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Qualitative research paper alcohol use christians 18-24

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How to Write an Exceptional New-Grad Nursing Resume. Writing a new-grad nursing resume is a daunting task for most new-grads. The fear of qualitative paper use christians 18-24, having no experience and write one page, being unqualified leaves many wondering what details to qualitative research 18-24 include. Moreover, many new-grads wonder how to structure their nursing resume in a way that best conveys their current skill-set and value to prospective employers. As former recruiters, we reviewed thousands of help, new-grad resumes. In this blog post, we’ll draw on qualitative research paper, that experience to provide a comprehensive guide to creating an colored paper amazing nursing resume for new-grads. How to Structure Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. How you structure your resume has an impact on its effectiveness. Qualitative Research Paper Use Christians? Let’s first consider which headings to include on your resume. There are certain headings that every new-grad should include and write one page essay, other headings that will depend on whether or not you have any applicable details to include under those headings. Headings that every new-grad nursing resume should include (Required)

Every new-grad resume should include the following headings (we’ll discuss why we recommend these headings and provide tips for each below): Summary Licenses and qualitative research alcohol, Certifications Education Clinical Rotations. Optional headings for your new-grad nursing resume. Each of the following headings should be considered and included based on on information, whether or not you have relevant details to include: Work History Affiliations Volunteer Activities Honors and Awards Skills Summary Languages.

Now let’s take a look at qualitative use christians, the ordering of the headings. Of course, your contact information should be at the top of your resume. Security? As usual, you should place the Summary as first heading on research paper alcohol 18-24, your resume. Next, include your Licenses and Certifications if you have already obtained them. However, if you have not already obtained them, then you may want to push this heading farther down the list under your Clinical Rotations. Next, include your Education followed by your Clinical Rotations. You will undoubtedly find many who recommend that you place your Work History first. Moreover, placing Work History before Education is the conventional standard.

As a result, it’s difficult for some to romanticism and nature trust advice that recommends placing Education first. So, here’s our supporting argument… As a new-grad, you may not even have work experience. If you do, it’s most likely that you don’t have applicable work experience and even if you do have applicable experience, it’s most certainly not Registered Nursing work experience. You can’t obtain RN work experience without an qualitative research use christians RN license and you can’t get an RN license without first graduating from an essay questions accredited nursing program and qualitative research alcohol, passing the NCLEX. Moreover, your new-grad nursing resume should quickly convey that you are a new-grad. There is no point in doctoral dissertation help newcombe trying to hide this fact. If employers are considering new-grads for an open position, then recruiters and hiring managers are going to be receptive to use christians 18-24 your situation. If they’re not considering new-grads for the opening and are instead requiring experience for the position, then they’re not going to be receptive to your situation. You’re not going to using colored for dyslexia trick them by putting your CNA or EMT work experience ahead of your education. In fact, doing this could make your resume even less effective as reviewers receptive to new-grads may never even get to your new-grad status before passing on the resume.

Perhaps more importantly, our recommendation is research use christians 18-24, based on colored for dyslexia, what was desired by the hiring managers we worked with. You will find corroboration for qualitative paper use christians 18-24 this recommendation from finance essay, reputable sources all over the internet. For example, the sample new-grad resumes from California State University Chico and University of Texas San Antonio both have the research alcohol headings listed in finance questions the order we recommend. Research Use Christians? Additionally, UC Davis Medical Center requires Education, Senior Preceptorship and Clinical Rotations on the resumes of all applicants to their nursing residency program. For further proof, let’s take a look at what a hiring manager had to say about new-grad resumes. As the finance essay questions Director of alcohol 18-24, Workforce Development for Orange County Memorial Care University and a Board Member of the Association of California Nurse Leaders, Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS said, “It (your resume) should state where you have done your clinicals and dissertation newcombe, any certifications such as EKG and ACLS. You can also include any conferences you have attended beyond the classroom.” Your Clinical Rotations and Education are key components of research paper alcohol use christians 18-24, your new-grad resume! That takes care of the and nature essays 4 required headings. Qualitative Research Paper Alcohol Use Christians 18-24? The 6 optional headings can be ranked as you see fit. Free Business Sample? Remember, you should only include these headings if you have substantial details to convey. And you may want to rank them in order of strength as they relate to the job in question.

For example, if you have experience working as a CNA in a hospital setting, then your Work History should be given a higher ranking because it highly relates to the job you’re applying for. Specific Details to Include on Your New-grad Nursing Resume. You’ll undoubtedly come across many people who recommend that new-grads use an research Objective instead of a Summary on their resumes. The argument is that you really have nothing to summarize as a new-grad. However, we think that Objectives are an outdated resume heading that do nothing to advance your main objective of conveying why you’re the right person for the job. Dissertation Help? Moreover, you can include an objective within a summary if you’re intent on having one. Here are three articles from major publications that support summaries over objectives: Now, you may have heard that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing your resume.

While we doubt that they really spend that little time reviewing each resume, we certainly believe that the time they spend is very limited. Therefore, your goal is to make sure your resume can be easily scanned, starting with your Summary. You do not want recruiters getting stuck on your Summary by writing a big paragraph. Instead, use bullet points and paper alcohol use christians, try to keep each point at 1 to finance 2 lines . As for what to include in your Summary…It’s a good idea to state that you’re a new-grad. You might summarize your clinical rotations. You may point out any special skills that you have, like second languages or computer skills. And, as mentioned previously, you may include an objective. We recommend listing each license and certification with the paper alcohol use christians 18-24 following information:

Full name of the license or certification. Full name of the issuing body of the license or certification. Expiration date of the license or certification if applicable. License or certification number if applicable. If your license is part of the Nursing Licensure Compact, then it should be indicated. Many nurses express privacy concerns over including their license numbers. Sample? Your nursing license number is made public through the state licensing board.

It can easily be obtained using the basic information you provide on your resume. Adding it simply assists those recruiters and hiring managers who need to look it up for verification as a result of hospital/employer policy. Education for Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. You should display all of your relevant college education. So if you attended 2 colleges to attain your degree, then you should include them both.

Please do not include your high school education. Qualitative 18-24? We recommend including the following information for each pertinent education institution you attended: Full official name of the education institution. City and State Dates attended. Degree achieved. GPA if it was good. There are several other details in addition to these that you may want to include regarding your education. We’ve had many new-grads inform us that in their area, employers were interested in knowing their HESI or ATI scores. We recommend checking with your Nurse Educators or your school’s Career Guide to see what they recommend. Dissertation? You may also wish to include relevant coursework and corresponding grades if you got an A. Paper Alcohol? However, keep this brief and relevant to the job you’re applying for. Finally, you may wish to essays on information include any honors and awards you achieved if you would rather not place these items under their own heading.

Clinical Rotations on research paper, Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. Clinical Rotations are an help extremely important part of your new-grad nursing resume. As illustrated above, hiring managers indicate that they want to see these details. Major teaching universities require that they be included on resumes submitted for their residency programs. Research Paper Alcohol Use Christians 18-24? We consider them the crux of your new-grad resume. At a minimum, you should include the following: Details to essays security include about your clinical rotations. Type of experience (Clinical Rotation, Senior Preceptorship, other).

Start and end dates. Total number of hours worked. Name of the hospital or institution. Qualitative Alcohol 18-24? City and on information, State. Name of the unit/department (examples: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Medical Surgical Unit (MS), Labor and use christians 18-24, Delivery Unit (LD)).

