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Useful Phrases for Academic Writing


Here we present useful phrases which are recommended to be usedin your essays. More phrases are in this article https://essay-

Keywords in German Essay-Writing

German essay writing phrases

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any book report Centre for Academic Success. A report is a systematic, well organised document which defines and analyses a subject or problem, and which may include: the essay writing phrases record of a sequence of events. interpretation of the significance of these events or facts. How To Write! evaluation of the german essay writing phrases facts or results of research presented. discussion of the outcomes of a decision or course of action. Reports must always be: Various courses require you to write reports (as opposed to essays), notably business and scientific or technical subjects. There are, however, different interpretations of what a report should look like, so it is important that you check with your course tutors and course documentation as to the report format and content expected. Interpretive Essay On The! In addition, there is at german writing, times some blurring between what “essays”, “reports” and “assignments” are, so again check within your department. Much of the advice given in benefits human cloning essay Guide 1.01, How to phrases write an intellect essay essay, also applies to reports. Always analyse your brief carefully, making sure that you fully understand the topic, question or case, that you know what the purpose of the report is, and who it is being written for.

The clearer these things are in your mind, the easier the report will be to write and the more effective it will be. When you are researching, planning and eventually writing, continually ask yourself what the main purpose of the report is, what your objective is in writing it: is essay writing it to inform; to argue; to persuade; to evaluate? What does your reader want to to write research see in the report and what will they do with it? You first need to essay writing decide your basic framework. With your main topic or question as a central focus, jot down your initial thoughts and start to planting essay group these together. You may find the Mind Mapping technique useful: see Guide 2.11. Start to german phrases divide key ideas from subsidiary information, and continually ask yourself if everything is relevant; if it isn’t, then delete it. From your prior knowledge (from reading and lectures), you should be able to benefits put together a fairly basic structure.

You will now be able to plan your research. German Essay Phrases! Ask yourself what you need to more essay find out, maybe in essay writing phrases the form of questions that need to benefits human be answered, then approach your reading from this starting point. If you have specific information to essay writing phrases look for, it will make your reading easier and less time consuming. (See Guide 2.02 Reading techniques). Try not to human gather too much information. Again, keeping your topic or question in mind, reject anything which is not 100% relevant.

When you’re making notes, always try to summarise the main points as concisely as possible. Remember to make a comprehensive record of any sources consulted in order to be able to correctly reference these. Make a record of the essay writing phrases research methods you used. How To A Concept! Unlike essays, reports are written in essay phrases sections with headings and sub-headings, which are usually numbered. Below are the get paid to write possible components of a report, in the order in which they would appear.

Check within your department which of essay, these you should include. How To Essay! This should normally include the title, your name and the name of the german essay writing phrases tutor to whom it is being submitted, date of submission, your course/department, and if applicable, the name of the person and/or organisation who has commissioned the report. Avoid “fancy” fonts and effects and don’t include any clipart. Acknowledgements (usually just in long reports) A list of people and organisations both within and outside Birmingham City University who have helped you. Contents page (always included in reports of 4+ pages) A clear, well-formatted list of all the sections and sub-sections of the report. Don’t forget to benefits human cloning essay put the page numbers! If applicable, there should be a separate list of tables, figures, illustrations and/or appendices after the main index. Make sure that the headings in this list correspond exactly with those in your main body. It is german phrases best to do your list of write a concept, contents right at german essay writing phrases, the end. Terms of reference (sometimes included) A definition of the task; your specific objective and purpose of writing.

Even if you don't include this as a heading, it is a vital process to go through in your planning. If it is group work, who exactly is responsible for what? How long have you got? What is your task timescale? Why are you writing the report? What exactly are the assessment criteria? Who are you writing the report for? Are you actually playing a role? What does your reader want to intellect essay see? Procedure (sometimes included) How your research was carried out; how the information was gathered.

Materials and methods (included if applicable) Similar to procedure, but more appropriate to scientific or engineering report writing. The following advice comes from german writing Robert Barrass' book Scientists Must Write (Chapman Hall,1978:135-136): Summary (usually included in longer reports; may be called Executive Summary, Abstract or Synopsis) This is a very brief outline of the report to how to a concept give the writing phrases potential reader a general idea of what it’s about. Trees Essay! A statement of: method/procedure used (unless included in separate section) main conclusions and recommendations. Introduction (always included) This should show that you have fully understood the german essay phrases task/brief and that you are going to cover everything required. Indicate the basic structure of the report. You should include just a little background/context and how to essay, indicate the reasons for writing the report. You may include your terms of essay, reference and procedure/research methods if not covered elsewhere. Your introduction will often give an indication of the conclusion to benefits cloning essay the report. Main body/findings (always included) This is the substance of your report. The structure will vary according to the nature of the material being presented, with headings and sub-headings used to clearly indicate the different sections (unlike an essay).

A situationproblemsolutionevaluation approach may be appropriate. It is not sufficient to phrases simply describe a situation. Your tutor will be looking for analysis and for a critical approach, when appropriate. Benefits Human! Charts, diagrams and essay writing phrases, tables can be used to intellect essay reinforce your arguments, although sometimes it may be better to include these as an appendix (particularly if they are long or complicated). Do not include opinions, conclusions or recommendations in this section.

Results (possibly included in scientific/engineering reports) This section records your observations (in the past tense) and german writing, would normally include statistics, tables or graphs. Your conclusion should draw out the implications of your findings, with deductions based on the facts described in your main body. Don’t include any new material here. Recommendations (sometimes included) These should follow on logically from your conclusion and be specific, measurable and achievable. They should propose how the situation/problem could be improved by suggesting action to be taken. A “statement of cost” should be included if you are recommending changes that have financial implications. Recommendations can be numbered if you wish. Appendices (sometimes included) An appendix (plural=appendices) is detailed documentation of points you outline in your findings, for interpretive, example, technical data, questionnaires, letters sent, tables, sketches, charts, leaflets etc. It is supplementary information which you consider to be too long or complicated or not quite relevant enough to include in your main body, but which still should be of interest to your reader.

Each appendix should be referred to in your text. You should not include something as an appendix if it is not discussed in german essay writing phrases the main body. This is a list giving the full details of all the interpretive essay road sources to which you have made reference within your text. By far the most common method in use at writing phrases, Birmingham City University is the Harvard method. Bibliography (sometimes included) This is either a separate list of sources which you have used during your research, but have not actually made reference to in your writing, or this list together with your list of references. Check in your department what you are expected to use. Glossary (occasionally included) Include a glossary if the report includes a lot of specialised vocabulary or acronyms which may not be familiar to the reader. Always use clear and concise English, avoiding jargon and colloquial language.

Write in fairly short sentences. Make sure you develop each paragraph sufficiently (usually a minimum of 5/6 sentences). Most of your report should be impersonal, although it may be appropriate in your conclusion or recommendations to essay on the road include more personal language. Be extra careful with verb tenses. Grammar, spelling and punctuation. Links to further resources on writing reports. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Centre for german writing, Academic Success. City North : 0121 331 7685 Email. Intellect Essay! Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email.

To book a tutorial at Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.

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Essay: Defining the scientific field and german phrases, objectives of biomimicry. This chapter aims at defining the scientific field and objectives of biomimicry, including its proposal of viewing nature as a model, measure and mentor. Intellect Essay! Furthermore, the overarching principles found in all forms of phrases life will be elucidated. Concerning cities, an inclusive perspective, viewing humans and their creations as part of the larger ecosystem will be suggested. Various Definitions of Biomimicry. ‘Biomimicry’ derives from the Greek ‘bios’ meaning life and ‘mimesis’ to imitate. The Oxford English Dictionary (2011) defines biomimicry as ”the design and production of materials, structures, and systems that are modelled on biological entities and intellect essay, processes.’.

A more specific definition is provided by the Merriam-Webster collegiate dictionary (2004), which suggests that biomimicry is ‘The study of the formation, structure, or function of biologically produced substances and materials and biological mechanisms and processes especially for essay phrases the purpose of synthesizing similar products by artificial mechanisms which mimic natural ones.’ In practical terms, the field of biomimicry encourages and emphasizes the study of designs, processes and systems found in nature, consequently applying these natural concepts to human innovation, as stated by the renowned biomimicry pioneer Janine Benyus (2002). The field assumes that nature has already efficiently solved many of the problems with which human society is confronted today. Benyus describes biomim-icry as the conscious emulation of nature’s genius. Furthermore, biomimicry proposes a change of perspective, away from viewing nature as a mere source of raw materials and towards a holistic approach, realizing the planting more potential of nature as a measure, model and mentor. In a nutshell, biomimicry is innovation inspired by nature (Benyus 2002). 2.2 Nature as Model, Measure and Mentor.

According to Benyus, the first step in a biomimetic design approach must be to use nature as a model by closely examining natural structures, functions, and systems and identifying methods to apply the german essay writing findings to improve current technologies or develop innovative technologies. Moreover, nature should be taken as a measure by judging the sustainability of man-made innovations by ecological standards. Benefits Essay! Benyus posits that after 3.8 billion years of evolution nature’s proficiency can be trusted more than any human perception of german essay writing phrases genius, as no human technology has had the opportunity of such extensive and comprehensive field testing. The third revolutionary concept biomimicry proposes is a new way of viewing and valuing nature as a mentor. Instead of attempt-ing to extract from the natural world to the fullest extent, future efforts should focus on learning from nature and assimilating its genius as far as possible (Benyus 2002). 2.3 Life’s Principles. In order to facilitate a deeper understanding of the most important lessons to be learned from nature, Biomimicry 3.8 (2013), a cooperation co-founded by Benyus, developed a design lens (Figure 1). The lens illustrates the overarching patterns found amongst all species surviving and prospering on Earth, following 3.8 billion years of natural selection and more trees essay, subsequent evolution.

The six fundamental strategies of life depicted in the lens essentially allow long lasting solutions with maximal performance using minimal resources. As raw materials are becoming increasingly scarce, this long-term objective of sustainability, which has long been achieved in nature has become the most desired in the human world. Furthermore, it can be argued that no human technology has yet managed to function nearly as efficiently as living organisms. Therefore, the only logical conclusion to be drawn is that a successful imitation of nature is only possible when using the following principles as aspirational ideals (Biomimicry 3.8 2013): 1. German Essay Writing! Adapt to Changing Conditions. The first of Life’s Principles states that it is how to essay inevitable to modify behavior patterns, composition and appearance to ensure survival in changing conditions. Take for instance arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) that change their fur color from white in winter, to brown in summer in order to perfectly blend in with their surroundings to facilitate hunting all year around (Russell and german, Tumlison 1996). 2. Be Locally Attuned and Responsive. It is essential to be locally attuned and capable of compensating for potential short-comings of the ecosystem. A biological example of this is how the Namib Desert beetle (Stenocara gracilipes) manages to intellect essay survive in an extremely arid climate by using fog as an alternative water source. The beetle’s bumpy back surface allows for the vapor to materialize as water droplets, which are then drawn to the mouth (Parker 2001).

3. Use Life-Friendly Chemistry. In Nature, a diverse assembly of producers, consumers and decomposers successfully evolved to writing create closed loops, constantly cycling matter. Thus, chemicals exist in quantities beneficial to all organisms. For instance, the nitrogen cycle ensures that nitrogen, which is vital for all life forms on earth as a component of amino ac, is available in intellect essay adequate quantities. Essay Phrases! This is essay accomplished through fixation, converting gaseous nitrogen into a plant available form, assimilation, adsorption of german essay writing phrases nitrogen by plants, ammonification, through the death of an benefits human cloning, organism or excretion of feces, and finally nitrification, by conversion from ammonium to nitrate by microorganisms which is phrases then reduced back into its gaseous form, completing the how to essay nitrogen cycle (Johnson et al. 2005). 4. Be Resource (Material and Energy) Efficient. While the objective of conserving resources such as minerals is a relatively new idea in the human world, nature has learned the importance of efficiency long ago. German Writing! A prime example of the importance thinking energy efficiency in german essay writing the natural world is passive energy recapture, a mechanism which allows the moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) to recapture some of the energy they spend on motion due to their unique contract-and-relax action (Gemmell et al. 2013).

5. Integrate Development with Growth. Ideal strategies promote both development and growth. Furthermore, they guarantee a balance between the benefits human two, ensuring that neither falls behind. For instance, in a healthy ecosystem population growth never exceeds the expansion of suitable habitat. In contrast, slums are a prime example of human failure due to writing non-compliance with this principle. While the population in some cities increased exponentially, develop-ment was not integrated leading to research papers insufficient infrastructure to support the inhabit-ants (Wackernagel et al.

2002). 6. German Essay Writing! Evolve to survive. Due to natural selection only the best adapted organisms survive in an ecosystem. Therefore, all life on earth is constantly evolving. For instance, rat populations in Germany developed a resistance to the anticoagulant rodenticides warfarin, bromad-iolone, which allows them to consume five times the normally lethal dose without dying (Kohn et al. 2000). Applied to the human world, this principle shows that just like organisms, all technologies should be developing continuously. 2.4 Holistic Perspective on Cities. Over the course of evolution, from living as hunters and gatherers in competition with other animals, towards a modern society, where interaction with the interpretive essay on the not taken wild has become superfluous for many individuals, humans have come to see themselves as increasingly independent from nature.

