species added to shopping, the infinitude of essay college experience, already recorded species. About! Our classifications will come to be, as far as they can be so made, genealogies; and will then truly give what may be called the plan of creation. The rules for classifying will no doubt become simpler when we have a definite object in view. We possess no pedigrees or armorial bearings; and we have to discover and essay life experience trace the many diverging lines of descent in essay our natural genealogies, by about college experience, characters of essay contests, any kind which have long been inherited. Rudimentary organs will speak infallibly with respect to the nature of long-lost structures. Species and groups of species, which are called aberrant, and which may fancifully be called living fossils, will aid us in forming a picture of the ancient forms of life. Embryology will reveal to about life experience, us the structure, in some degree obscured, of the prototypes of each great class. When we can feel assured that all the individuals of the same species, and all the closely allied species of most genera, have within a not very remote period descended from one parent, and have migrated from some one birthplace; and when we better know the june essay, many means of migration, then, by about college life experience, the light which geology now throws, and will continue to throw, on former changes of one hundred 2nd edition, climate and of the level of the land, we shall surely be enabled to trace in an admirable manner the former migrations of the inhabitants of the essay about college life experience, whole world. Even at uc college essay 2012, present, by comparing the differences of the inhabitants of the sea on the opposite sides of a continent, and about life experience the nature of the various inhabitants of essays, that continent in relation to their apparent means of essay life, immigration, some light can be thrown on ancient geography.
The noble science of Geology loses glory from the extreme imperfection of the record. The crust of the earth with its embedded remains must not be looked at as a well-filled museum, but as a poor collection made at hazard and at june 2008, rare intervals. The accumulation of each great fossiliferous formation will be recognised as having depended on an unusual concurrence of essay about, circumstances, and june essay contests the blank intervals between the successive stages as having been of vast duration. But we shall be able to gauge with some security the essay life experience, duration of these intervals by a comparison of the preceding and succeeding organic forms. We must be cautious in 2008 attempting to correlate as strictly contemporaneous two formations, which include few identical species, by the general succession of their forms of life. As species are produced and exterminated by slowly acting and still existing causes, and not by miraculous acts of creation and by about experience, catastrophes; and as the most important of all causes of organic change is one which is almost independent of altered and perhaps suddenly altered physical conditions, namely, the mutual relation of organism to organism, -- the improvement of shopping essay, one being entailing the improvement or the extermination of others; it follows, that the amount of organic change in the fossils of consecutive formations probably serves as a fair measure of the lapse of actual time. A number of species, however, keeping in a body might remain for essay about a long period unchanged, whilst within this same period, several of these species, by migrating into new countries and and nature essays coming into competition with foreign associates, might become modified; so that we must not overrate the accuracy of organic change as a measure of time. During early periods of the earth's history, when the forms of life were probably fewer and simpler, the rate of change was probably slower; and at the first dawn of essay about college life, life, when very few forms of the simplest structure existed, the rate of change may have been slow in an extreme degree. The whole history of the world, as at present known, although of a length quite incomprehensible by us, will hereafter be recognised as a mere fragment of time, compared with the ages which have elapsed since the first creature, the june essay contests, progenitor of innumerable extinct and living descendants, was created. In the distant future I see open fields for about life experience far more important researches.
Psychology will be based on essays, a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by about, gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of on time to work essay, man and essay his history. Authors of the highest eminence seem to be fully satisfied with the view that each species has been independently created. Romanticism And Nature! To my mind it accords better with what we know of the laws impressed on matter by essay about life, the Creator, that the shopping about essay, production and essay about college experience extinction of the past and present inhabitants of the world should have been due to secondary causes, like those determining the ocr religious studies essays, birth and death of the individual. When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants of some few beings which lived long before the first bed of the essay about college life, Silurian system was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled. Essays! Judging from the past, we may safely infer that not one living species will transmit its unaltered likeness to essay college life, a distant futurity.
And of the species now living very few will transmit progeny of any kind to a far distant futurity; for studies essays the manner in which all organic beings are grouped, shows that the greater number of species of each genus, and all the species of many genera, have left no descendants, but have become utterly extinct. We can so far take a prophetic glance into futurity as to foretel that it will be the common and widely-spread species, belonging to the larger and dominant groups, which will ultimately prevail and procreate new and dominant species. As all the living forms of essay about life, life are the lineal descendants of uc college, those which lived long before the Silurian epoch, we may feel certain that the ordinary succession by generation has never once been broken, and that no cataclysm has desolated the whole world. Essay Life Experience! Hence we may look with some confidence to a secure future of equally inappreciable length. And as natural selection works solely by and for the good of each being, all corporeal and studies mental endowments will tend to progress towards perfection. It is interesting to contemplate an essay about experience, entangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us.
These laws, taken in the largest sense, being Growth with Reproduction; inheritance which is almost implied by 2nd edition, reproduction; Variability from the indirect and college life direct action of the external conditions of life, and essays from use and disuse; a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and essay about life as a consequence to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of one hundred great essays 2nd edition, Character and essay about college the Extinction of essays, less-improved forms. Thus, from the college life experience, war of nature, from famine and death, the contests, most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the life experience, production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into being on time to work essay a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.