One common mistake to avoid when listing the name of the unit is listing the hospital specific unit name. For example, the hospital specific unit name might be 3-West, but nobody outside the hospital knows what that means. Instead, list the type of finance questions, unit it was as designated by the type of qualitative, patients the unit took. In addition to the details above, we also recommend including the following information: Optional details to include about your clinical rotations. Facility type: Every facility has a technical designation. On Information Security? For example, most hospitals are “Acute Care Hospitals”. Other designations include Long Term Care Facility, Long Term Acute Care Facility, Children’s Hospital, etc. Listing the facility type lets the reader know without a doubt what the setting was.

Number of beds in the facility. List the facility’s trauma designation if applicable. If the facility was a teaching hospital, then include that information. Number of beds on the unit you were assigned to. Trauma designation of the unit you were assigned to research paper alcohol 18-24 if applicable. Age range of the romanticism and nature essays patients the unit cared for if applicable. Nurse to patient ratio on research alcohol use christians, the unit. Type of charting system used at the facility and essay questions, name of any EMR/EHR you gained experience with.

The grade you received if it was an research paper use christians 18-24 A. As you may have noticed, many of the details we recommend are technical details pertaining to the facility and unit. These details convey so much about the setting you were in and the experiences you were exposed to with very few words. So including them provides the reader with a ton of finance questions, useful information. Qualitative Alcohol Use Christians? Additionally, it demonstrates that you understand how import these details are to essays on information security any healthcare organization, otherwise, you wouldn’t have listed them.

Additional options for highlighting your clinical rotations. Finally, you may also wish to paper alcohol 18-24 include specific details about the experience you gained while engaged with your clinical rotations. For example, did you have any experiences that might make you a more attractive candidate to the prospective employer? Did you learn anything specific about finance essay, compassion for patients, team work, the qualitative paper alcohol importance of learning and business plan sample, growth as a new-grad RN? If you did, then try to offer the qualitative research paper alcohol specifics to illustrate exactly what happened. You may also be able to relate your clinical rotation experience to using colored paper for dyslexia specific goals or problems of the employer you’re applying to. For example, maybe your research on the prospective employer turns up the fact that they’re seeking Magnet Status. If one of the qualitative paper facilities that you worked at during your rotations was seeking to achieve the same goal, then you may be able to find some way to relate your experience to it.

Or, perhaps the finance essay prospective employer is trying to improve their HCAHPS score and one of the facilities you worked at just achieved success with a similar endeavor. There are limitless possibilities with this option. The main idea is to try and paper use christians 18-24, relate your experience during clinical rotations to a real problem or goal faced by the prospective employer. At this point, we’ve covered each of on information, our recommended required headings. Research Use Christians 18-24? As you may have noticed, we’ve offered tons of options. So many that if you were to incorporate them all, then your resume would either be too crowded or too many pages. However, many of the details we offer are simply for your consideration.

It’s not required to include them all. So pick and choose the ones that work best for you by researching the job in dissertation help newcombe question and determining which details will be of most value to the prospective employer. Optional Details for Your New-grad Nursing Resume. As indicated above, each of the following headings are optional for your new-grad resume. You should decide whether or not to use them based on whether or not you have applicable details to provide for them. Paper Alcohol 18-24? Let’s take a brief look at each of them. If you have work history, which most college students these days do, then you should probably include some reference to romanticism it on your resume. Qualitative Research Paper? Try your best to convey how the experience relates to nursing.

This will be a lot easier to do if the experience was healthcare related. If all else fails, offer concrete examples of how you excelled at time management, team work, compassion, service, collaboration, or communication. One important issue to consider regarding work history is stability. Finance Essay? Many college students work several jobs during their college career for any number of reasons. Too many short term stints may exhibit instability to prospective employers who are about to paper devote a large amount of resources to you. So you may want to explain short-term work stints or leave them off of your resume. You should definitely use the Affiliations heading if you are already a member of questions, a professional organization related to nursing. For example, if you’re a member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, then prospective employers will want to paper alcohol use christians 18-24 know. One Page Essay? You may also include relevant college organizations such as Sigma Theta Tau, or the Student Nurses Association.

Of course, if the only organizations you belong to are scholastic, then you may choose to include them under your Education heading to save space. When listing your affiliations, consider including the following details: Full name of the organization. Date joined. Your designation within the organization. Any special duties. Organization conferences attended. Including Volunteer Activities is paper alcohol 18-24, a great way to demonstrate compassion. One Page Essay? You may have volunteered for research paper 18-24 charity or at a healthcare facility. And Nature? Consider including the qualitative alcohol following details: Full name of the organization.

Dates of engagement. On Information? Quantify the number of hours volunteered. Description of paper alcohol, duties and results you achieved if applicable. Any awards or recognition you received. If you have received many honors and essay questions, awards, then giving them a special place on your resume may be warranted. The other option is to qualitative research paper alcohol mix them in throughout your resume where applicable. Consider including the following details:

Name or title of the award. Date received. Organization received from. Doctoral Dissertation Help Newcombe? Significance of the qualitative paper 18-24 award, or reason it was received. For most new-grads, a Skills Summary heading may not be warranted. Skills summaries are intended to convey proficiency with specific skills. Finance Essay Questions? As a new-grad, you most likely haven’t achieved proficiency with any aspect of research use christians 18-24, nursing. However, if you have experience in a healthcare setting, then you may indeed be proficient with relevant skills. For example, you may be certified in phlebotomy or Crisis Prevention. In any case, if you haven’t achieved proficiency, then you may be better served by on information, listing skills as details under the heading that pertains to where the skills were practiced. Additionally, you might consider utilizing a Skills Checklist during your job search.

In case you’re not familiar, Skills Checklists are documents that allow healthcare professionals to self-assess their skills pertaining to a specific profession or specialty within a profession. They are commonly used by healthcare employers of research alcohol 18-24, all types to finance essay gauge their employees’ skill sets. BluePipes has over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that you can complete, save and download at alcohol use christians 18-24, your convenience. You can print them out and business sample, take them to job interviews in qualitative paper use christians 18-24 order to essays easily convey your level of research use christians 18-24, expertise with hundreds of skills. Again, as a new-grad, it’s not advised to utilize a checklist for a nursing specialty like Intensive Care Unit because you most likely won’t have the help newcombe required expertise. However, if you have experience as a CNA, Phlebotomist, or LPN, then you could use one of those checklists as a way to qualitative research paper use christians 18-24 stand out from the crowd. These checklists are free to finance questions use on BluePipes. Qualitative Paper Use Christians 18-24? So, join today to security take advantage! A recent study by Wanted Analytics found that “bilingual” was the second most common skill listed on nursing job postings in the United States.

If you speak multiple languages, then it’s definitely recommended that you include them under their own special heading! What Hiring Managers and qualitative alcohol use christians 18-24, Job Postings are Looking for in New-Grad RNs. It’s important to remember that experience, temperament, talents, and convictions vary from person to person. While all new-grads may share certain commonalities, they are all unique in free business sample their own ways. Similarly, it’s fine for qualitative use christians 18-24 new-grad resumes to share certain commonalities, but each should be unique in it’s own way. As you’ve seen, we have strong opinions on the structure of essays security, your resume and we provide many recommendations on various details to include. However, we’re not writing the paper resume for you. In fact, we strongly recommend against the boiler-plate phrases that have become so common as a result of write, online resume builders. So, when it comes to qualitative use christians the meat of your resume, let the words of hiring managers and job postings guide your efforts.

In other words, find ways to relate your unique experiences to what hiring managers and job postings are looking for. And always strive to provide concrete examples as opposed to generalizations. Assuming that you’re applying for a job through a job posting (as opposed to networking for a job), you should do your best to optimize your resume for write the Applicant Tracking System (ATS). We’ve covered how to do this in a previous blog post, so we won’t rehash it here. The bottom line is that you want to naturally include the key buzzwords and phrases used in the job posting in your resume. This way, you’re ranked higher by the ATS. Of course, you’re probably wondering what hiring managers are looking for!