Due to the spatial separation from the natural landscape, this exclusive perspective is perhaps most prevalent in german essay writing phrases cities, where more than half of the human population lives today (Grimm et al. 2008). Despite the unawareness of this fact, all human settlements utterly rely on well-functioning natural ecosystem processes to be inhabitable. All services provided by nature such as fresh water supply, air purification, climate regulation, waste decomposition, and the flow of vital goods such as food undoubtedly constitute an inseparable relationship between artificial and natural infrastructure. Intellect Essay! Moreover, cities themselves are by definition ecosystems, as they consist of interacting abiotic and biotic components which create flows of energy and cycling of matter. This ecosystem interpretation is an writing, inclusive one which perceives humans and their creations as a fully integrated part of the natural world (Newman and Jennings 2008). However, due to our exponential population growth, which goes hand in hand with excessive resource consumption and waste production, human civilization has doubtlessly become a very destructive part of it. The exclusive and severely flawed mindset that humans are separated from nature resulted in the view of environmen-tal destruction as the obliteration of a self-contained object. It has become inevitable for humanity to on the road not taken turn away from environmental degradation, which is essentially self-destruction, and towards contributing to writing phrases the continuation of life for a sustainable prosperity. Urban settlements, the centers of population density and all concomitant problems, offer the highest potential for the preservation of resources and remain-ing natural landscapes (Kinver 2015).

3 Mumbai’s Slums: Issues and interpretive road, Opportunities. While urbanization occurred rapidly all over the world in the past centuries, countries of the global South were particularly affected. Over one third of the essay writing urban population in the developing world, 863 million people are slum dwellers. Moreover, 40% of the population in developing countries are experiencing inadequate housing, malnutrition, insufficient infrastructure and lack of education and the importance, health services. Slums are the face of urban poverty in the new Millennium (UN-Habitat 2003). In India specifically, the urban population increased approximately tenfold between the years 1901 and 2001. The 400 largest cities are home to over 68% of India’s 1.2 billion, constantly attracting more people from rural areas due to diverse employment opportunities, despite the fact that physical infrastructure is highly inadequate.

As a result, the quality of life and the environmental conditions in cities have deteriorated rapidly due to essay writing phrases migration from to write research rural areas, increasing the gap between the demand and supply of infrastructure (Registrar General of India 2001). The consequences of failed urbanization are particularly evident in Mumbai, India’s largest city, which currently ranks as the fifth largest urban settlement worldwide. Slums are a direct result of the writing over-strained infrastructure increasingly struggling to support its population, which increased by 400% in the past forty years, exceeding the 15 million mark (United Nations 1996). 1,959 slum settlements have been identified with a total population of 6.25 million, forming 54% of Mumbai’s total population (Census of thinking for students India 2001). In addition to their enormous number, the urban poor occupy just 3.5% of the total space, leading to high population densities of up to 400,000 persons per km?? in some of the slum enclaves (Mahadevia et al. 2005). A vicious cycle emerged out of these demographic developments, as increasing destruction of the environment entailed even more overburdening of the infrastructural systems. The resulting shortcomings concerning water, waste and german phrases, energy management and air pollution control will be discussed in more detail in the following chapter. 3.1 Insufficient Water Management Infrastructure. Infrastructural underdevelopment and mismanagement pose severe threats to public health and the local ecosystem. Many issues the population in Mumbai’s slums faces can be attributed to the lack of adequate water management infrastructure.

The current state of these as well as the consequences of their inadequacy will be summa-rized below. 3.1.1 Lack of Water Supply. The consequences of essay insufficient water supply and phrases, a lack of more trees sanitary facilities is an insistent example of the strong linkage between living environmental conditions and human health issues. The situation in Mumbai is german devastating: currently the planting more essay 11.48 million population is essay supplied with 3,000 million liters of water per get paid to write research papers day, thus meeting less than two thirds of the estimated demand (Bombay Municipal Corporation 2000). German Writing Phrases! This demand-supply imbalance has resulted in the imposition of water supply interrup-tions and unequal distribution among consumers from different social-classes. By comparison to on the road the 135 liters per capita and day for those living in german essay phrases privately owned houses, the urban poor living in a concept essay slums are apportioned only 45 liters on average, including water consumed by german phrases factories and other industrial structures in the slums (Karn and intellect essay, Harda 2002). 3.1.2 Lack of Sewerage Coverage.

Concerning sewerage coverage, it is estimated that only writing 45% of Mumbai’s population is connected. Moreover, dwellers living in informal, undeclared slums and squatters is almost completely deprived of this essential service (Ruet, Saravaanan and Zerah 2002). In terms of wastewater collection and treatment, despite the fact that almost 90% of the 2456 million liters of interpretive essay wastewater per day are being collected, only 109 go through secondary treatment while the remaining 2101 million liters of the german essay writing severely contaminated sewage water go directly into the ocean or local rivers and creeks (CPBC 1997). Furthermore, looking at means of human waste disposal, nearly the entire slum population in Mumbai relies on the few public toilets and to write papers, is often forced to practice open defecation. Out of a total estimated demand of 36,704 public toilet seats only 12,612 are provided, with over 30% of german them being inoperative due to the extremely poor conditions caused by excessive use, as reported by Karn and Harda (2002). The same study revealed that over 90% of how to a concept essay sewage produced by municipal councils and half of sewage produced by german writing municipal corporations are not sufficiently treated.

75 per cent of intellect essay Sewage Treatment Plants are lacking operational approvals due to inadequate facilities, while the few that have these are significantly overstrained (Karn and Harda 2002). 3.1.3 Consequences for essay writing phrases Humans and Environment. The direct consequences of these immense infrastructural shortcomings are disas-trous. As water is known to be the foundation of all life, its contamination poses a severe threat to the entire ecosystems, endangering human and animal life. Large-scale testing of for students water samples from various creeks and writing, rivers in interpretive essay on the road not taken Mumbai revealed that the water quality has deteriorated significantly between the years 2006 and 2007 at 70% of all examined locations.

Furthermore, not a single water body met the im-provement targets set relatively low by the government, demonstrating clear noncom-pliance with ecological standards. One particularly alarming example of pollution is the Thane creek, which separates the city of Mumbai from the Indian mainland. Here the deterioration has been most severe with a fivefold increase of pollution levels between 2006 and 2007, posing a serious danger to marine animals and microorgan-isms (Gandy 2008). In Mumbai, mortality rates from infectious diseases are 15 times higher than in developed countries. Death rates from childhood diseases such as diphtheria and polio are 33 times as high, while malaria occurs almost exclusively in the global south. Almost all of these diseases are related to inadequate water management, facilitating the uncontrolled spread of diseases (UN-Habitat 2003).

Regarding Mumbai’s slums, it is estimated that water-borne diseases account for over one third of all deaths (Karn and Harda 2002). 3.2 Solid Waste Mismanagement. Waste is undeniably a common by-product of phrases human activity, and write, its environmen-tally friendly collection and disposal require considerable effort. While most developed countries succeeded in improving their models of waste management, conditions in the global south have deteriorated. German Essay Phrases! In India, the interpretive essay on the amount of solid waste produced by cities increased eightfold since the german phrases early 1950’s. In the case of Mumbai specifically, the increase of cloning essay solid waste outpaced the german population growth. Waste production increased by 41% in ten years, amounting to over 6000 tons per on the road day in german essay writing phrases 2001, while the population grew by a mere 20% over intellect essay the same period.

As a result, the city has been progressively unable to handle its solid waste, which gave rise to environmental and public health problems (Rathi 2007). 3.2.1 Insufficient Waste Collection. Waste collection efficiency is known to differ greatly amongst localities in Mumbai, with slums being by far the least serviced areas. German Writing! This is due to the fact that slums are not considered to be rightful recipients of thinking for students formal waste collection services by the local government. Fortunately, the german essay writing waste management system is beginning to be extended to regularized slums that are recognized officially under the census. Nonetheless, the city government’s neglect of waste collection issues in slums harms the interpretive essay on the road not taken entire popula-tion’s health as well as the environment. As a matter of german writing fact, the interpretive on the road theoretic borders between the informal and formal settlements do not prevent the writing phrases spread of pollutants and disease caused by insufficient waste collection (Davis 2003).

Even if areas are provided with bins, they are typically communal ones, placed far apart along busy roads, leading to the creation of unauthorized collection points. The collection efficiency of Mumbai overall is only about on the road not taken, 70%, leaving 30% of german essay waste on the streets and in the creeks of the city. It is estimated that the efficiency of waste collection in slums is significantly lower (Sharholy et al. 2007). 3.2.2 Insufficient Waste Disposal. The problems, however, continue after collection when the waste is planting trees essay transported and german essay, disposed of, as reported by Davis (2003). It is estimated that over 90% of solid waste in cities are disposed of planting more trees essay incautiously in open dumping grounds and german writing, landfills, posing severe threats to the environment and human health.

While dumping grounds are normally found in interpretive the outskirts, far from human settlements and water bodies to prevent harm, in Mumbai four landfills are located next to german essay writing densely populated areas, creeks with sensitive mangroves, and the ocean. Another issue of the grounds is that they are only usable for 30 years, meaning that the largest dump, Deonar, has only 5 years of use left, with no alternative site allocated yet. After the waste is dumped at the landfill, it is spread evenly and covered with debris. The organic waste, which also constitutes a significant percentage of waste in the importance of critical thinking dumping grounds, then undergoes natural decomposition, generating so-called leachate (Davis 2003). This fluid poses severe threats to the environment and public health and will be discussed further, among other hazards, in the next chapter.

3.2.3 Consequences for Humans and Environment. The consequences of solid waste mismanagement are one of the major problems for public health and environment alike in Mumbai. Hereby, leachate, a fluid generated by the decomposition of organic waste, constitutes one of the greatest threats. Writing Phrases! It perco-lates into the soil and, if not stopped, contaminates the ground water, making it undrinkable and poisonous for plants, water organisms and humans. Moreover, flies, mosquitoes, and other pests which spread diseases such as malaria, preferably breed on the waste fluid, making the dumps public health hazards (Davis 2003). In addition to ground water contamination, numerous creeks along Mumbai’s 600 km costal stretch are polluted. As waste is benefits human cloning essay disposed of surreptitiously, entire mangrove forests have been destroyed. Mangroves are vital for functioning costal ecosystems, as their leaves provide the water with oxygen for aquatic organisms and fish to breed. Therefore, their destruction has caused entire ecosystems of the essay writing phrases creeks in areas like Versova, Charkop, Gorai and Mankhurd to collapse (Davis 2003).

3.3 Imbalance of Energy Supply and Demand. According to planting more trees essay the UN, about 1.5 million people, 25% of the world’s population lacks access to electricity in developing countries. With the world’s population growing at an explosive rate, energy infrastructure struggles to keep up with demographic developments, leading to immense structural deficits and german, a con-stantly widening gap between demand and supply in countries like India (Modi et al. 2006). 3.3.1 Energy Supply in Slums. It is estimated that 800 million people in south Asia alone are deprived of energy supply. Although many of interpretive on the those live in outlying, rural areas, far from essay electricity generators, an increasing number is believed to get paid to write research papers live in slums. 40% of the german slum dwellers and urban poor supposedly suffer from how to essay insufficient energy supply due to structural deficits. In India specifically, the supply of electricity has grown by five per cent yearly, while demand exceeded the writing supply by more than seven per intellect essay cent.

Furthermore, although the german average energy consumption per human capita in India is very low at 400 kilograms of oil equivalent, the poor have access to a mere 50 kgoe on german writing average (Modi et al. Intellect Essay! 2006) The US Agency for International Development (2006) posits that due to the inadequacy and german essay phrases, costliness of legal energy services, an increasing percentage of more trees electricity demand is met through thievery, with half of all households in Mumbai obtaining energy illegally. Phrases! Apart from the issue of insufficient supply, India generates over two thirds from thermal plants powered by non-renewable fuels such as coal, gas or oil, while only a small share of five per get paid research papers cent is provided by renewable energy (USAID 2006). 3.3.2 Energy Demand in Slums. As mentioned previously, the demand for energy in India grew rapidly as the popula-tion increased, exceeding supply by over seven per cent. Concerning slums, the fact that energy is german writing often obtained illegally by ‘tapping off’ through illegal connections, ignoring the safety hazard of substandard, uninsulated wires, demonstrates the pressing desire of the urban poor to benefit from research electricity. This strong demand stems chiefly from the german phrases necessity of energy for the improvement of business, home and research, community life (Modi et al.

2006). First, regarding domestic life, electricity is required for better illumination, cooking and refrigeration. A substantial fraction of slum dwellers is currently forced to rely on biomass or dung for cooking and kerosene or battery powered lamps for lighting, while refrigeration is german essay practically unheard of. (Modi et al. 2006). From an economic perspective, adequate power supply is get paid a necessity for the estab-lishment of new as well as the scaling up of german already existing businesses (Modi et al. Essay On The! 2006). Writing Phrases! Therefore, the desire for safe and adequately paid work evident in slums where only a third of the population is employed is strongly tied to the demand for energy which is essential for the creation of jobs (Risbud 2003).

One of the primary concerns of research papers slum dwellers regarding public life is safety. German! The absence of public street lighting facilitates criminal activity such as robbery, thus constituting another significant reason for the strong desire among the how to write essay population for utility services to be extended to slums (Modi et al. 2006). 3.3.3 Consequences of Insufficient Energy Supply. The strong ties between the expansion of energy services and poverty reduction simultaneously signify that the german essay writing phrases lack of such services has serious adverse effects on the advancement of the slum community and the environment (Modi et al. 2006). The reliance on biomass fuel not only causes the environmental problem of air pollution, but also constitutes a considerable safety hazard, as fires in houses built from flammable materials get out of control easily.

In addition, not insulated wires from illegal connections pose a great risk of fire. In Mumbai, fires with energy related cause claim numerous victims and research papers, destroy large areas of slums annually. While causality figures are currently not available, a survey revealed that as much as eight per german essay phrases cent of slum dwellers in Mumbai have lost their home in a slum fire (Subbaraman et al. 2014). 3.4 Inadequate Air Pollution Control. In the following, the sources of air pollution in Mumbai, to some of which allusion has already been made, as well as its consequences will be briefly summarized. Planting Essay! Hereby it is necessary to essay phrases underline that all previously mentioned issues in Mumbai’s slums contribute to the problem of air pollution.

3.4.1 Air Pollution Exposure. Air quality in papers Mumbai, and even more so in Mumbai’s slums, is alarmingly low. One way to measure air pollution is the assessment of the concentration of Respirable Particulate Matter (RSPM), one of the most dangerous contaminants as they provoke breathing problems similar to those caused by excessive smoking. After exceeding the german essay writing phrases prescribed limit of 60 ??g/m?? continuously for the past ten years, RSMP levels reached 202 ??g/m?? in 2008 according to benefits human cloning the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (2009). Essay! A comparison to the RSPM of how to a concept a cigarette, which emits 2 ??g/m?? under laboratory conditions, implies that city dwellers inhale the german essay phrases equivalent of 100 cigarettes every day (Sudhir and Ki-Hyun 2010). Another important indicator of air quality are nitrogen oxides (NOx), which primarily refers to the toxic brown gas nitrogen dioxide. Due to its contribution to global warming and of critical for students, negative health impact, the reduction of NOx emission is essay writing deemed to be particularly crucial, thus reinforcing the of critical for students urgency of lowering NOx levels in german essay writing Mumbai. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1998). The increase of NOx and RSMP levels from 2005 to 2008 and the prescribed national air quality standards, indicated by the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (2009), are depicted in figure 4. Another approach to thinking for students the assessment of air pollutants is the Air Quality Index (AQI), which incorporates various pollutants and measures the concentration the population of an area is exposed to per hour, thereby indicating the german essay writing phrases risk of respiratory diseases. By this measurement, air pollution exposure in slums is approximately 16 ??gh m?? compared to less than half in more affluent areas, at 6 ??gh m. Moreover, studies of exposure burden calculated as a product of population and daily exposure revealed that the slum population, which constitutes half of the population, bears 80% of the get paid research exposure burden (Srivastava and essay writing, Kumar 2001).

3.4.2 Sources of Air Pollution. The National Summary Report (2010) of the Central Pollution Control Board conducted a comprehensive study of air quality in Indian cities. Its result with regard to Mumbai will be summarized in the following. According to the study, prominence of sources varies greatly depending on what pollutant is assessed. Road dust from unpaved roads causes almost a third of coarse particles (PM”), which are between 2.5 and 10 micrometers small. Perhaps unsurpris-ingly given that two thirds of the 40,000 factories are classified as hazardous, industry and power plants emits over 20% of PM” (World Bank 1997). Open burning of landfills, the most common method of waste disposal, as discussed earlier, is the third most prominent source of PM” at about eight per cent.

Regarding nitrogen oxides (NOx), industrial activities account for a concept roughly half of all air pollution, area sources for 40% and vehicles for the remaining 10%. As a category of area sources, domestic combustion emits 13% of the total, while landfill burning contributes less than a per cent. 3.4.3 Public Health Impact. The growing impact of german essay air pollution poses a severe danger to the environment as well as the citizens of Mumbai, already noticeable in the very high incidence of chronic respiratory problems (World Bank 1997). Hereby, particulate pollutants like RSPM and PM” are estimated to be the a concept deadliest form of air pollution, as their small size allows them to german essay writing phrases penetrate deep into the lungs, causing permanent mutations of genetic material, heart attacks, and even death (US EPA 2010). A study conducted in nine European countries proves this claim by revealing that in essay on the road fact no level of particulate matter is safe, and that with increase of 10 ??g/m’ in PM” the lung cancer rate rises directly proportional by 22% (Raaschou-Nielsen et al. Essay! 2013). The Importance Of Critical Thinking For Students! These numbers are all the more alarming when conveyed to german writing phrases Mumbai, where the level of planting more air pollution is several times higher than in writing the most polluted European cities. As a result of the disastrous air quality, it is estimated that over 900.000 slum dwellers suffer from asthma, represent-ing almost 10% of the total inner city population. Planting More Trees Essay! In addition, 220.000 cases of bronchi-tis in children, primarily in slums, were reported (Srivastava and Kumar 2001). 4 A Biomimetic Approach to Slum Redevelopment.

Mumbai’s infrastructure, much like most of today’s major infrastructural systems, was designed by very limited human insight and currently fails to essay writing encapsulate the compre-hensive information provided by nature’s genius. Due to the false presumption of human-designed systems being superior, ingrained since the Industrial Revolution, the impact of this incorrect perception was not recognized as a menace to humanity until the planting effects of environmental pollution and structural deficits lead to serious socioeco-nomic crisis (Biggs at german writing al. 2008). Mumbai’s slums are a particularly salient example of planting more trees essay solely man-made systems’ incapability to deliver their intended functions in the face of today’s challenges, as described in detail in the previous chapter. As traditional methods of redevelopment have so far failed to improve the poor conditions in Mumbai’s slums, biomimetic technologies, which are inherently economically and environmentally sustainable, show great potential. Writing! Following this reasoning, biomimetic approaches which address infrastructural issues pervasive in Mumbai’s slums will be presented as potential redevelopment option below. Research! For the purpose of this paper, the german writing focus hereby will be on write water, energy and waste management infrastructure and the active improvement of air quality by applying biomimetic technologies.

4.1 Bimimicry in Water Management Infrastructure. Appalling conditions like those in the slums of Mumbai undoubtedly necessitate innovative technologies for phrases the sourcing and treatment of water. Many successes in this field reached this goal by get paid to write looking at nature through biomimicry for inspiration, and could improve the health condition of slum dwellers while simultaneously alleviating environmental issues. Some selected biomimetic technologies which might accomplish this will be described in the following. 4.1.1 Biomimicry in Fresh Water Sourcing. The decreasing availability of clean water, a good essential to human and all other life, poses one of the most critical challenges facing 21st Century society, in which one-fifth of the world’s population is living in areas where water is in short supply (United Nations). In Mumbai, specifically, lack of drinking water supply is an especially burdensome problem, responsible for german thousands of deaths due to water-borne diseases and polluted drinking water, as discussed in chapter 3.1.2. One of the most innovative approaches to fresh water sourcing resulted from the study and emulation of the Namibian Desert beetle (Stenocara gracilipes). The beetle is intellect essay found in extremely arid deserts, where less than one inch of rainfall per year is the norm. These incredibly hostile conditions require a different approach to allow sufficient hydration, which the german phrases Namibian Desert beetle has doubtlessly mastered. Planting More Trees Essay! It does so by utilizing the frequent morning fog, which is the german phrases only reliable water source in the desert.

The Stenocara beetle buries itself under the ground during the heat of the day in order to maintain a relatively cool temperature until the night. When the damp morning breeze from the ocean arrives in the morning, it comes out of the sand and climbs to the top of a mound. It positions itself with its body angled at 45. its head facing upwind, and its hard, bumpy outer wings spread against the importance of critical, the humid breeze. Tiny water droplets, only 15 to 20 ??m in diameter, from the fog condense on writing phrases its wings where they stick to hydrophilic bumps, surrounded by waxy, hydrophobic, water repelling channels. The droplets flatten as they touch the hydrophilic protuberances, creating a larger surface for other droplets to attach to and preventing them from being blown away by how to write wind. Accumulation continues until the droplet grows to roughly 5 mm in diameter; at that point the german essay phrases beetle tilts its back and the droplets run down the hydrophobic channels and directly into its awaiting mouth. More Trees Essay! (Parker et al. 2001). Inspired by this process, engineers have developed artificial water collectors in various forms which follow the same principle. NBD Nano, a start-up company of four recent college graduates have developed a selffilling water bottle and aspire to improve drinking water availability in developing countries with their inventions (Owano 2012).

This technology could alleviate the issue of contaminated drinking water and push back water-borne diseases in slums, as Mumbai’s humid climate is german writing phrases likely to allow for the harvesting of the maximum amount of three liters per hour, the bottle is capable of. Moreover, the same technology could potentially be integrated into buildings for essay more efficient, large-scale application. Another approach to fresh water sourcing is the desalination of ocean water. As only 2.5% of all water on earth is phrases drinkable fresh water, with reserves declining, desalina-tion technologies which remove dissolved salts from of critical thinking saline water are estimated to rapidly gain importance. However, current technologies are energy and german essay, cost intensive, and thus do not yet provide a real alternative to traditional water sources. Especially when compared to biological membranes, their inferiority and inefficiency becomes apparent. (Kaufman and Freger 2011). Therefore, scientists have sought to the importance thinking accomplish a similarly fast and selective water transport as found in essay writing phrases cell membranes by imitating their design, with considerable success. Biomimetic membranes for water purification have proved to enable higher salt rejection and a faster water flow at planting significantly lower driving pressures than traditional, non-biomimetic membranes, reducing the otherwise high cost of desalina-tion. Applied on a larger scale, it is writing phrases estimated that biomimetic membranes would cost up to 88% less than currently implemented methods, representing potential savings of about $ 1.5 million p.a. for a desalination plant with a capacity of 100 ML/day. These reduction of cost make this biomimetic method of fresh water sourcing especially promising for get paid Mumbai, which must take economic aspects into account as well. Moreover, the millions of cubic meters of ocean water surrounding the coastal city of german essay writing Mumbai provide the ideal conditions for write a concept essay desalination (Rempe 2011).

4.1.2 Biomimicry in Waste Water Treatment. Regarding the treatment of sewage water, another serious shortcoming in Mumbai’s slums, riparian forests along stream sides which act as natural filters by absorbing sediments and transforming excess nutrients and other pollutants. For instance, up to 90% of nitrogen and up to 50% of phosphorus are removed (Klapproth et al. 2009). Australian scientists have sought to imitate the complex interaction of organic and inorganic compounds responsible for the water purification in german essay phrases the form of a more efficient, biomimetic sewage treatment system. The result of their observations is a tank containing an ecosystem of beetles, worms and microbes which transfer solid waste into humus that is subsequently used to filter wastewater.

Unlike traditional sewage facilities, the Biolytix system does not necessitate aeration devices, which are normally used to pump oxygen, vital for the microorganisms which break down the pollutants in the wastewater. Therefore, by letting a natural ecosystem purify sewage water, the interpretive road not taken operating energy cost is reduced by over 90%. Moreover, Biolytix tanks only require one annual service versus three to german four in traditional wastewater systems, reducing the costs and facilitating maintenance. Concerning the installation of Biolytix, initial investment is human cloning essay low as well, with a cost reduction of essay writing phrases 50% in write essay comparison to typical gravity sewerage systems (Fermanian Business and Economic Institute 2010). With regard to the suitability of german writing phrases Biolytix for Mumbai’s slums, it can be noted that the construction of an adequate traditional sewer system is estimated to be difficult, due to ocean water corroding metal pipes and the enormous effort and cost it would entail in such densely populated areas. Benefits Essay! Therefore, the fact that the Biolytix system can be installed on site and function decentralized without the need for german phrases a highly complex system of pipes is an additional advantage (FBEI 2010). Altogether, it can be said that the low initial investment and running cost of the Biolytix System make it a credible biomimetic alternative to traditional methods to improve the sewage situation, alleviating environmental and public health issues. 4.2 Biomimicry in Solid Waste Management. While the adaptation of specific biomimetic technologies would presumably prove satisfactory in of critical the fields of writing water and energy infrastructure redevelopment as well as air pollution control, the failed system surrounding the production and trees essay, disposal of waste necessitates a complete revolution, as demonstrated by the poor conditions it caused in Mumbai’s slums. A crucial step towards a successful redevelopment of waste management is to move away from narrow, partial analysis and towards a holistic, system perspective.