We’ve provided some examples above, but below are some direct quotes we found from interviews posted online. These quotes validate what our own experience as recruiters taught us. “Knowing that new nurses are very green in regards to their technical skills, we look to qualitative research paper alcohol use christians 18-24 whether a nurse is really ready to step into the profession. We are looking for those who are really interested in making life better for people who are suffering.” Kimberly Horton, MSN, RN, FNP, DHA, Vice President and on information security, Chief Nursing Officer at Mercy Hospital and qualitative paper 18-24, Mercy Southwest Hospital in Bakersfield, California. “We expect our new nurse graduates to have the basic fundamental nursing knowledge and business, we are also looking for compassion, a sense of teamwork, accountability and communication. We look for an attitude of collaboration and communication.” Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS, Director of Workforce Development for qualitative paper alcohol use christians 18-24 Orange County Memorial Care University and Board Member of the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL)

Always side on patient safety first. Be open to feedback. Use your resources, such as more experienced nurses, physicians and other members of your team. This will also help you build a support system. Always ask questions when you are unsure or don’t know something. Discuss your feelings and/or concerns with your unit leadership. From the essay first day on the job, be a team player. Research 18-24? Greg Kingsley, RN, New Grad Nurse Recruiter, Emory Healthcare. With all of this in write one page mind, it’s important to remember that there is no one correct way to create your resume.

We certainly hope this guide provides an paper idea of best practices as well as an idea of what you shouldn’t do. Perhaps most importantly, it’s important to write one page remember that your resume is just one facet of your job search. And while your resume is important, the single most important thing you can do to land that first job, or any job for research use christians 18-24 that matter, is NETWORK! Estimates indicate 70% to romanticism essays 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. And it’s always best to qualitative research paper use christians operate with the “80-20 rule” in mind. In other words, make sure that you’re focusing on networking as your main job-search activity because it’s most often the finance essay determining factor in success. That’s why we created BluePipes in the first place…to give healthcare professionals a professional networking platform capable of providing unique career management tools designed to research 18-24 help them solve their unique career challenges. And Nature? Join today, it’s free and easy! 5 Things that New Grad RNs and research paper alcohol use christians 18-24, Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us.

How to write one page essay Write an paper alcohol use christians Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for nursing jobs. We provide. So my situation is a little different. I’ve been a Dental Assistant most of my life and decided to write essay change careers. I have now achieved my RN. Qualitative Use Christians? But it took me a lot longer than a traditional ADN program is supposed to take. I had an “issue” at the first school I started the nursing program at and ended up needing to essay find another school to complete the program. Qualitative Research? Is this something I should include in my resume (as I see it as a negative thing) or how do I incorporate it to benefit my appearance?

I don’t want to leave out info that can hurt me but I’m wondering if the doctoral dissertation info can hurt me if included. I agree with Kyle. List out your clinicals. Add a targeted bullet point under each one that relates to the job you are applying for. Learn about ATS. Read the job posting. What words are on there most? What qualifications MUST you have? What qualifications do they PREFER? All the ones you have – write them down.

Yes, use their words. Also read their mission and values. Look through their website. Research? Encorporate their values with yours. Essays? A great place to do this is in paper 18-24 your cover letter. What do you recommend to someone like me whose 19 years old. Has no work experience, this is colored paper, my first career.. my resume would be completely blank pretty much.

I know you said don’t include high school education.. buts that’s pretty much the only thing I’ve “accomplished” so far, I was an honor student, GPA 3.9, Received an award for academic excellence all 4 years, advanced diploma. And currently my GPA is qualitative paper alcohol, 3.5, I haven’t graduated yet but will in using colored paper for dyslexia OCT, 2016 with my associates degree in nursing. I’m applying to a new graduate residency program now, that will start in February. Please HELP! #128577; how can I make my resume better? Thanks for paper alcohol 18-24 the inquiry Glenda. Using Colored For Dyslexia? Most of the paper 18-24 applicants to using paper new graduate residency programs have similar circumstances. To make your resume stand out, be sure to include the details described above regarding your various experiences including clinical rotations and qualitative research paper alcohol use christians, education.

You’re welcome to paper include your high school education. However, chances are it will not be considered. Just remember that most candidates are going to be in the same boat, so making sure you provide all the details hospitals like to see (as described above) will help you stand out. I hope this helps! Great article!

Finally people are talking about New Graduate Registered Nurses and the job search!! The Struggle is VERY real for qualitative use christians 18-24 new, old, reentry, and dissertation, RN’s seeking a new specialty! Especially in oversaturated markets like California. I invite anybody who is seeking a job to join our Facebook Group RNInterview Tools. https://www.facebook.com/groups/PlayingTheGame/ All are invited to research paper alcohol 18-24 share what worked for them, post questions, and seek support from others who understand.

Members are landing job offers all over one page and we could not be more thrilled. I definitely shared this article and have shared others from Blue Pipes in the past. Thank you for assisting all of us Nurses in our quest. Glad to hear the article is useful and thanks for sharing, Melissa! Help! I just graduated in May 2016 and got hired as an RN in a hospital. Unfortunately, I resigned after a month as I felt so overwhelmed in the unit I was assigned to.

Should I include that one month experience in my resume? Thanks for sharing, Aleli and sorry to hear about the difficulties. This is a tough situation. I believe most career consultants would recommend leaving the job off of your resume. This is because you’ll most certainly be required to explain the short duration in any interview. Moreover, the research 18-24 duration was so short that many employers wouldn’t even require an explanation for the gap in employment. That said, you may want to using colored paper consider the instructions on job applications. Some hospitals have very stringent rules for entering work history on their applications. For example, they might require every employer for the past 7 years to be entered on the application regardless of qualitative paper 18-24, duration and also require applicants to essays provide an explanation of any gaps in employment of paper 18-24, greater than 1 month. There will be a signing statement in the application indicating you attest the information is accurate and complete.

If they find out you left the help newcombe job off the application, it could result in a rescinded job offer. Although the chances of this happening are slim. I hope this information helps! Nursing is my second career. Qualitative Alcohol Use Christians? I taught elementary school before this. Should I include my education for that? Also, should I include teaching school in my work history?

I taught for eight years in the same school, so it’s a good example that I can hold a job long term. Free Business? Thanks! Congratulations on your new career, Priscilla. Paper Use Christians? Previous work history and education are both optional for using your new-grad nursing resume. In your case, I highly recommend including them both as they are both excellent experiences to qualitative paper alcohol display.

However, be sure to keep them brief in order to essays on information security highlight your nursing skills. I hope this helps! Hello, I was wondering how do I include my phlebotomy certification on my resume if it doesn’t have an expiration date? If you are formatting your own resume, you can simply add the license without expiration dates. However, I’m wondering if you’re using BluePipes to 18-24 format your resume? Please let me know if so. Thanks! Hi i’m just wondering do you have an example resume with all the information you have listed here for preview? thank you! My apologies, but we don’t have a sample. We’ll work on creating though. Thanks!

How about information on building a new-grad RN Cover letter? When listing previous certifications and licenses, should you list the initial date of free business, obtainment or expiration/ renewal date? Also, regarding Applicant Tracking System, what is the rule regarding parenthesis ()? I ask because in my certifications I have ACLS, PALS, and alcohol 18-24, a bunch of other alphabet soup acronyms. Should I use (ACLS) after Advanced Cardiac Life Support? Good questions! There are no steadfast rules, but we recommend listing the expiration dates. Essay? On our resume builder, licenses are listed with both the acronym and name.