A biomimetic way of achieving this is essay phrases industrial ecology, which analyses non-human, natural ecosystems as models for industrial activity. Instead of viewing industrial firms and enterprises as the main destructors of the environment, their potential to act as agents for environmental improvement is recognized. Industrial activity is get paid brought out of isolation and placed in the context of german writing its surrounding, larger ecosystems. Industrial ecology, in a nutshell, endeavors to unite industry, which possesses immense techno-logical expertise, highly valuable for the environmentally informed production of goods and design of processes, and the genius of to write natural ecosystems to achieve resilience and sustainability (Ayres R. U. and german writing phrases, Ayres L. 2002). Benyus (2002) sees one of the primary factors which differentiates the human economy and the natural ecosystem in the fact, that in nature, the augmentation of biomass is a concept essay proportional to german essay the creation of more recycling loops, in trees order to prevent the system from collapsing on itself. By contrast, anthropogenic production lines solely convert virgin raw materials to unusable waste.

As resources are limited and will be exhausted eventually, she identifies an urgent need to transform the current cradle-to-grave system to german writing an industrial ecosystem and a zero waste economy by mimicking the way natural systems’ reuse of interpretive essay road not taken all materials. In accordance with the principle of industrial ecology, Benyus (2002) advocates an approach which prefers the creation of comparatively larger amounts of ‘wanted waste’ over the production of less, but unusable waste which must be burned or landfilled. While the german writing phrases human economy currently operates primarily linear, nature’s diverse assembly of producers, consumers and decomposers successfully evolved to create a constant cycling of matter. Therefore, the current system of producers and consumers must be supplemented with a sufficient amount of composers to close the cycle and ultimately create a system where waste does not exist. What sounds rather utopian, is already fully implemented in the city of Kalundborg, Denmark, where an industrial ecosystem was developed in the 1960s. Enterprises cooperate by buying and selling waste products from the importance for students and to each other forming a closed cycle of industrial production. The local thermal power plant pumps its waste steam to the nearby refinery and a pharmaceutical plant, where the slightly lower heat sufficiently powers their engines. Subsequently, another pipeline supplies 3,500 homes with the remaining waste steam for heating. In addition to the cycling of waste steam, the power plant provides a fish farm with its now adequately warm cooling water, while nitrogen-rich slurry, a byproduct at writing the pharmaceutical plant, serves as fertilizer for wheat fields (Benyus 2002). Mumbai, where 40% of Indian domestic production originates and which is frequently labeled as the commercial capital of India, is predestined to intellect essay adapt a similar model.

In the slums specifically, several waste producing enterprises, such as the large chemi-cals and pharmaceutical industry, thermal power plants, and basic engineering and metal producers are located in immediate proximity (Risbud 2003). Hence, ideal preconditions are given for a collaboration modeled after the industrial ecosystem in Kalundborg, significantly alleviating the problems discussed in chapter 3.3. 4.3 Biomimicry in essay writing phrases Energy Infrastructure Systems. The improvement of Mumbai’s energy infrastructure has an especially high priority, as it serves as a gateway for further socioeconomic developments (Modi et al. 2006).

In order to successfully develop a sufficient energy infrastructure system, it is crucial to establish a balance between the get paid demand and supply of energy by increasing productiv-ity and usage efficiency simultaneously. Renewable energy provides an effective and german essay phrases, environmentally resilient mean to accomplish this. In recent years, engineers have gone even further by not only imitating nature’s idea of renewable energy, but also attempted to to write imitate natural structures in order to generate and consume electricity more efficiently. Writing! Some of the most promising biomimetic technologies which could significantly alleviate the problems of insufficient energy supply in Mumbai’s slums will be presented below. 4.3.1 Increasing Energy Efficiency. Before identifying methods to generate energy in accordance with nature, it is essential to identify ways to improve domestic and industrial energy efficiency, in order to reduce demand. One biomimetic way to accomplish this is the imitation of the design of a termite mound to create passive cooling buildings, greatly reducing the need for energy consuming air-conditioning. Termite mounds are equipped with a series of how to a concept strategical-ly placed vents that produce convection currents which help maintain a temperature between 30 and 32 degrees Celsius.

This concept was integrated into buildings in hot climate around the world, as it allows significant energy savings. Essay Writing! The most famous example is the Eastgate center in Harare, which is known for consuming less than a tenth of an equally sized conventional building, due to natural ventilation inspired by termite mounds being its primary cooling method (cf. Holbrook et al. Essay Road! 2010). While the maintenance of a bearable temperature indoors might not appear to be the most pressing of issues faced by slum dwellers at essay first glance, a report released by the importance thinking for students the U.S.

Agency for International Development (2006) lists fans as one of the priority uses of electricity in Indian slums. This is necessitated by the need for repelling mosquitoes, which transmit malaria and other dangerous diseases, in hot seasons. 4.3.2 Biomimetic Energy Generation. Concerning the improvement of energy generation and supply, the U.S. Agency for writing phrases International Development (2006) supports the thesis that on-site distributed genera-tion in slums is write a concept essay more economically feasible than the expansion of german writing phrases traditional services would be. Renewable energy lends itself excellently to the implementation of distrib-uted power systems, as it can be easily generated modularly and decentralized, as the following examples of biomimetic technologies will demonstrate. Contrary to human civilization which predominantly generates energy from non-renewable, ‘cradle-to-grave’ resources like fossil fuels, the primary source of energy in planting more essay the natural world is sunlight.

Mumbai, with its over 2500 hours of german essay sunshine per year, would be ideal for the use of solar power (Indian Metrological Department 2008). Attempts have been made to extract energy from how to a concept essay this inexhaustible source using various methods including the writing photovoltaic panels as well as tracking systems that follow the sun’s course, mimicking the way the sunflower maximizes its energy generation (Riechers 2012). One of the nature’s most efficient means of energy production, photosynthesis, a process which involves the separation of water into hydrogen and essay, oxygen atoms allowing for efficient harvesting and essay, storage of solar energy, is deemed to be the most desirable to replicate. On The Road! However, despite strong efforts to recreate this process for human use, no technology has yet accomplished enough efficiency to allow large-scale application (Benyus 2002). But that might soon change, as scientists at Stanford have developed materials to help make hydrogen, a gas which has the german potential of replacing fossil fuels.

The process, again copied from more trees plants, uses sunlight to induce a chemical reaction that creates the gas, which is derived from water and materializes to pure water again when burned as a fuel. The newly developed materials are the first to split water into hydrogen and oxygen successfully, but unfortunately corrode quickly. Therefore, although it is more efficient than anything comparable before, the german phrases system will not be economical until it will be operable for at least five years (Bullis 2013). Another source of renewable energy is the ocean, as the waves are in constant motion which can be converted to electricity. Unfortunately, all currently operational Wave Energy Converters, which cope with this task, encounter difficulties in stormy sea. The enormous force of the water masses often damages the wave power plants, rendering their performance uneconomic. The Australian company BioPowerSystems, however, has designed innovative wave converters called bioWAVE, mounted on sea beds, which manage to overcome this problem through biomimicry.

Inspired by marine vegetation such as giant kelp, the cloning essay system avoids extreme wave conditions by changing into a sheltered position horizontal to the ocean floor. Thereby potential dangers are eliminated, granting high durability for an economically and environmentally sustaina-ble method of biomimetic energy harvesting (Australian Trade Commission 2010). This biomimetic technologies, too, would be applicable in Mumbai, which is surrounded by essay writing phrases the Indian Ocean. Get Paid Research Papers! In fact, the location is ideal for german writing wave energy generation, as the problem of storage and transportation of electricity would be eliminated with such a large consumer right at the coast. Increasing the efficiency of already common renewable energy technologies is another major point of interest, capable of improving living and write essay, environmental conditions in essay writing phrases Mumbai’s slums, which could be accomplished by intellect essay looking at nature as a measure, model, and mentor. An example where the application of biomimetic principles significantly increased efficiency was the development of more efficient aero-dynamic wind turbines, inspired by the fins of german writing humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). The upper edge of the whale’s flipper is framed by a series of bumps that allow it to make very tight turns due to outstanding fluid dynamics compared to smooth edged flippers. Engineers have applied this concept to wind turbines achieving more reliability when winds are light, better performance in turbulent weather and an increase in efficiency by almost half (Fish 2011). Wind energy, especially in the form of improved biomimetic generators, is especially suitable for application in a distributed power system, as it can be produced by small-scale wind turbines on site. This theory was successfully put into practice in benefits essay an isolated community called EL Alumbre in Peru, as described by Ferrer-Marti et al. Phrases! (2010).

As the dispersed nature of El Alumbre prohibited the extension of the general electrical grid to supply its population, a micro electrification system served as an on the not taken, excellent alternative. At $US 3, the essay monthly tariff for each household equipped with a 100 W turbine was 60% lower than the previous expenditures for other energy source like kerosene or candles. Although the slums in the importance thinking Mumbai might not be isolated in terms of distance, the immense infrastructural deficits and their reasons, discussed in chapter 3.3, similarly hinder the german writing expansion of traditional grid systems. Thus, adapting an on-site distributed generation system comparable to the one in Peru, but with the inclusion of solar and wave energy in order to meet the higher demand, would presumably solve the essay problem imbalance between demand and supply in Mumbai’s slums. 4.4 Biomimetic Air Quality Improvement. Although the biomimetic technologies addressing problems of infrastructure misman-agement, presented above, would certainly entail a significant improvement of air quality, the german essay writing phrases extent of air pollution in Mumbai’s slums would presumably require active air purification. Two methods of achieving this, bioremediation which exploits micro-organisms in order to reduce environmental pollution, and its biomimetic successor, an imitation of these processes imbedded in cement, will be discussed in the following. 4.4.1 Bioremediation of Air Pollution. Bioremediation is an application of biotechnology which describes the get paid process of exploiting biological agents to essay phrases reduce the environmental burden of toxins caused by human activity. Hereby, pollutants serve microorganisms, which are used primarily in bioremediation, as nutrients and more, energy source (Srivastava and Kumar 2011).

While this biological treatment process has found wide-scale application in solid waste and essay writing phrases, sewage water treatments for centuries, efforts devoted to the control of to write research air pollution are relatively new. Stringent regulations of emissions have forced industries around the world to develop expensive technologies like carbon adsorption. The need for more efficient and cost-effective alternatives to these traditional methods has led to essay phrases the development of biochemical processes similar to those employed in solid waste and waste water treatment. Biofiltration, one of those innovative technologies, relies on microbial reactions for the transformation of toxic pollutants into environmentally harmless substances (Devinny, Deshusses Webster 1998). Despite sounding good in theory, biofiltration would presumably be subject to major constraints with regard to its application in slums.

This is due to the fact that biofilters must be installed directly in factories or plants, thus only reducing air pollution from industrial activities (Devinny, Deshusses Webster 1998). In Mumbai, however, various sources are responsible for the poor air quality, as discussed in chapter 3.4., rendering a process which only more trees essay addresses industrial emissions unsuitable for essay sufficient air pollution reduction. 4.4.2 Biomimetic Cement for Active Air Pollution Reduction. Unlike biofiltration, the biomimetic cement does not directly employ microbes, but instead mimics their ability to store or dispose of toxic substances by modifying their oxidation state through catalysis. The so called TX Active cement, developed by the Italcementi Group, contains titanium dioxide (TiO’) particles, which acts as a photo-catalyst (Barbesta and Schaffer 2009).

When exposed to sunlight, the titanium dioxide catalyzes the transformation of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and several other pollutants into environmentally harm-less substances. These subsequently precipitate on the concrete surface and are removed by the next rain (Beeldens 2006). The photocatalytic cement offers numerous usage possibilities, including sound barriers, pavements, road surfaces, roof tiles and write essay, fa??ade elements on houses. This broad spectrum enables significant air quality improvement due to writing phrases the feasibility of wide-scale application (Barbesta and Schaffer 2009). Concerning the potential for implementation in Mumbai’s slums, it is interesting to the importance thinking for students note that calculations based on results from studies conducted in Italian urban areas, suggest that photocatalytic cement is writing most efficient in benefits human essay highly polluted air. Further-more, these prediction estimate that the german essay phrases resurfacing of only 15% of roads and houses in heavily polluted cities would lead to an air quality improvement of 50% (Barbesta and Schaffer 2009). Hence, TX Active appears to be a particularly promising approach to get paid to write research air pollution control in Mumbai, given the urban predicament. Moreover, Mumbai offers ideal conditions due to currently high pollution levels and solar irradiation. Phrases! An additional benefit of how to write a concept essay surfacing the roads with photocatalytic cement, especially in german essay phrases slums, would presumably be that the air pollution from interpretive road dusty, presently unpaved roads would be significantly mitigated. The objective of this thesis was the study and analysis of biomimicry as a potential tool for slum redevelopment, focusing on the identification and evaluation of biomimetic designs capable of potentially alleviating issues pervasive in Mumbai’s slums. The starting point of the thesis was the premise that biomimetic technologies offer solutions to various man-made problems, which implies that some of these could be conveyed to slums.

By looking at nature as a measure, model, and essay, mentor it was established that human innovation should follow the overarching principles found in all forms of life on earth, which emphasize the importance of maxims like the integration of to write research development with growth and resource efficiency. The necessity of acknowledging that there is no partition separating the phrases human from the natural world was stressed, rendering the paradigm shift towards sustainability an obligation/inevitable. Subse-quently, Mumbai’s slums, a particularly salient example of noncompliance with biomimetic principles, were introduced as potential area of application. Structural deficits regarding water, waste and energy infrastructure as well as poor air pollution control and planting trees, their impact on essay writing public health and environment were analyzed in order to validate areas of greatest needs. From the scientific literature research that has been carried out, suitable solutions to each of the previously identified issues were submitted and evaluated in intellect essay the light of the human and physical geographical context of Mumbai’s slums. Phrases! For instance, the redevelopment of waste management in accordance with the emulation of closed loops found in natural ecosystems was proposed.

The concept, already implemented in Kalundborg, Sweden, enables the creation of a no waste system, as the waste of one industry serves as the fuel of another, assembling closed loop cycling of matter. This approach was deemed to be exceptionally promising for Mumbai’s slums, as a vast amount of waste-intensive industries are located in close proximity. Furthermore, Biomimetic water collection through fog harvesting mimicking a desert beetle and desalination inspired by cell membranes were suggested as potential solutions to drinking water scarcity. Based on the results, it can be concluded that biomimicry offers a wide range of suitable solutions to infrastructural and air pollution control issues, prevalent in Mumbai’s slums, of which some have been presented, without claiming to be exhaus-tive. Moreover, further research on biomimetic technologies conveyed to slum redevelopment would be desirable and necessary, as a particular urgency to to write research alleviate man-made problems is evident there.

In essence, it was elucidated that biomimicry provides exceptional approaches and solutions to various modern-day problems of essay phrases civilization. Placed in a wider context, the conscious emulation of nature’s genius has considerable potential to effect the paradigm shift towards sustainability, which has become inevitable, as the current issues in Mumbai’s slums clearly indicate. Only the write acknowledgement of the german writing fact that protection of more self and writing, protection of the planet are analogous, entailing the refrain from planting essay environmental degradation, can lead to long-term prosperity, as the hypothetical application of biomimicry in Mumbai’s slums demonstrated. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of german essay us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Defining the scientific field and objectives of biomimicry . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/science/essay-defining-the-scientific-field-and-objectives-of-biomimicry/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on intellect essay our website then please click on essay writing phrases the link below to road not taken request removal: 13-09-17 - The Human Genome project (HGP) 22-08-17 - Adeno associated virus (AAV) vectors 01-08-17 - Test methods on the alkali carbonate reaction in concrete - fluxonic diode - Identifying an unknown organism from a cell phone 05-07-17 - Risk factors for alcohol abuse in men who have sex with men 01-06-17 - Monsanto vs. the world 19-05-17 - Patterns formed by increasing the scale factor – maths 12-05-17 - Swine influenza infections 24-04-17 - Medicinal plants and wound healing.

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Lord Of The Flies Essay Symbols 286208. This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and essay phrases was last updated by Digiaims 6 days, 6 hours ago. Lord Of The Flies Essay Symbols. Benefits Cloning! Lord of the Flies Symbolism : 3 Ideas for Your Essay I’m going to help by explaining seven different symbols and grouping them into three Lord of the Flies symbolism ideas to help get you started on your essay Symbols and Symbolism in Lord of the Flies Lord Flies Essays Symbolism in Lord of the Flies In William Golding#039;s Lord of the german phrases, Flies , the boys who are stranded on the island come in contact with many unique elements Lord of the Flies Symbolism Essay UK Essays | UKEssaysAn essay on symbolism in Lord of the Flies . The conch shell is research, a shell that means a lot more than just a beautiful white shell. It has great power and itSymbolism Of Lord Of The Flies English Literature Essay The conch, the writing phrases, glasses, and the beast are all symbols that make Lord of the Flies such a great book to the importance thinking, read. Throughout the story of Lord of the Symbolism Lord of the german essay phrases, Flies Essay EssaysForStudent.comRead Symbolism Lord of the Flies free essay and over 87,000 other research documents. Symbolism Lord of the Flies. Symbols are objects, characters FREE Lord Of The Flies Symbols Essay Example Essays One of intellect essay, Golding#039;s main techniques for presenting his dramatic conflict involves the use of symbols . Lord of the Flies is a highly symbolic novel, and many Symbols In Lord Of The Flies Essays ManyEssays.com Symbols In Lord Of The Flies Essays : Over 180,000 Symbols In Lord Of The Flies Essays , Symbols In Lord Of The Flies Term Papers, Symbols In Lord Of The Lord of the Flies Symbolism Essays ManyEssays.com Lord of the Flies Symbolism Essays : Over 180,000 Lord of the Flies Symbolism Essays , Lord of the Flies Symbolism Term Papers, Lord of the Flies Symbolism Lord of the Flies Symbolism Ghost Writing Essays Symbolism in Lord of the Flies Acclaimed author, William Golding, once said that his novel, Lord of the Flies , is symbolic from the very first page to german, the Lord Of The Flies – Symbols Essay SampleIn the book Lord of the flies , there are many symbols used by the author, William Golding, to represent and compare facts with the world external to the de. Lord Of The Flies Symbolism Essay lord of the flies symbolism essay Symbols and to write research papers Symbolism in Lord of the Flies Lord Flies Essays . Essay Writing Phrases! Free Essays brought to Symbols In Lord Of The Flies Essays ManyEssays.com Symbols In Lord Of The Flies Essays : Over 180,000 Symbols In Lord Of The Flies Essays , Symbols In Lord Of The Flies Term Papers, Symbols In Lord Of The Lord of the Flies Symbols Essay Sample Bla Bla WritingThe Conch Shell: The Conch was discovered on the beach at the start on the novel. It is what gathered the the importance, boys together. It becomes a powerful symbol of writing, ciSymbolism in Lord of the intellect essay, Flies by William Golding Essay A book that makes a person think is german essay phrases, always more interesting than a book that does not.

Lord of the Flies by William Golding does just that! Golding, using The Lord of the Flies- Symbols essays The Lord of the interpretive not taken, Flies- Symbols essays Symbolism is something that stands for or suggests something else. William Golding uses symbolism to create an Use of Symbols in Lord of the Flies by William Golding Essay Free Essay : For example, throughout the entirety of german phrases, Lord of the Flies , William Golding uses symbols to advance the plot of the novel. Interpretive! These symbols , whether Lord of the german essay writing phrases, Flies: Essay over Symbols Essay Paper Topics Lord of the Flies: Essay over Symbols . Throughout literature, certain things are considered to mean something beyond themselves; these symbols make True Human Nature Symbols (in Lord of the Flies ) Essay Read True Human Nature Symbols (in Lord of the Flies ) free essay and over planting more trees, 87,000 other research documents. True Human Nature Symbols (in Lord of the german phrases, Essay about intellect essay Lord of the Flies-Symbolism 651 Words | CramSymbolism in William Golding#039;s #039; Lord of the german phrases, Flies #039; Essay . historical past intruding on the scene and influencing it in a profound manner. For the boys the Lord of the Flies Symbols from trees LitCharts | The creators of Need help on symbols in essay writing phrases, William Golding#039;s Lord of the Flies ? Check out our detailed analysis. From the creators of SparkNotes. Essay about Lord of the Flies-Symbolism 651 Words | CramSymbolism in William Golding#039;s #039; Lord of the Flies #039; Essay . historical past intruding on interpretive on the not taken the scene and german writing phrases influencing it in research papers, a profound manner. For the boys the. I said i was gonna start one of the essays i have to write but i just spent the last hour making a playlist of all my emo songs on spotify. Essay My Berlin Lord of the Flies Write an Essay Exploring Four of the Lord of the german essay writing phrases, Flies Write an essay exploring four of the main symbols and their relevance, explain which one s you see as most useful to the reader and why?The Symbolism of Power in interpretive road, William Golding’s Lord of the german, Flies These power relations are illustrated by symbols in the novel, this essay is to cloning, An important theme in William Golding’s novel Lord of the german writing, Flies Symbolism in Lord of the Flies Essay 356 Words Symbols are one of the principle literary devices used by Golding in intellect essay, Lord of the Flies . Essay Phrases! Golding uses many of the thinking for students, devices discovered by the boys to Symbolism in William Golding#039;s #039; Lord of the Flies #039; Essay Symbolism in William Golding’s ‘ Lord of the Flies ’ Definition: A symbol is something that is itself as well as something else.

In literature it means Lord of essay writing phrases, The Flies Symbolism essays Lord of The Flies Symbolism essays In the novel Lord of the Flies by British author William Golding, symbolism and setting play a key role in planting more, story Lord Of The Flies Symbolism Essay custom essay writing services toronto Lord Of The Flies Symbolism Essay online dissertations and theses abstracts admission college essay help scholarship Symbols in Lord of the Flies Essay 715 WordsImportance of writing phrases, Symbols in Lord of the Flies To quote Stephen King, Symbolism exists to essay, enrich. The author William Golding was noted for using symbolism,SparkNotes: Lord of the Flies : Study Questions Essay TopicsSuggested essay topics and study questions for german essay writing, William Golding#039;s Lord of the Flies . Perfect for students who have to write Lord of the human, Flies essays . You must be logged in to reply to this topic. Digiaims are one of the Best and essay phrases Economical offers on web hosting and services.We specialize in high end web hosting and services on planting more trees essay WordPress platform and our goal is to provide 100% customer satisfaction. A : Flat 101, Srinivasa Plaza, Sri Nagar Colony Main Road, Punjagutta, Sri Krishna Nagar, Yousufguda, Hyderabad, Telangana 500073. © 2017 Digiaims | All rights reserved. Digiaims provides one of the german phrases, Best and Economical services on Web Development, Hosting and SEO.

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Modern Languages Hanley Castle: A Level German Essay Phrases

essays on german phrases being poor (CNN) The Census Bureau released a depressing statistic Thursday: 46.2 million people in America fell below the interpretive on the road poverty line last year. One in five children are poor. What does it feel like to essay phrases live in not taken, poverty? Writer John Scalzi knows. He remembers a Southern California childhood marred by a broken family. His mother put her two children in german writing phrases, the back of the to write research car and drove away from the home they’d known. She bought a box of Raisin Bran and warned her children: “That has to last.” John Scalzi’s essay on poverty was based on his own experiences. Scalzi, 43, was in german essay, the first grade then. Years later, the Raisin Bran memory became a line in an essay called “Being Poor.” He wrote it in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, when so many asked why the cloning poor of New Orleans had not fled their drowned city.

It occurred to him then that wealthier Americans did not understand that the writing phrases poor do not always have the luxury of choice. He was the a concept essay kid who wore the cheap shoes from Lucky Drug Store the ones with the glued-on soles. He could feel them come off on the playground. He was the kid who discovered letters from his mom to his dad begging for essay writing, child support and the kid hoping he would get invited to a friend’s for dinner. He once stole a piece of meat from Ralph’s supermarket, fried it up and cleaned the plate before Mom came home. He then told her she didn’t have to make any dinner because he wasn’t hungry anyway. Here are a few other ways Scalzi measured poverty:

Being poor is getting angry at your kids for intellect essay, asking for all the crap they see on german essay TV. Being poor is interpretive essay on the, going to the restroom before you get in german writing, the school lunch line so your friends will be ahead of you and won’t hear you say “I get free lunch” when you get to the cashier. Being poor is living next to the freeway. Being poor is a heater in essay, only one room of the house. Being poor is german essay writing, hoping your kids don’t have a growth spurt. Being poor is Goodwill underwear. Being poor is thinking $8 an hour is a really good deal. Being poor is stopping the interpretive road not taken car to take a lamp from a stranger’s trash. Being poor is making lunch for essay writing phrases, your kid when a cockroach skitters over the bread, and you looking over to see if your kid saw. Being poor is a sidewalk with lots of brown glass on it.

Being poor is picking the 10 cent ramen instead of the 12 cent ramen because that’s two extra packages for benefits human, every dollar. Read Scalzi’s full essay here. I blog about what it was like being poor in America and about how when you’re there, in it, as a kid, you don’t really notice. And those who are poor who try really hard to get out of writing phrases it, tend to be proud of where they came from. The key is to be realistic and to write, not group everyone under one label or the other. Phrases. I loved being poor! I don’t want to continue to intellect essay be poor, but there is german writing, a lot more to overcome for people like me than there is for someone who has had more financial advantages. Its like you learn my thoughts! You seem to the importance of critical understand a lot approximately this, such as you wrote the ebook in it or something.

I believe that you can do with some percent to force the message home a little bit, but instead of that, this is german writing, great blog. A fantastic read. I will definitely be back. So in human cloning essay, a country that spends 600 billion a year on defense and Romney want to increase that, we should have people begging for food and german, healthcare from the very people that think they are lazy bums.How much “care” do you think you will get from them? While charity is good when you are sick or hungry,you should not have to intellect essay beg or cry for you life. I think some people on this board would just as soon hold a gun to the poors head and laugh while they begged,and then humanly let them starve.Their give a check to charity and hope it trickles down on the poor does not work any more than it does in the ecomany. What most people don’t realize is german phrases, that most politicians who make office are, by the average Joe’s standards, rich and cunning.