For example: ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support. That said, most resume parsers are quite advanced these days, so they should be able to contextualize what is research use christians 18-24, meant by “(ACLS)”. However, as illustrated above, it’s not necessary to use the parentheses if you don’t want to. I hope this helps! Help! I work in a long term care nursing facility as an RN for about a year and half now. Paper? This is my first nursing job and nursing is my second career. What can you suggest in qualitative research paper use christians 18-24 writing my resume?

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CONSTRAINTS ON THE EXPANSION OF THE GLOBAL FOOD SUPPLY. by Henery W Kindall and David Pimentel, from Ambio Vol. Qualitative Research Paper Alcohol. 23 No. Business Plan Sample. 3, May 1994. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. We examine whether and how global food production may be increased to provide for qualitative research 18-24, a world population expected to double by about 2050. Increasing current food production more than proportional to population growth is using colored for dyslexia required so as to provide most humans with an adequate diet. We examine the possible expansion of food supplies to the year 2050, the inventory of presently utilized and potentially available arable land, rates of land degradation, and the limitations of water and biological resources. Serious degradation and loss of the world's arable land is taking place and expansion of irrigation, vital for food production, is becoming more costly and difficult.

A business-as-usual scenario points to looming shortages of food. Additional stress from possible climatic alteration and enhanced ultraviolet radiation may make the provision of adequate food supplies extremely difficult to achieve. The nature of the changes that are required to make sufficient food available are identified. World population is projected to continue increasing well into the next century. A central question is whether and how global food production may be increased to provide for the coming population expansion.

It would be necessary to increase current levels of alcohol use christians food production more than proportional to population growth so as to provide most humans with an doctoral, adequate diet. There are a number of qualitative alcohol 18-24 actions that may be taken to help this food expansion, but there are also a number of constraints that make expansion of food output difficult. In this paper we examine the expansion of per capita food supplies required in the light of the current range of expectations of population growth, the inventory of currently utilized and potentially available arable land, rates of land degradation, and the limitations of water and biological resources. We make assessments of the prospects of finance questions achieving the qualitative needed growth of the global food supply to the year 2050, when the world's population is projected to have about doubled. We examine scenarios of food supply and demand that point to looming shortages. We do not analyze the essay questions problems of providing energy, capital, and other needs to support increasing numbers of people. Numbers and Growth. The world's population grew slowly over research alcohol 18-24, much of the historic past; it was not until after 1900 that growth accelerated (1). The 1992 population was 5.5 billion. World population is now increasing at about 1.7% yr, corresponding to a doubling time of 40 years. Recently, a gradual decrease in the fertility rate has slowed in a number of countries (2, 3), most notably in China and India (4), which has led to upward revisions in population forecasts.

The world population will grow by just under 1 billion people during the decade of the 1990s. Figure 1 shows three such projections for essay, world population (5). The United Nations has concluded that if the world's fertility rate were to qualitative research paper use christians 18-24, fall to on information security, replacement levels during the period 1990-1995 and remained there, the world population would reach 7.8 billion in 2050. This continuing rise is the consequence of having an age distribution presently heavily weighted toward young people. The populations in many developing countries would double in this case. A population of 7.8 billion, under this implausible assumption, is only slightly less than the paper alcohol low projection for that year, which thus appears unrealistic. For the purposes of this paper we will employ the medium fertility estimate. The 2050 world population in this scenario is expected to be 10 billion.

Food: History and Supply. In the early 1960s, most nations were self-sufficient in food; now only a few are. Using Paper For Dyslexia. In the period 1950-1984, the introduction of high-yield crops and energy intensive agriculture ushered in the Green Revolution, leading to increased crop production. Research Alcohol Use Christians 18-24. World grain output expanded by a factor of 2.6 in this period (6, 7) increasing linearly, within the essays fluctuations. Except for parts of 18-24 Africa, production exceeded population growth throughout the using colored paper for dyslexia world. Per capita production has now slowed (8) and research alcohol, appears to be declining. And Nature Essays. Rising growth of population, as shown in Figure 1, and a linearly increasing food production (Figure 2) have persisted over the recent 40 years. Such circumstances have been of concern since Thomas R. Malthus first called attention, in 1798, to the consequences of their continuation; decreasing per capita food and great human suffering (9). The success of the Green Revolution lay primarily in its increased use of fossil energy for fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation to raise crops as well as in qualitative research use christians, improved seed. It greatly increased the energy-intensiveness of agricultural production, in some cases by 100 fold or more. Plant breeding was principally aimed at designing plants that could tolerate high levels of fertilizer use and improving the harvest index (10).

The Green Revolution was technologically suited to write one page essay, special circumstances: relatively level land with adequate water for irrigation and fertilizer, and in nations that could acquire the other needed resources. The Revolution has been implemented in a manner that has not proved to be environmentally sustainable. The technology has enhanced soil erosion, polluted groundwater and surface-water resources, and increased pesticide use has caused serious public health and environmental problems (11-13). Opportunities exist to qualitative paper alcohol 18-24, reduce these negative environmental and social impacts. Research is underway at most of the International Crop Research Centers to make the Revolution more environmentally and socially sustainable.

Since 1980, there has been some improvement in world crop yields with the rate of business plan increase in total grain production declining slightly. Grain production has increased roughly linearly (14) since the early 1950s. 18-24. World area planted to grain is write one page essay down 8% since 1981 (15). However, there are a number of important obstacles to a large, further expansion of the paper alcohol 18-24 energy intensive practices that underlay the expansion based on using colored paper for dyslexia, the Green Revolution, including economics, technology adoption, and research alcohol, environmental degradation. At the present time, 2 of free 183 nations are major exporters of grain. the United States and paper use christians 18-24, Canada. Food: Availability and Consumption. For most of the free world's population, grain is the primary source of nutrition and may become more so in years ahead. It is thus a useful measure in estimating future food needs. The per capita consumption of foods and feed grains supplied per year is qualitative research paper 18-24 shown in Table 1. Data for China and the USA are included to show a range in these distributions.

Per capita grain production in Africa is down 12% since 1981 and down 22% since 1967 (15). Some 20 years ago, Africa produced food equal to what it consumed; today it produces only help newcombe 80% of what it consumes (16). Food from marine sources now provide between 1% and 2% of the qualitative research paper alcohol use christians world's supply of free sample food (17, 18) and qualitative research use christians, the amount, including the essays on information security contribution from aquaculture, is qualitative paper alcohol use christians 18-24 unlikely to double within the next few decades (John Ryther pers. comm.). In line with recent studies (19, 20), we estimate that with the world population at 5.5 billion, food production is adequate to essays, feed 7 billion people a vegetarian diet, with ideal distribution and no grain fed to research alcohol 18-24, livestock. Yet possibly as many as two billion people are now living in poverty (V. Abernathy, pers. comm.), and over I billion in for dyslexia, utter poverty live with hunger (7, 19-23). Inadequate distribution of food is a substantial contributing factor to this current situation. It is clear from the above review that current food supplies, with present patterns of distribution and consumption, appear insufficient to provide satisfactory diets to all, although a recent FAO report indicates that chronic undernutrition in developing countries has improved somewhat (24).

It is generally agreed that, among a number of important global changes, economic and social well-being must improve for that large fraction of the world's peoples now in poverty. Qualitative Research Paper Alcohol Use Christians 18-24. This includes more and better food. A doubling of the on information population would necessitate the equivalent of research alcohol a tripling, or more, of our current food supply to ensure that the undernourished were no longer at risk and to free business sample, bring population growth stabilization within reach in humane ways, without widespread hunger and deprivation. Improved nutrition may be achieved by qualitative research paper dietary shifts and improved distribution as well as by an increased quantity of food, as discussed later in this paper. Supply: The world's land devoted to free business sample, food production and in forest and qualitative research paper use christians 18-24, savanna is shown in Table 2. Less than one half of the world's land area is suitable for agriculture, including grazing; total arable (crop) land, in business sample, use and potential, is estimated to comprise about 3000 million ha (25). However, nearly all of the world's productive land, flat and with water, is already exploited.

Most of the unexploited land is either too steep, too wet, too dry, or too cold for agriculture (26). There are difficulties in finding new land that could be exploited for agricultural production. Expansion of qualitative research paper cropland would have to come at the expense of forest and free sample, rangeland, much of which is essential in its present uses. In Asia, for example, nearly 80% of potentially arable land is now under cultivation (7, 27). In the qualitative research 18-24 1970s, there was a net annual gain in world cropland of nearly 0.7%. The rate of gain has slowed and, in 1990, the security net annual gain was about 0.35% yr, largely as a result of deforestation. As much as 70-80% of ongoing deforestation, both tropical and temperate, is associated with the spread of agriculture. For these reasons we estimate that the research alcohol use christians 18-24 world's arable land could be expanded at most by 500 million ha, or a net expansion of roughly one-third.

However the productivity of this new land would be much below present levels in land now being cropped. At the present time humans either use, coopt or destroy 40% of the estimated 100 billion tons of organic matter produced annually by the terrestrial ecosystem (28). Quality and Degradation: The loss of write productive soil has occurred as long as crops have been cultivated. Lal and Pierce (29) in stating this, report that land degradation has now become a major threat to the sustainability of world food supply. This loss arises from soil erosion, salinization, waterlogging, and urbanization with its associated highway and road construction.

Nutrient depletion, overcultivation, overgrazing, acidification, and soil compaction contribute as well. Many of these processes are caused or are aggravated by poor agricultural management practices. Taken together or in various combinations, these factors decrease the use christians productivity of the soil and substantially reduce annual crop yields (30-32), and, more important, will reduce crop productivity for the long term (33). Almost all arable land that is currently in crop production, especially marginal land, is highly susceptible to degradation. We estimate that about one quarter of this land should not be in production (34).

This is depressing food production, as well as requiring increased fossil energy inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation in an effort to offset degradation. Soil erosion, a problem throughout the world, is the single most serious cause of degradation of arable land (35-37), owing to its adverse effect on crop productivity. The major cause is essays security poor agricultural practices that leave the soil without vegetative cover to protect it against water and wind erosion. Soil loss by qualitative research paper erosion is extremely serious because it takes from 200 to 1000 years, averaging about essays security, 500 years, to form 2.5 cm (1 inch) of topsoil (38) under normal agricultural conditions (39-43). Qualitative Research Paper Alcohol 18-24. Throughout the romanticism and nature world current soil losses range from about 20 to 300 t ha yr, with substantial amounts of nitrogen and other vital nutrients also lost (44). Topsoil is being lost at qualitative alcohol use christians 18-24 16 to 300 times faster than it can be replaced (36). Worldwide soil erosion has caused farmers to abandon about 430 million ha of arable land during the essays on information security last 40 years, an area equivalent to about one-third of all present cropland (6, 7). Research Paper Use Christians 18-24. Each year at least 10 million ha are lost to land degradation that includes the spread of urbanization (45). For example, Tolba (46) reported that the rate of soil loss in Africa has increased 20-fold during the essay past 30 years.

The estimated rate of world soil erosion in excess of new soil production is 23 billion t yr, or about 0.7% loss of the world's soil inventory each year (47; Table 3). The continuing application of fertilizers (48) has so far masked much of the deterioration and loss of qualitative paper productivity from this process, so that world cropland yield is remaining roughly constant. This appears likely to continue in the next decades. Continued erosion at the current rate will result in the loss of over 30% of the global soil inventory by the year 2050, a truly severe damage and loss, obviously unsustainable over the long run. Erosion reduces the availability of water (31), as well as nutrients to growing plants and security, diminishes organic matter and soil biota (29, 49). Reduction of the water available to growing plants is the qualitative use christians most harmful effect of one page essay erosion.

Soil degradation is affecting 15% of the earth's cropland area (29). Qualitative Research 18-24. In developing countries, the degradation of soil is growing worse owing to plan sample, increased burning of crop residues and qualitative alcohol use christians 18-24, dung for questions, fuel. This reduces soil nutrients (50, 51) and quickly intensifies soil erosion. Water: Resources and Irrigation. Supply and Use: Water is the research paper major limiting factor for world agricultural production. Crops require and transpire massive amounts of water. For example, a corn crop that produces about doctoral dissertation, 7000 kg ha of grain will take up and transpire about 4.2 million L ha of water during its growing season (52). To supply this much water to the crop, assuming no use of irrigation, not only must 10 million liters (1000 mm) of rain fall per ha, but it must be reasonably evenly distributed during the year and especially during the growing season. Irrigation: irrigation is qualitative research alcohol vital to help, global food production: About 16% of the world's cropland is under irrigation. This area contributes about qualitative alcohol 18-24, one-third of crop production, yielding about 2 1/2 times as much per ha as nonirrigated land.

In arid lands crops must be irrigated and this requires large quantities of write water and energy (53). For example, the production of 1 kg of the following food and qualitative use christians 18-24, fiber products requires: 1400 liters of irrigation water for corn; 4700 liters for rice, and 17 000 liters for cotton (54). Romanticism. About 70% of the fresh water used by humans is expended for irrigation (55). Much of the world's irrigated land is being damaged by salinization and waterlogging from improper irrigation techniques (56). It is sufficiently severe over 10% of the area to suppress crop yields (57). This damage, together with reduced irrigation development and population growth, has led, since 1978, to declining world irrigated area per capita (58, 59). Qualitative Alcohol 18-24. Serious salinization problems already exist in India, Pakistan, Egypt, Mexico, Australia. and the United States. Help Newcombe. Because salt levels are naturally high in these regions, the paper alcohol 18-24 problem of salt build-up is using paper for dyslexia particularly severe. Recent research puts the current loss of world farmland due to salinization alone at 1.5 million ha yr (60) or almost 1 % yr, a loss presently being more than made up by expansion of irrigation. If the damage continues, nearly 30% of the world's presently irrigated acreage will be lost by qualitative research use christians 18-24 2025 and nearly 50% lost by 2050, losses increasingly difficult to make up. Another damaging side effect of irrigation is the pollution of essay questions river and stream waters by the addition of salts.

Water Shortages: Pressures from growing populations have strained water resources in paper alcohol, many areas of the world (59). Worldwide, 214 river or lake basins, containing 40% of the world's population, now compete for water (55, 61). In many areas of the world, irrigation water is drawn from fossil aquifers, underground water resources, at rates much in excess of the natural recharge rates. The average recharge rate for the world's aquifers is 0.007% yr (62). As the aquifers' water levels decline, they become too costly to pump or they become exhausted, forcing abandonment of the irrigated land (55). Africa and several countries in the Middle East, especially Israel and Jordan, as well as other countries, are depleting fossil groundwater resources. China has severe agricultural problems (13). In China, ground water levels are falling as much as 1 m yr in major wheat and corn growing regions of the north China Plain (64). Tianjin, China, reports a drop in ground water levels of 4.4 m yr (58, 59), while in free business plan sample, southern India, groundwater levels are falling 2.5 to qualitative paper 18-24, 3 m yr; in the Gujarat aquifer depletion has induced salt contamination (6, 7). The prospect for future expansion of irrigation to increase food supplies, worldwide and in the US, is not encouraging because per capita irrigated land has declined about 6% since 1978 (57). Free Business Plan. Greatly expanded irrigation is qualitative paper use christians a difficult, and probably unsustainable solution to the need for essays, expansion of agriculture output (59) because of the rapidly accelerating costs of irrigation (57).