Why, pray tell, do you think that a rich person who wants for nothing necessary would go through all the effort to run for office, a job of such distraction and power? Think also, that to many of them, the same person may be, when well off and planting trees essay, investing in their causes an Ayn Rand elite, when down on his luck and out of a job, a “dirty hippie”, and german, when stuck in the middle a “working citizen who will have to make some sacrifices for his/her country” (read milk-cow or laying-hen for defense contractors or pork projects). Do you really think that they wouldn’t gather their off-shore treasures and the importance for students, move to another country if this country finally SUNK. I’d like to say that I was just getting ahead,work was good but when we get hosed with 4.00 a gallon gas,all the money I was ahead with went into the gas tank.With all the essay writing new oil fields being discovered around the world,why is gas 4.00 a gallon when it should be under a dollar agallon like it was in 2002 ? A barrel should also be under 50.00 , not a 100.00.We are getting ripped off big time by the oil companies. Petrol in the USA is stupidly, ridiculously, absurdly cheep. Essay. What you should be asking is german essay, why your society is so structured that you have to drive everywhere. How To Write. That would be a far more pertinent question. How’s that “NEW WORLD ORDER” working out for german, OUR poor people right here in America,not in china or india but here ? Cam 46.2 million win a Presidential election. that sure is selling a lot of hope. On The Road Not Taken. Kind of like con men do.

Im so poor I can’t pay attention. I put together a very basic powerpoint listing most of John’s comments, and many that touched my heart by those who replied. I’m playing it at phrases our store throughout the day to help people see the intellect essay heartache that comes from poverty. I have noticed how many are memories from german, childhood. It just shows that even if one escapes the rut one feels when struggling to overcome, it is never without wounds that never heal completely. Benefits. For those who judge and comment negatively, whose arrogance just adds to the wounds already open, I forgive you, and essay phrases, pray you never have to intellect essay experience such pain.

If you have not lived it, poverty IS incomprehensible. German Essay Writing. A very good friend told me years ago what being too rich is. If you have two pairs of shoes and your neighbor has none, you are too rich. I believe it. Thank You John.

Being poor means smelling a Big Mac years befoe eating one. Being poor is seeing a Popey’s and not knowing what they serve inside. Interpretive Road. Being poor means using light clothes in essay phrases, winter and “teasinig” other children in coats for being sissies. Yes, I hate going to the dentist. Of Critical Thinking For Students. I go far less than I should. But recently that has been because we don’t have the german money to pay for it and no insurance. I have at least 9 fillings that need to essay be done, but I just lost my job.

How am I supposed to pay for them when the german writing only person working is my husband and he’s only making $1000 a month? You want poor, we’re it. If we weren’t living with family, we’d be on thinking the street. Sorry, wrong page. My husband has been laid off 3 times in german writing phrases, the twenty-five years we’ve been married. Once because the company relocated to a state with tax write offs, once because the company outsourced work to trees China, and once again because he was the highest paid person in the department and the company had expanded at the bottom of this economy and it hadn’t paid off. He made 11 dollars an hour. We paid 600 dollars a month for insurance with a five thousand dollar deductible. We aren’t lazy. Forty hours a week and eight years working to german essay writing phrases be abandoned like that.

He never called out, he helped them grow. He’s fifty-five. Intellect Essay. The only comfort they offered or anyone could could offer was you can collect, can’t you? He isn’t uneducated or lazy but I know the odds are not good that we’ll do as well ever again. I cancelled our insurance.

I can’t wait until my contract is up with Verizon in December. I’ll get a track phone. Now I’m even more grateful I didn’t get a smart phone. I still work 40 hours a week at german essay writing phrases the same company but I’m not confident. They’re in trouble and I don’t have a degree like my husband to lift me above minimum wage work elsewhere. We rent at cloning essay a rate that’s bottom of the market and our used car has a very low payment so we’re lucky at the moment to writing keep it. I’m not so sure when cold hits.

The price of oil has me terrified. I feel despair when I think of our probable future. We were so poor we had to get paid take gravy in german essay writing, a paper sack to school for lunch. I can remember the of critical thinking for students 1950’s and 60’s pretty well, and the main thing I remember, is how cheap everything was. My mother usually cleared 70 dollars a week from writing phrases, her job., and the importance, we lived really well. There was no 90 percent who had 90 percent of the german essay phrases money. What has happened to this country, is just sad. We can thank our politicans.

I know what it’s like to be “poor”. 300$ a month to the importance of critical for students pay rent, get food for kids, and keep enough gas to hopefully find a job. German Writing Phrases. Funny since I was seperated and not completely divorced from their father…..I wasn’t allowed foodstamps or any other assistance due to making too much money. Being told someone has to quit a job to benefits human cloning get into low housing (with both people only working fast food) because they earned 50 dollars more then the limit set. Going without certain things due to the fact you can’t afford them (choosing power over water) and essay phrases, making purchases on canned food and such so that way if you can’t buy food one paycheck you can still eat for to write, the next two weeks. Essay. Sadly many in more essay, this country don’t know what it’s like to german essay phrases be really poor. In my case, I plan on a concept finishing school, getting a home in the middle of now where, growing my own food and getting out from under government support of german essay writing phrases anyform. Thank you for sharing your story. How To A Concept. I hope some young woman who wants to have children at a young age reads this. This is exactly why people should get an german, education and establish themselves prior to having children.

I wish you the best with continuing your education. I know that there are programs out there that will help single women with children with funding. I also know that they have legal aid if you need assistance with completing your divorce. There are also women’s shelters that help women as well. Based upon everything I am reading it looks like you may have more advantages then most. I would utilize those resources.

I wish you the best in your future. In 1969, a single parent, I ate a can of corn for dinner then took my son to Mom’s house around supper time to make sure he had a good meal. I didn’t want Mom Dad to know I didn’t have groceries. I’d say that was poor. I got a good union job in a steel mill and I finally made enough to buy enough food to last all week. Essay On The Road Not Taken. Stayed there for 30 years and german essay writing phrases, now collecting a retirement and self sufficient, so don’t knock unions till you’ve tried one. UNfortunately we need to go back to unions. Big business is killing the middle class this time. Let us get unions for our poor and for our middle class.

I need a union for technology workers and information technology workers. Big business has taken control of get paid both parties and phrases, will not let Americans have jobs over foreign temporary high tech workers on temporary work visas. I like being poor. I know who my friends are. I have the freedom to be creative in planting more, my artistic projects. I like mac cheese and raman noodles. Essay. It isn’t that bad… It has been worse. What really gets my gall is the WEALTHY decide our fate.

All the the importance of critical thinking for students politicians are millionares or near there ( what poor person wouldn’t want their salary..be set for life) The poor haven’t any voice in government.. IT IS A DICTATORSHIP OF THE WEALTHY. Mark my words the next war won’t be a civil war it will be a CLASS WAR. Essay Writing. We really need a third party….. THE POOR MAN”S PARTY…. How To A Concept. It’s already happening in other countries!

Good point and german phrases, well stated. But it isnt just the poor people that are screwed. The middle class is getting it much harder. We are losing everything. Who would have thought Congress would have opened our doors full wide to let every boeies poor come in and take all of our jobs just so the rich could make bigger profits.

Big business doesn’t care at all about how to write essay, quality either. We need a Peoples Party. Not communism. Essay. not socialism. Just a PARTY THAT SPEAKS FOR ALL OF THE PEOPLE EQUALLY. TO BRING BACK TRUE DEMOCRACY . Of Critical. . Phrases. The press controlled by big business, special interest groups, and Super PACS take away our equal voice. More Essay. They destroy Democracy. The class war has been in progress since Ronald Reagan and the middle class and poor have been getting the crap kicked out of them. If I had the money that the german essay writing republicans claim they have and hate the rest of the Americans as much as they do I would wire my money to the Cayman Islands or somewhere else jump on a plane and essay, be done with it. German Essay Phrases. There are countries with as much freedom as we claim to have. Then who would feed you . The Importance Of Critical Thinking For Students. Obama.

Maybe you should learn to read,they said IF they had republicans money. Phrases. There are NO jobs here.They make the rules to keeps us poor so pay for us or change the rules so we can live. We truly have become the most selfish,greedy,uncaring,arrogant,cruel, country on get paid to write research papers the planet,if this is how you think about phrases, your fellow human beings.I can on shutter to think what kids in the future will have to endure.I guess some of planting more trees you won’t be happy until you see others starving on german essay writing phrases the street.I watch as someone starved to death literally helpless to do anything, it is not something the rich will want to see,so close your eyes and I’m sure it will go away. Pretend it is happening,that’s seams to be the republicans way,ALWAYS blame the victim. I love how so many people classify all republicans as the planting more rich when your party even claims that that the “rich” are 1 percent. I’m republican. I am not rich…along with the, roughly half, of the voting population.

I would simply rather make my own decisions for my family and german essay, myself. I, too, give to my friends and to write papers, family when they are in essay writing phrases, need. I don’t need Robin Hood doing it for me. So don’t classify all republicans as greedy like most of planting essay your party does. I have compassion for writing phrases, the needy, like most republicans. Then you will pay for someone’s cancer treatment,a poor person that can’t afford it.Go to your local hospital and ask if they have a needy person who can’t pay and pay their bill. That is Charity And don’t claim a tax write off.I bet you will never do that. Mary, And that is what many churches do. They use a whole lot of the contributions to help the poor and needy among them. And if we all helped our local churches, there won’t be as much poverty around either. Mary I have seen things that you would not believe.

I can tell you from planting more trees essay, experience there is german essay writing phrases, a choice people can make. They can choose to be the how to a concept essay victim or people can choose to empower themselves and change their lives in America. A lot of rich people donate to the poor, they pay taxes that pays for german essay writing, public assistance and are good and intellect essay, decent people. A lot of people donate because they are kind and they care. At some point I think that someone needs to german essay writing phrases stand up for interpretive road, the rich and say look they weren’t the ones who made the decision to have children when they knew they couldn’t afford it.

They weren’t the essay writing ones who chose for the poor not to continue their education. They weren’t the ones choosing to pick up the crack pipe or the bottle. These are choices that millions of poor people make every day but then want to turn around and intellect essay, blame it on the rich. It’s not the rich they just need to take a look at themselves in the mirror. I cannot believe that a person who doesn’t even have the decency to understand the german essay writing phrases perpective of the poor, would make such a sad response to those in need.

You have NO IDEA what situation people are in, so for you to make comments on it is just horrible. Take time to understand those around you, and planting trees, don’t be so freaking stubborn. Once a person received “assistance” they no longer can take a regular job for essay, fear of losing the “assistance”…. Research Papers. Work for cash when it’s needed and never / never let on… Protect that “assistance”… Not hundreds doing this closer to german essay writing phrases 100’s of thousands… Saying it’s not so doesn’t change the reality that it really does go on.. People absolutely do not understand what it is to be poor. I remember the lady who baby sat us was extremely poor. Sometimes she would cry because she had bread but nothing to go with it to make her kids a sandwich. She used to say, “Thank God there’s a free lunch program at the school so my kids can eat.” When I was little, we were also poor, but we weren’t THAT poor.

No one can really understand feelings of hopelessness and entrapment that poverty brings, and anyone who is truly poor would never opt for intellect essay, government assistance over german essay writing phrases, self-reliance. Anyone who thinks otherwise uses that as an excuse to justify their greed and arrogance. I hot and planting trees essay, I don’t live in german phrases, Cuba. A cold front is interpretive on the, coming in later today though…moron. The fathers of MR and Mrs Romney may have been hard working guys, but their kids are mocking the US population. Mr Romney’s advice is like a big grotesque joke.

Seeing him and a small bunch of wealthy guys disparaging half of the essay writing phrases US was disgusting. Very good point! I urge Americans to take a tour of Ellis Island and see the Statue of Liberty and learn about the human cloning history of german essay phrases immigrants who came to our shores during the 19th and 20th century. Planting More Trees. My ancestors came here as slaves in 1619 in Jamesburg Virginia but being the history buff that I am, I took a trip to writing phrases Ellis Island in interpretive on the road, 2003 and I love it. The whole experience was touching and very margical to say the least. The scrolls on Lady Liberty says “give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to be free.” Yes, our nation didn’t laugh at german essay phrases poor immigrants when they came hear for planting more, a better live.

No, we opened our doors to the masses yearning to german essay writing phrases achieve the American Dream. Essay On The Road Not Taken. Unfortunately Mitt the elitist Romney has forgotten about the german essay values that make us a melting pot and the unique society that we are. We didn’t have welfaremthen either. Benefits Cloning Essay. We didn’t have people come here for Americans to phrases support either. In reply to blah blah… My family had been Republican for many generations. A Concept. Romney’s mor(M)onic values are NOT our values! We had much better presidential candidates, but they did not have his church to push them in the first line.

All the millions he donated to his church, came back to his campaign as donations. There’s a book I’m reading right now called, “The Party’s Over: How Republicans Went Crazy, Democrats Became Useless, and the Middle Class Got Shafted,” by Mike Lofgren, in which he discusses exactly what you’re talking about. He worked for Republican congressmen for 28 years before he left in disgust when the fiscal crisis to place last summer. He still is a loyal Republican, but he’s very disappointed with “the crazies” that seem to have taken over the party. Closet Atheist – “poor people own just as many flatscreen TV’s as more affluent households” I REALLY doubt the accuracy of this “claim”! I think that is pure B. S. ! I am considered middle to upper middle class, I am able to pay my mortgage, ALL my bills and still put some away in savings and I don’t own ANY flatscreen TVs!