The continuing emission of a number of qualitative alcohol gases into the atmosphere from human activities, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, and, most important, carbon dioxide, is doctoral now thought likely to alter the global climate in the years ahead, a consequence arising from the qualitative research paper alcohol greenhouse effect (65, 66). Romanticism. Worldwide changes in rainfall distribution are expected, including drying of qualitative research use christians 18-24 some continental interiors as well as possible increases in climatic variability. Increased variability in temperature and rainfall can, in many circumstances, be damaging to agricultural productivity. There are expected to be CO2-induced effects on productivity and growth of plants, including crops and weeds, and collateral effects on plant pathogens and insect pests. There may be decline or loss of ecosystems that are unable to security, accommodate a rapid climate change. The major impact will be caused by changes in rainfall and water availability to crops. Most crops can tolerate the higher temperatures projected from greenhouse-induced climate change. The detailed consequences are difficult to predict, in part because the research expected global average temperature rise and changes in weather patterns have substantial uncertainties. The temperature rise expected from a doubling of the one page atmospheric CO2 level#151;which, in the absence of carbon emission controls, will occur a decade or so before the year 2100#151;is unlikely to lie outside the range 1.5- to 4.5-C (67). If the rise were only 2-C (a degree of warming not experienced in the last 8000 years), there could still be pronounced adverse effects (68).

The 1988 US experience is enlightening. It was the hottest year on record to that time which, accompanied by a mid-continent drought, resulted in a 30% decrease in grain yield, dropping US production below consumption for the first time in some 300 years. Similarly, Canadian production dropped about 37% (69). Laboratory studies under favorable conditions indicate that enhanced CO2 levels can improve growth rates and water utilization of crops significantly (70). Qualitative Paper. Under field conditions, the help estimated increase in yields are projected to qualitative alcohol, be only one-quarter to one-third of that observed in the controlled greenhouse conditions without taking into colored paper for dyslexia, consideration other deleterious consequences of climate change that also may be present and yields may, in fact not improve at all (71).

Ground-level ultraviolet enhancement arising from qualitative 18-24 O3 loss in doctoral dissertation, the upper atmosphere from the anthropogenic emission of chlorofluorocarbons can affect natural systems' productivity, alter pest balances, as well as affect the health of humans and surface and marine animals. The current ozone loss, as well as its seasonal variation, over equatorial and mid-latitude regions is not yet well known but is expected to increase, perhaps greatly (72). The US Environmental Protection Agency reported in April 1991, a winter-spring O3 column density depletion of 4.5-5% in mid-latitudes. More recently, there is evidence of a slow but steady ozone depletion over most of the globe; between 40- and qualitative paper alcohol use christians, 50-N the decline is write essay as great as 8% per decade (73, 74). Research Paper Use Christians 18-24. Each percent decrease in O3 results in about a 3% increase in ground-level ultraviolet intensity. Even if the O3 depleting chemical releases were halted now, O3 depletion would continue to increase for romanticism and nature, decades, with effects lasting a century or more (M. McElroy pers. comm.).

Increased ozone levels may already have decreased phytoplankton yields in the Antarctic ocean (75). Plant responses to research use christians 18-24, ultraviolet radiation include reduced leaf size, stunted growth, poor seed quality, and increased susceptibility to weeds, disease, and pests. Of some 200 plant species studied, two thirds show sensitivity to and nature essays, ozone damage (76). A 25% O3 depletion is expected to reduce yields of soybean, one of civilization's staple crops, 20% (77). Red Hard disease infection rates in wheat increased from 9% to 20% when experimental ozone loss increased from research alcohol 18-24 8% to 16% above ambient levels (78). Clearly, the potential exists for a significant decrease in crop yields in the period to free, 2050 from enhanced surface ultraviolet levels. Adjusting to modifications of global climate or to altered growing conditions. caused by greenhouse gases or from enhanced ultraviolet, might stress management of agricultural systems greatly, especially if wholly new crops, and new procedures had to paper alcohol, be developed for large areas of the world. Important uncertainties in the magnitudes of the effects expected may persist for a decade or so. Currently ruminant livestock like cattle and sheep, graze about half of the earth's total land area (79).

In addition, about one-quarter of world cropland is devoted to producing grains and other feed for livestock. About 38% of the world's grain production is now fed to finance essay questions, livestock (79). In the research alcohol use christians 18-24 United States, for example, this amounts about 135 million tons yr of grain, of a total production of 312 million tons yr, sufficient to feed a population of 400 million on a vegetarian diet. Business Plan. If humans, especially in alcohol 18-24, developed countries, moved toward more vegetable protein diets rather than their present diets, which are high in animal protein foods, a substantial amount of grain would become available for direct human consumption. There are numerous ways by which cropland productivity may be raised that do not induce injury over the long term, that is, are sustainable (26, 80-82). One Page Essay. If these technologies were put into common use in agriculture, some of the negative impacts of degradation in qualitative research use christians 18-24, the agro-ecosystem could be reduced and free business sample, the yields of paper use christians 18-24 many crops increased. These technologies include: Energy-Intensive Farming.

While continuation of the rapid increases in yields of the Green Revolution is no longer possible in many regions of the world, increased crop yields are possible by increasing the use of fertilizers and essays, pesticides in some developing countries in Africa, Latin America, and Asia (83). However, recent reports indicate a possible problem of declining yields in the rice-wheat systems in the high production areas of paper South Asia (J. M. Duxbury pers. comm.) Livestock Management and Fertilizer Sources: Livestock serve two important functions in agriculture and food production. First, ruminant livestock convert grass and shrub forages, which are unsuitable for human food, into milk, blood, and meat for use by humans. They also produce enormous amounts of manure useful for crop production. Soil and Water Conservation: The high rate of doctoral dissertation help newcombe soil erosion now typical of world agricultural land emphasizes the urgency of stemming this loss, which in itself is probably the most threatening to sustained levels of food production. Improved conservation of water can enhance rainfed and irrigated crop yields, as discussed below. Crop Varieties and Genetic Engineering: The application of biotechnology to alter certain crop characteristics is qualitative research alcohol expected to increase yields for some crops, such as developing new crop varieties with better harvest index and crops that have improved resistance to insect and plant pathogen attack. Maintaining Biodiversity: Conserving biodiversity of using colored for dyslexia plant and animal species is essential to maintaining a productive and qualitative use christians, attractive environment for agriculture and other human activities. Greater effort is also needed to conserve the genetic diversity that exists in crops worldwide.

This diversity has proven extremely valuable in improving crop productivity and will continue to do so in future. Improved Pest Control: Because insects, diseases, and weeds destroy about 35% of potential preharvest crop production in the world (84), the implementation of appropriate technologies to reduce pest and disease losses would substantially increase crop yields and food supplies. Irrigation: Irrigation can be used successfully to increase yields as noted earlier, but only if abundant water and energy resources are available. The problems facing irrigation suggest that its worldwide expansion will be limited (57). Owing to developing shortages of water, improved irrigation practices that lead to essay, increased water in plant's root zones are urgently needed. A number of difficulties in expanding food supplies have been touched on above. Others are presented below: There is a need to decrease global fossil-fuel use and to halt deforestation, in order to qualitative research alcohol 18-24, lessen carbon emissions to write one page, the atmosphere (85).

These steps are in direct competition with the need to provide sufficient energy for intensive agriculture and for cooking and heating using firewood. A major decrease in fossil-fuel use by the industrial countries would require adoption of new technologies based on new energy sources, with improved conversion and end-use efficiencies, on a scale that would require 40 years at minimum to implement fully, even in favorable circumstances (86). Yet a three- or fourfold increase in qualitative research alcohol 18-24, effective energy services to the earth's peoples would be required to yield the using for dyslexia improvements needed in the quality of 18-24 life in a world of roughly doubled population. We do not consider here the considerable challenge that this provides (87). Even assuming that sufficient fossil or other fuels were available in the future to support energy-intensive agriculture in romanticism and nature, developing countries, several constraints appear to make this difficult. These include: the high economic costs of the energy inputs to research paper alcohol, those countries that already have serious debt problems; the lack of rainfall and/or irrigation water preventing effective use of the inputs; and farmers in developing nations who are not educated in the use of romanticism intensive agricultural methods and qualitative research alcohol use christians 18-24, who change their ways slowly. A slowing of deforestation would mean less new cropland added to the present world inventory, so that the processes now degrading and destroying cropland could not be compensated by new acreage.

Population growth remains a basic problem. Finance Questions. About 0.5 ha capita of cropland is needed to provide a balanced plant/animal diet for humans worldwide (88). Research 18-24. For the 1990 population of 5.5 billion, only 0.27 ha capita is now available and this is likely to decline further. Moreover, the rate of population growth itself, especially in many developing nations, intensifies the problems of on information coping with shortages owing to the difficulty of providing the qualitative alcohol economic expansion required (89). A major difficulty arises simply from the rate with which food supplies would have to be expanded to using for dyslexia, pace or to exceed population growth rates in those countries experiencing high growth rates. Research Paper Alcohol Use Christians. In order to stay even with population growth it will be necessary to expand food supplies, globally, by the rate of population increase. For many countries the finance essay questions rate of population expansion is in the range 2-3% yr.

As an example, in order to achieve an increase of 50% in the per alcohol 18-24, capita food production, by the end of a population doubling, the rate of expansion of agricultural production must be appropriately larger. If the population grows at on information 2% yr, the food production must increase at 3.2% yr, if it is 3% yr, the food production must grow at 4.8% yr. During the Green Revolution the world grain yield expanded at 2.8% yr. As noted earlier, this rate of expansion has slowed and, it appears, is unlikely to research use christians, be resumed (90) although some countries in Asia and Latin America are still gaining total annual increases in questions, grain yield. In the US, which has one of the best records with corn, the rate of qualitative paper alcohol use christians 18-24 increase from for dyslexia 1945 to 1990 was about qualitative research alcohol, 3% yr. Since 1980, this rate has slowed. However, with wheat the record is not as good as with corn, the increase in essays on information, world grain yield is less than 2% yr. If the historical record is any guide, no nation with a population growth rate above 2% yr has much hope of improving its per capita supply of food unless it receives very substantial external aid and support. Research Paper Alcohol 18-24. Of course these rates of increase for both population and food production, if achieved. cannot be sustained indefinitely. Projections of future grain production depend on a host of variables most of which are uncertain. It is not possible to make useful forecasts.

As an alternative we consider three scenarios, for the period to the year 2050. The first assumes a continuation of present trends, patterns, and doctoral help newcombe, activities. This is referred to as Business-As-Usual, or BAU. Population growth is assumed to follow the UN medium projection leading to alcohol, about 10 billion people by 2050, soil erosion continues to degrade land productivity, salinization and waterlogging of the soil continues, and groundwater overdraft continues with supplies in some aquifers being depleted; there is a modest expansion of cropland at essay the expense of world forests, and a slight expansion of irrigation. In BAU, the consequences of the greenhouse effect and of ultraviolet injury are ignored, and the developed world does not provide significantly more aid to the developing world than at present, nor does the developing world continue, on balance, its current rate of economic development (91). A pessimistic scenario considers qualitatively the qualitative research paper possible consequences of climatic changes and essay, ground-level ultraviolet radiation increase that could depress crop yields, coupled with the high UN population growth projection, leading to research paper alcohol, nearly 13 billion people in 2050. The economic debt that many nations face today continues to worsen, especially limiting developing nations in the purchase of fertilizer and dissertation, other agricultural goods to research paper, enhance productivity.

An optimistic scenario assumes rapid population growth stabilization with a 2050 population of 7.8 billion, significant expansion of energy-intensive agriculture and improved soil and water conservation with some reclamation of now-abandoned land. In this scenario, the developed countries provide the developing nations with increased financial resources and security, technology and a more equitable distribution of food is achieved. There is a shift from high animal protein to more plant protein consumption in qualitative paper alcohol use christians 18-24, the developed countries, freeing more grain for the developing nations. In these scenarios we make use of extrapolations of current trends consistent with the range of assumptions we have adopted. This procedure is inherently unsatisfactory owing both to the difficulty of determining trends from fluctuating historical data and because few trends continue for periods comparable to the interval of interest to us. Nevertheless, it does over a number of finance scenarios, shed light on the range of achievable futures. Business As Usual (BAU) Grainland declined from 718 million ha in 1980 to 704 million ha in qualitative research paper 18-24, 1991 (92), a decline we assume continues, leading to 620 million ha in 2050. There is 0.06 ha capital available for grain production in that year, or less than half of that available in 1991.

This will create major obstacles to increasing grain food production, especially if land degradation continues (Table 3). On Information. The rate of loss we assume is about half that projected for the next 25 years in The Netherlands report on the National Environmental Outlook 1990-2010, (93) In BAU, we make the research alcohol optimistic assumption that a modest expansion of irrigation will continue as it has recently. The fraction of land irrigated in 2050 we estimate will be 18% in BAU, 17% in the pessimistic case, 19% in the optimistic case. Estimates suggest that degradation can be expected to depress food production in the developing world between 15% and 30% over the next 25-year period, unless sound conservation practices are instituted now, and that the total loss in productivity of rainfed cropland would amount to a daunting 29% due to erosion of topsoil during the same time period (94). Despite the increased use of fertilizers. the rate of increase in doctoral, grain production appears to be slowing (55, 95).Figure 2 shows the qualitative paper alcohol world's grain yield from using for dyslexia 1950 to 1991 as well as the per research use christians 18-24, capita grain yield (x96). In recent years, 1985 to 1991, the free business sample total growth rate has dropped below 1.4% yr, less than the current rate of world population growth. Based on past trends we estimate a 300% increase in the use of qualitative use christians 18-24 nitrogen and essay, other fertilizer by the year 2050 and about 12% expansion of irrigated land, consistent with BAU.

In view of the constraints we have identified we conclude that an expansion of 0.7% yr in grain production is achievable in the decades ahead. With this rate of expansion, there would be a 50% increase in annual grain production by 2050 compared to 1991, with the world per capita grain production decreasing about 20%. These projections are shown in Figure 3. The 2050 per capita number is about the same as it was in 1960. In our scenario, however, the industrial world's per capita grain production increases about 13%. If the distribution patterns remain the same as today's, as BAU assumes, then the per capita grain production in Africa, China, India, and other Asian nations, will, on average, decrease more than 25%. In BAU, most developing nations suffer reductions in qualitative research alcohol 18-24, per capita grain production. Many nations today are not producing sufficient food and in this scenario many more will join them by 2050.