I have several friends that I know make much less that I do and NONE of them have a flatscreen TV either!… Don’t shoot the messenger. The source is in the link. Did you bother to read the article? closet atheist, you are a phoney. What’s a “phoney”…?? I suspect you meant “phony”…. Writing. but what about me is phony?? You can see all my past posts if you like… comments on interpretive essay on the road not taken regular CNN as OvertaxedNYC…. i wouldn’t go out of essay my way to create a persona. That’s too much work. haha, you’re working so hard man, sound like a broken record. I’m still confused as to what is phony….

Then you probably don’t own a tv. Human Cloning. I don’t think you can get anything but a flat screen anymore. I got a laugh reading your post. I don’t have a flat-screen either. Writing. I have an ancient portable that will only papers stay on for fifteen minutes at a time, hence I don’t watch much television. Cable? Why bother. I hate to writing say this because I am in favor of supportive programs for the poor and working poor but a drive through the poor neighborhoods of my city one night, to see a friend who lives there showed homes with not only flat screen TVs but big screen TVs visible through the open doors . Yet my friend told me that the write essay mother of the phrases famiy next door, that had one of those tvs, was being evicted after 4 months for non payment of rent and their kids were always over at her house borrowing things. I can’t undertand why anyone would do that when their kids lacked basics or they were sleeping on mattresses on on the not taken the floor, but htey were. Mind, this is not all of the poor by a long shot.

Many do without to get an education and have priorities in order and great values. German Essay Writing Phrases. That is benefits human cloning, how I was raised, also. Many do, but I don’t think they bought it while they were poverty stricken. Just because someone owns something they probably couldn’t afford doesn’t mean they bought it anyways. They were probably well off before hand and german essay writing, then a job loss or something else occurred that put them into planting, poverty. Then there ARE those that did buy it while “poor” but probably deal drugs to earn that money to buy things like that. Money the government wouldn’t know about since there is no paper trail. I posted the link… this isn’t brain surgery.

Just did a search and phrases, CNN Money didn’t run anything close to what you’re saying. You are almost as disconnected from reality as Romney. What’s Mitt Romney’s unlucky number? Well, its 47! As governor as MA, his state was 47th in job growth. The recent controversial video in intellect essay, which he accused 47% of Americans as being shiftless lazy Democrats is finally going to german essay phrases do him in.

Want to bet President Obama takes 47 states in how to a concept, November? Hehe! Obama/biden 2012 by a LANDSLIDE! The 2011 tax returns? What kind of a joke is this? How stupid does he think we are? A week from now, Romney will release his entire 2010 tax returns and a week later, his 2009 as he continues to fall further behind in the polls. Sort of like an Etch-A-Sketch. You shake it up as you go along. That is why this phony piece of fraud will never ever be POTUS.

Obama/Biden 2012 by a LANDSLIDE! I’ve been there after two downsizings. Hundreds of customized resumees sent out and very few answers can really do that to german essay phrases you. I was either overqualified or underqualified. I’d omit one of my degrees, and intellect essay, apply for jobs that would bring in a fraction of my last salary, and still no answer.

That’s why listening to german writing phrases former prep boy Romney (born into so much money and the importance thinking for students, power, married to an equally wealthy wife), giving advice to the regular American guy about german writing phrases, honest work and interpretive road not taken, opportunity, just sickens me. Hang in writing phrases, there buddy. You just described the “great depression”of the 30s and early 40s. How do I know this–Because, I LIVE IT—“Nuff said. Being poor,is appreciating everything you’ve got,to the max—Making sure your family eats and drinks-before you-ensuring that your family has clothing and school supplies,and not knowing where you are going to intellect essay get the resources for those needs…Doing “what you gotta do”,to ensure family survival—Is “$8.00/ hr a “good deal?”–Not necessarily,but,at least I do have a job,to where I am taking care of essay writing phrases my family…Which is how I was “brought up”—My mama did it,on only $500/month (70’s)—She taught me alot…So,”being poor”,is a way of of critical thinking life for me–But,I do my best that is humanly possible, to make it easier for my family… you sound wealthy as compared to german essay phrases rich. you have your priorities straight and you try and you care,that makes you a very wealthy person. Benefits Cloning. Rich is in the wallet while wealth is in the heart. Romney, the phrases guy whose made millions laying workers off.

Why does he seem to resent the poor when he is the one responsible for write, putting a good number in essay writing, that class while his company profited from doing so? He should at the very least be able to show some concern for get paid to write, them. He above all other should know many are in that situation through no fault of their own., And why is the writing phrases ONLY remedy you hear from Romney is more tax cuts for the so called “job creators”? He can sit there and tell people that yeah, what we all we need to do is make sure the wealthy have more money and that’s going to intellect essay help you.

It worked so well for german essay writing phrases, W, we gotta do it again! Might as well tell us he’s got a magic wand to that will create jobs, there is as much evidence one will work as the other. The problem is the working poor are too stupid to vote their wallets. Their wage base has been literally decimated by illegal immigration, but they keep voting for people who want to benefits human cloning bring more in. If they’re so dumb that they’d rather vote their ethnicity over german writing, their economic interests, they deserve what they get. Its a very poorly kept secret that there are plenty in the GOP who want more illegals here. Cheap labor for intellect essay, business means greater profit.

And profit trumps everything,anything and everyone. I sincerely hope you get poor. Forever. I am so glad a brain trust self centered person such as you have all the answers. Go pray to Your god for more money.

Hooray for writing phrases, you, right? Wait. No abuse in churches. Being poor is more trees essay, not having health insurance because you don’t have a job and praying that you don’t get sick or hurt. Because, let’s face it, in America if you don’t have health insurance, you might as well die. Being poor is german phrases, being sad every. Essay. single. Writing Phrases. day. Being poor is being so thanful that your 80-year old mother is not poor. Well said Maggie . I agree ,I live in intellect essay, fear that someone in my family will get sick.There is NO way we could pay for treatment,surgery,or other care. We would be left to die also.

They keep telling me this is the greatest country on earth,but how can that be when we just let people die.We have a very long way to go! Or having that $8 job and not being able to german phrases afford the health care your employer ‘provides’ because it would take 2/3 of you take home pay. most 8 dollars an get paid to write research papers, hour jobs the employer doesn’t even offer insurance,and people can not afford the to pay 500.00 or more a month for insurance premiums on their own. I don’t think people understand that you can’t just walk into a hospital or doctors office and say treatment me. Most people think you can go to the ER and german essay writing, presto you get care or at least that’s what they say to me. Just go to the ER. Poor in the USA===Middle Class for get paid to write, a good 75% of the phrases Earth’s population. I don’t argue your point, but that does not mean we should ignore poverty, such as it is here. Get Paid To Write Research Papers. We as a nation need to german phrases be concerned about both. Wow, how low you guys fell behind the Western European countries and and how ignorant if you compare yourselfes with the developing and underdeveloped coutries. Haha, keep watching the Holywood movies.

A safety net? Really? What? So when did helping lift people out of poverty stop being an get paid to write, American virtue? Didn’t we all used to want to help the poor, not denigrate and hate them? I’ve made the decision between rent and writing, food before, I know what it’s like to be poor. I’ve been there. I was lucky enough to get out of get paid to write it, but many others don’t and can’t. The poor are not to german phrases be hated, they are to be helped.

Lazy, abusive, and selfish people of intellect essay any income bracket deserve to be hated, denigrated, shunned, and ostracized. Dave, Susan, and Lord Toronga, this means you. I see people I would love to help every day. I don’t have the money I wish I could use to help disabled and other veterans because government has taxed more away leaving me with less. Difference, is when I use my money to help, I know it is not being wasted.

When government takes it, I know much of it is german essay writing phrases, wasted. Nothing wrong wiht helping the poor out, but Obama has made the socialist system a life support system for those people who choose not too work because it is too easy to access the federal programs. A Concept. This is a generalization, but there is no incentive for essay, the uneducated, hourly worker to get off government assistance. Benefits Human Cloning. There should be a time limit. German Essay Phrases. That would encourage pepole to stay in benefits human, school adn givernment assistance a bad thing not the norm. We are 16 trillion in writing, debt. Intellect Essay. Granted, the wars had something to do with that, but our solcial programs under Obama are responsible for the sustaining the german writing phrases debt.

Never mind the recession. Of course the use of planting essay food stamps and phrases, other aid goes up during a tough economy. Get Paid To Write Research Papers. I wonder how many of the unemployed have been laid off by companies like Bain…….but shame on them for working for a company that went bust, they should have known better… its all about choices! Please give some examples of the ways in which Obama has increased the number of people on various programs. Please cite a couple laws or executive orders he signed. I won’t hold my breath.

Please… as if welfare and the safety nets Mittens likes were created by Obama. As if. And what about the almost 60 man with a family who lost his construction job? Schools grants are not available, no one is willing to hire him because of age even the food service jobs are not available to him because he has bad teeth from two bouts with scarlet fever as a young child and is unable to get them fixed. Because we are married we do not qualify for gov’t asst., I have been told by many social and essay writing phrases, church workers that if I divorced him I could get help for myself and the kids.

Sorry, I didn’t marry this man to leave him for money, he deserves the help as much as I do. It doesn’t help that his family simply says he should be going out to get a good job and essay on the, health benefits, he applies to every job that comes available that he even might qualify for. The kicker is german essay, even our kids teachers ridicule them for planting trees, not having the latest cell phone, when they need to call for a ride they have to writing use the school phones and get a lot of flak for bothering the office. AMEN! Truly, I hope that we, as a country, have not degenerated to such an egregious state of cynicism and amorality that we resent and deride our fellow citizens who need our assistance to lift themselves out of poverty! What is a handout? Relief to victims of a natural desaster is a handout!

Ask the intellect essay red states in the Gulf! What is a handout? Casting your vote for a politician is a handout! What is a handout? No matter how Romney tries to spin it, food stamps and german phrases, welfare to the millions of Americans who vote republican are handouts even if he intentionally ommits them from the 47%! I don’t think Romney is a true Mormon, otherwise he wouldn’t say what he said about the essay 47% What is a handout? Emergency surgery to republicans who don’t have health insurance is a handout! What about people like me, who are disabled and writing phrases, cannot work? I have no money for foo, heat, air, cable nothing.when I apply for any assistance I am told I get enough. you try to live life on planting trees $900.00 per month screw anyone but you just do not see the german phrases full picture.

Well said, Steve. I’m on disability also. And We are also in that “between a rock and a hard spot” where we make too much money for any kind of assistance. We never eat out, or bring home take out food. Never buy chips, dip, sodas, cookies, candies or anything like that. Benefits Human. For us, it would be a luxury. I’m sorry Steve. There are millions of essay us who are trying our hardest to open the eyes of those who refuse to see reality. Hang in there and don’t give up.

You want the truth. If goverment would quit wasting tax payer dollars, and stop the waste and abuse of the essay system. There would be more money available to those who really need it. Writing. And there would be more money available for us to give to organizations designed to help. Help get government out of the essay road not taken way, and you will be better off. Rem, it was government that crashed the economy, it was banks and mortgage lenders and Wall Street, all “too big to fail”. Which do you think we spent more on, the bank bailout or help to the disadvantaged that year? I’m now on Social Security and I’ve never been this poor. I have a part-time job in addition to essay my SS check and essay not taken, I still make only about $15,000 a year. I was a reporter for years, then a development director for nonprofits and finally an agency director.

Then I sold real estate. I didn’t know that would hurt my SS earnings in the future. I worked hard, paid my own way through college, tried to help people and did! and this is what I have left? Bush’s Great Recession made it so much worse as prices climb, wages (if you can find a job) are about 40 percent less than BEFORE the recession for the 99 percent. I would be doing much better if George Bush would have stuck to german essay writing baseball. banks and lenders were forced to lower their standards because government (under clinton) decided they were going to use the housing market to how to write prop up the economy to prevent a recession. Writing. And they lowered the standards. And guess what.

Even then banks and lenders didn’t follow. Not until, fly by nights came along and intellect essay, started lending to those the banks were turning down. Writing Phrases. So banks started losing business because they were being responsible. Of course they had to follow and lower their standards to keep from losing business. All because of government. But regardless of the standards. Nobody was ever forced to sign a mortgage. It was always their choice.

So the simple truth is planting trees, that governemt, and people are to blame. As for your situation. Phrases. If you didn’t not plan properly, and foolishly believed the SS was a retirement plan, you have nobody to blame but yourself. “Of course they had to a concept follow and lower their standards to german keep from losing business. All because of government. But regardless of the standards. Nobody was ever forced to a concept sign a mortgage.

It was always their choice. Essay Phrases. So the simple truth is that governemt, and people are to blame.” Such a great contradiction in such little space. Benefits Human Essay. Of course the banks had to lower their standards. But no one forced someone to writing sign a mortgage. Banks blameless for making bad investments.

However, common people are very culpable for their part in engaging in a fraudulent housing market.

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German essay phrases with translations by tinkywinks - Teaching

Essay, Research Paper: Color Effects. Color in the environment and how persons perceive can greatly affect their. productivity and mood. Phrases? Each person has a different abilities of being able to. screen out to write research papers, various stimulus that is around them. Low screeners have a difficult. time ignoring overpowering stimulus in their environment while high screeners. need to writing phrases perceive a great amount of stimulus to human essay work to the best of their. ability.

Mood is affected by essay phrases color, when a person is in a red room to long they. can become agitated and confused. A person in a blue room is essay more relaxed. German Essay Writing? This. study looks at planting more essay, the affects three different color schemes on college students.

ability to perform well on a test. The Affect of Color on Low and High Screeners. The way we perceive color can affect our emotions and productivity in many. different ways. Certain colors can make us excited or stimulate while other. colors can leave us feeling helpless or overwhelmed (e.g., Murray Deabler,

1957). Violet can leave individuals feeling sad or fatigued while red can induce. anger and tension (e.g., Levy, 1984). What if the color around us could actually. help us feeling calm or excited in german essay, different appropriate circumstances. Trees Essay? In.

college settings there are many times that students sit through hours of. lectures without any outside stimulation and other times students take very. involved test that can leave them feeling very out of control. Sitting in a. lecture hall can make students very tired and their minds soon begin to writing wander. so that they are stimulated instead of just watching a professor talk. I can. remember sitting in interpretive essay on the road not taken, many lecture halls trying to german writing phrases keep focused on the professor, but the classrooms are often so plain that the mind begins to drift. Benefits Essay? If certain.

colors were in the environment of a lecture hall students may feel stimulated to. grasp more of the subject that a professor is speaking on. When students are in. a lecture hall taking a test they may be over stimulated and colors around them. that are calming may help them to concentrate to the task at hand.

Previous. research on color and how it affects humans has been limited to only showing. participants color swatches or lights and the data has been very inconsistent. from study to study. In Levy#9619;s research blue was associated with a calming. affect while Stone and English (1998) found that blue surroundings can induce. depression. Levy has also found that warm colors such as red can provoke active. feeling. Kwalleck, Woodson, Lewis and german writing phrases Sales (1997) have seen that red can cause. disphoria and confusion.

In current research I have not found two studies that. exactly agree on the effects of color in our environment. Most homes, offices. and institutions are mainly the color white which has had little research. conducted. Most of the research conducted on the white stimuli was with light. and not with the walls in an environment.

Few researchers have actually assessed. the effects of benefits cloning essay interior color and light. Gerard (1958) tested participants in a. one stimulus condition and found that red produces more alertness and blue. produces more relaxed feelings for individuals.

Color in german phrases, these findings does not. seem to affect heart rate. Levy conducted research that had students look at a. screen with different colors presented to each individual. After the exposure. participants filled out the Profile of of critical for students Mood Status, POMS, which asses mood.

status. Levy#9619;s research connected color to emotion and essay phrases not productivity in. any type of task. Participants associated blue with sadness, green with. assertiveness, and orange with anger. It was also seen that if the how to write a concept, individual. was exposed to light blue they had an german essay phrases, aroused feeling of relaxation. Planting Trees Essay? Stone and. English among other conditions tested color in the workspace. It was found that. a low stimulating task, such as typing names into german writing phrases a computer, can benefit from.

the color red in benefits essay, the environment. With the extra stimulation individuals. performed better in their jobs that were not high demanding. When working in. blue rooms with a high demand task individuals became overwhelmed. Writing Phrases? In the high. demand task all of the names and the importance of critical addresses that needed to german essay be put in the computer. were very similar to each other.

One benefit from the blue room is that. individuals felt like their workspace was more private and intellect essay so in turn kept on. task more. Kwalleck, Woodson and Robbins (1988) examined effects of the color. red versus blue in the environment.

Participants were given a typing task and. asked to rate their mood while in the room. The researcher found that their was. no significant differences on mood. It was found that individuals who remained. in the red room experienced more anxiety and stress then participants in the.

blue room. Phrases? Kwalleck, Woodson, Lewis and human Sales (1997) also conducted a study that. concentrated on german writing phrases the effects of color on workers performance and mood. These. researchers also came to the conclusion that many researcher have not really. studied color and what it does to an individual. Interpretive On The? The researchers realized that. different people perceive these colors at different rates of stimulation. Before.

beginning their research they gave their participant a test that would asses. whether they were a #8992;high#9632; screener or a #8992;low screener as. determined by the Mehrabian#9619;s Stimulus Screening Questionnaire. This. questionnaire measures the individual differences in automatic screening of and. habituation to irrelevant stimuli ( Kwalleck et al., 1997) Low screeners are.

individuals who can not screen a lot of incoming sensory information. These. researchers put different participants in phrases, rooms that had been regulated in get paid, color. and light. Every room used had the phrases, same amount of the importance thinking for students light and there was not a. window in the rooms. One room was painted completely white including the german essay, door. and the desk. Another room was painted with red on the top 75% of the wall and. blue-green on the bottom 25% of the wall was red.

For the third room the top 75% of the wall was red and the bottom 25% of the wall was blue-green. Subjects. performed a variety of office task throughout the week with each person. completing the planting more essay, same amount of work. Each worker filled out a POMS questionnaire. once at german, the beginning of the day and intellect essay once at the end of the writing, day. The MCT, Minnesota Clerical Test, which measure clerical speed in different task was.

administered on the importance thinking the morning of the first day and the afternoon of the fourth. day. The results of this study showed that workers who were low screeners. performed more poorly in german essay, the red office then those who were considered high. screeners (Kwalleck et al., 1997). It was also true for get paid to write papers, the reverse with high. screeners performing worse in the blue-green room then low screeners. High. screeners are not affected by the arousingness of the color red so they are able.

to perform their duties to the best of their abilities (Kwalleck et al., 1997)). Low screeners are very distracted by the incoming stimulus to a point were their. performance deteriorates. In contrast, the blue green office is very relaxing so. that the high screeners are not getting enough arousal to german essay reach their optimal. level of performance. How To Essay? Low screeners are more near to their optimal level of. performance in german essay phrases, the relaxing blue-green room. Results for the white room were not.

listed for high or low screeners in performance. Performance was not effected by. any of the interpretive essay, color schemes until individual screening abilities were taken into. account. Kwalleck et al. Writing? (1997) believed that one explanation to this is essay on the road not taken the. Yerkes Dodson principle. This principle proposes that arousal and performance go.

up together until a point. After reaching the phrases, optimal level of arousal, any. increase in arousal will lead to intellect essay performance decreasing. Essay Phrases? Generally more. cognitively complex task require less arousal to reach an intellect essay, optimal performance (Kwalleck. et al., 1997). In relation on the effects of color on mood it was found that. workers in the red office reported more disphoria than workers in the blue-green. office.

Low screeners reported more disphoria then high screeners in the rooms. with a red color scheme. Low screeners also reported more disphoria in german writing, the white. walled room. This was explained by that low screeners can not ignore the. starkness of the the importance thinking for students, white pigment while high screeners can. The goals of this study. are to find out what testing conditions are best for low screeners and high. screeners. The hypothesis for this study is that low screeners will have higher.

test scores in the blue room then the writing phrases, high screeners. In the white control room. and the red room the high screeners will have higher test scores because they. need more stimulation in their environment for optimal performance. Low. screeners need less stimulation to reach their optimal performance levels.

I. believe that all participants will have less confusion and depression in the. blue room. This research will involve three different college classes in three. different color scheme rooms, white, red, and of critical thinking blue. I will have the students. take a test that shows whether they are a high screener or a low screener. German Essay Writing Phrases? Equal. amounts of low and high screeners will be put in each room and then be lectured. to by a professor about a subject not previously covered in the class. I will.

then have the students fill out a test that shows what they are feeling in the importance of critical thinking, the. classroom and then they will take a test on the subject lectured on. I believe. that a wide range in emotional state and test scores will be found in each room. In the blue room students will feel calm but the low screeners will test better. than the german phrases, high screeners. Of Critical Thinking For Students? In the red room I believe that all students will feel. more agitated but high screeners will test better in this room. In the white.

room I believe that the starkness of the color will affect the low screeners but. high screeners will test higher, but not as high as in the red room. I believe. that POMS questionnaire results will be higher after the test then before. Method Participants Participants will be freshman college students in german essay writing, a. introductory psychology class. Benefits Human Cloning? There will be approximately 90 students; 30.

students in each color scheme. Materials Three different classroom settings will. be used for this experiment each with a different color scheme. The white. control room will be a normal white classroom that most college campuses use. The red room will have everything identical to the white room but the color of. the walls will be red. Except for the color of the german writing phrases, walls the blue room will also.

be identical to the red and white rooms. I will use average household paint. mixed to a light true blue and a deep red. When students first enter the. classroom they will take the Mehrabian#9619;s Stimulus Screening Questionnaire. (Kwalleck et al., 1997). This is a 40-item, 9-point scale instrument which. measures differences in screening and habituation of stimuli that is perceived. in the environment. Responses for each question range from +4 (very strong.

agreement) to research -4 (very strong disagreement) with a score of german essay phrases 0 being neutral. between the how to write essay, two. Scores of -25 and above define a high screener while scores -24. and below denote low screeners. After the lecture the Profile Mood of status (POMS) will be used to evaluate the participants emotional status in german phrases, the room. The Importance? This is. a paper-and-pencil test that reveals six different mood factors: Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Vigor-Activity, Fatigue-Inertia, and Confusion-Bewilderment (Kwalleck et al., 1997).

Participants rate their feelings on a five point scale of 0-4 which stands for. #8992;not at all#9632; to german #8992;extremely#9632;. I will also use a 25. question multiple choice test on the topic covered in the lecture. Design and. Procedure Subjects will be told that they are participating in this experiment. for class credit and will fill out consent forms before the experiment begins. Two days before the real experiment students will take the Mehrabian`s stimulus. test that will show whether they are a low screener or a high screener. Participants will then sign a form attached to the consent form that says that. to their knowledge they are not color blind.

These test will be taken and scored. and each room will be given approximately the essay on the road, same amount of high and low. screeners on the testing day. Students will entered the color room they are. assigned to and listen to a 30 minute lecture from a topic in essay phrases, their class.

After. the lecture students in each classroom will be asked to fill out the POMS. questionnaire that will rate their emotional status in interpretive essay on the, the classroom and how the. color around them is affecting their emotion. After all questionnaires are.

turned in german essay writing phrases, the professor will pass out a 25 question multiple choice exam that is. based on the earlier discussed topic. Students will be allowed thirty minutes to. take the to write research papers, test and then once again will take the POMS questionnaire. After the. last questionnaire is turned in german essay writing, the subjects in each classroom will be given a. debriefing form with information about the interpretive on the not taken, study. Results I would expect to german see. in the results of this study that the test scores will be highest for cloning, the low. screeners in the blue room and the high screeners will have their highest test.

scores in the red room. In the white room test results will be higher for the. high screeners but will not be as high as in the red room. I believe that the. POMS results will show that participants in the red room will feel the most. agitated and confused. Essay Phrases? The white room will have some confusion but mostly for. low screeners.

The blue room data will show that all participants are the most. comfortable emotionally in this room even though high screeners will not test. well in that environment. Discussion With these results I believe that test. taking can be taken to a whole different level in schools. Instead of taking. random sections of courses students would be able to take a section that is of critical thinking in. the color that they perceive to german essay be more stimulating. By being stimulated to the. perfect degree students would be able to get more out of lectures and be able to.

concentrate more on their test than what is around them. Essay? This type of research. will help low screeners more than high screeners because they have a hard time. sorting through all the stimuli they are presented with. Traditional classroom. are usually a white or cream color and german essay writing phrases this data will show that this type of. environment will hurt the learning capabilities of the importance thinking for students low screeners. Kwalleck et. al. (1997) have shown that workers that are high screeners do work better in an.

environment where they perceive the extraneous stimuli to be high. German Writing Phrases? On the other. hand they found that low screeners do better when extraneous stimuli is low. Other literature points to the fact that color affects different persons. different ways, but that it does have effect on our daily duties. In the future. I believe that research should be done on children to see if the same phenomena.

is present in planting more essay, them. The gender factor should also be looked out to see if men or. women range differently in essay writing, high and low screeners. psychophysicological functions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 43, 107-112. Kwalleck, N., Lewis, C. M., Robbins A. S. (1988). Effects of office. interior color on worker`s mood and productivity. Percept, Motor Skills, 66,

123-128. Kwalleck, N., Woodson, H., Lewis, C. M., Sales, C. (1997). Impact. of three interior color schemes on worker mood and performance relative to. individual environmental sensitivity. COLOR Research and Application, 22, 121-132. Essay? Levy, B. I. (1984). Essay Phrases? Research into the psychological meaning of color. American Journal of Art Therapy, 23, 58-61.

Murray, D. C, Deabler, H. Thinking? L. (1957). Color and mood tones. Essay Phrases? Journal of Applied Psychology, 41,279-283. Interpretive On The Road Not Taken? Stone, N. J., English, A. J. German Writing Phrases? (1998). Essay On The Not Taken? Task type, poster, and workspace color on. mood, satisfaction, and performance.

Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, Help other users to find the good and phrases worthy free term papers and trash the bad ones. Free papers will not meet the guidelines of your specific project. If you need a custom essay on Psychology: , we can write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written papers will pass any plagiarism test, guaranteed.

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