This conclusion is consistent with other assessments (15). One study concluded that if the African population continues to grow, and agricultural production remains roughly constant, the food produced would, in 25 years, support about 50% of its year 2000 population; for the Middle East about 60% of romanticism its population. In BAU, some developed nations suffer small declines whereas others have gains in grain production. In general, it appears that Africa, as noted earlier, as well as China and qualitative research paper use christians, India, will face particularly severe problems in essays on information security, expanding their food supplies in the coming decades. The people of these regions are likely to comprise almost two thirds of the developing countries', and over half of the world's, population, both in qualitative research paper alcohol 18-24, 2025 and 2050.

The US appears to have the potential of generating food surpluses for some years, a potential that it shares with parts of write essay Europe, including Eastern Europe, Canada, and possibly other regions. The longer term prospects are unknown in view of difficulties which may appear later. Pessimistic Scenario (PS) Scenario PS adopts most of the assumptions in qualitative research use christians 18-24, BAU, but includes several other factors which may decrease the rate of grain production in the years ahead. If the population growth rate continues only slightly lower than it is today to write, the year 2050, the world population will rise to about 13 billion (Figure 1), more than double the paper use christians 18-24 present population. Romanticism. A recent analysis (97, 98) of the qualitative research paper use christians consequences of climatic change on world food production, not including problems arising from the colored paper for dyslexia availability of irrigation water, concluded that decreases in global food production would. be small, but with developing countries suffering decreases of as much as 10%. We believe that, in the period to 2050, the greenhouse effect and ozone loss could together depress grain yields on a global basis by 10% to 20%. We base our estimates (Table 4) on qualitative research paper alcohol 18-24, current rates of cropland loss (Table 3), continued decline in per capita irrigation (59), degradation of irrigated land (Table 3), and continued decline on the rate of fertilizer use by some farmers in developing countries (26,99).

A moderate combination of these adverse factors leads to grain production in 2050 about essay questions, 15% below BAU. While this represents nearly a 30% increase in grain production over 1991, it means per capita production would be down over 40%. There is, in this scenario, little hope of providing adequate food for the majority of humanity by the middle or later decades of the period we consider. Optimistic Scenario (OS) If rapid population growth stabilization can be effected, leading to a world population of 7.8 billion instead of 13 billion by qualitative research use christians 18-24 the year 2050, then grain production adequate for the population might be achievable. Finance Questions. This would require a near doubling of qualitative paper alcohol 18-24 today's production (Table 4). Soil and water conservation programs would have to be implemented to halt soil degradation and dissertation, the abandonment of cropland. Developing countries would have to be provided with fossil fuels or alternative energy sources to alleviate the burning of crop residues and dung.

Increasing oil and other fossil fuels for this purpose will aggravate the problem of controlling greenhouse gases. Research Use Christians 18-24. Irrigation would have to be expanded by about 20%. The area planted to grains would be expanded by 20% and the amount of nitrogen and other fertilizers expanded 450%. Both the finance essay developed and developing nations would have to qualitative research paper use christians 18-24, give high priority to romanticism and nature, food production and protecting the environment so as to maintain a productive agriculture. The developed countries would have to help finance these changes and also provide technology to the developing nations. At the same time, with diet shifts in research alcohol, the developed world, the 2050 population of 7.8 billion might be fed an adequate diet. If efforts were made to triple world food production, compared to today's yield, then all of the paper above changes would have to be made, plus increasing the research paper use christians 18-24 level of energy intensiveness in the developing world's agriculture by romanticism 50- to 100-fold. This would include a major expansion in world irrigation. Such increases appear to be unrealistic. Environmental degradation from such expansions could not be constrained or controlled even if expansion were feasible.

The human race now appears to qualitative alcohol, be getting close to the limits of global food productive capacity based on help newcombe, present technologies. Substantial damage already has been done to the biological and physical systems that we depend on for food production. This damage is qualitative research paper 18-24 continuing, and in some areas is accelerating. Because of its direct impact on global food production injury and loss of arable land has become one of the most urgent problems facing humanity. Of these problems, this is and nature perhaps the most neglected. Controlling these damaging activities and increasing food production must now receive priority and resources commensurate with their importance if humanity is to avoid harsh difficulties in the decades ahead.

Attempts to markedly expand global food production would require massive programs to conserve land, much larger energy inputs than at present, and new sources as well as more efficient use of fresh water. all of which would demand large capital expenditures. The rates of food grain growth required to research paper use christians, increase the per free business plan, capita food available, in the light of qualitative paper present projections of population growth, are greater than have been achieved under any but the most favorable circumstances in developed countries. Our business-as-usual scenario suggests that the world is unlikely to see food production keep pace with population growth if things continue as they have. Using. If they do continue then the world will experience a declining per capita food production in the decades ahead. This decline would include spreading malnutrition and increased pressure on agricultural, range, and forest resources.

Should climatic alteration from greenhouse warming and enhanced ultraviolet levels impose further stress on agricultural systems, the prospects for increased food production would become even less favorable than they are at present. In our opinion. a tripling of the research alcohol use christians 18-24 world's food production by the year 2050 is such a remote prospect that it cannot be considered a realistic possibility. Doctoral Dissertation Help Newcombe. If present food distribution patterns persist the chance of bettering the qualitative research alcohol use christians lot of the majority of the world's peoples vanishes. The likelihood of a graceful and humane stabilization of world population vanishes as well. Fertility and population growth in numerous developing countries will then be forced downward by severe shortages of essay questions food, disease, and by other processes set in motion by qualitative research paper use christians shortages of vital resources and irreversible environmental damage. A major expansion in help, food supply would require a highly organized global effort-by both the developed and the developing countries-that has no historic precedent. Qualitative Research Use Christians. As yet a major commitment from the developed nations to support the and nature needed changes is missing, and inadequate commitment in both developing and developed nations has been made for population stabilization. Governments so far appear to lack the discipline and vision needed to make a major commitment of resources to increase food supplies, while at the same time reducing population growth and protecting land, water, and biological resources.

While a rough doubling of food production by 2050 is perhaps achievable in principle, in accord with optimistic assumptions, the elements to accomplish it are not now in place or on the way. A large number of supportive policy initiatives and investments in research and infrastructure as well as socioeconomic and cultural changes would be required for it to become feasible. A major reordering of world priorities is thus a prerequisite for meeting the problems that we now face. References and qualitative alcohol use christians 18-24, Notes. 1. Horiuchi, S. 1992. Stagnation in the decline of the world population growth rate during the 1980s Science 257, 761-765. 2. United Nations Population Fund, 1991. Population, Resources and the Environment, United Nations, NY.

3. UNFPA, UN Population Fund, 1991. The State of World Population 1991, UN, New York. 4. Homer-Dixon, T.F. Doctoral Help Newcombe. 1991. India's population growth rate has leveled off at 2.1%/year and China's at 1.3%/year. On the threshold: environmental changes as causes of acute conflict. Inter. Qualitative Alcohol 18-24. Sec. 16, 76-116. 5. Long-range World Population Projections.

Department of dissertation international and Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, 1992. Document Number ST/ESA/SER.A/125. 6. World Watch Institute, 1990. State of The World, 1990, Washington. The 430 M ha estimated to have been abandoned during a 40 year period is qualitative research paper further confirmed by the World Resources Institute's estimation that 10 M ha/yr of cropland is lost by erosion.

7. A Report by The World Resources Institute, 1990. World Resources 1990-1991, Oxford University Press, New York. Additional losses and abandonment of agricultural land are caused by water logging, salinization, urbanization and others processes as discussed later in the text. 8. Moffat, A. S. 1992. Does global change threaten the world food supply? Science 256, 1140-1141. 9. Malthus, T.R. 1970.

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108. First submitted 22 March, 1993, accepted for publication after revision 11 August, 1993.