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Backstage Experts Answer: What Belongs on an Actor’s Resume? Whether you’re an thesis, actor, lawyer, doctor, waiter, or anything else, résumés stump professionals across a variety of careers. June 2008 Essay Contests. Today our Backstage Experts give their best answers to the question: What does and does not belong on an acting résumé? And, what can you put on a résumé when you're just starting out? Here are several answers from industry professionals spanning different areas of this business to give you some perspective!
Wondering what this new column is all about? Backstage Experts Answer takes your questions and bacon brings them to our incredible network of paragraphs in essays, Experts. If you missed the last installment, check out “14 Tips for Determining Your ‘Brand’ ” and see how to and eltis thesis get your acting questions answered at the bottom of this article! I believe résumés don’t have to be long, but rather they just need to be impressive . Agents and commercial and theatrical CDs have less than a minute to look at it. On Communication Barriers In The. They are usually not interested in and eltis the volume of what they think is essay coursework not significant. They look for teachers, schools, theaters, studios, directors, etc., who they respect. Thesis. Then, agents and CDs could bring you in. (Obviously there are exceptions and some will see actors with little “résumé power,” so to speak.) Actors can honestly make their credits, training, and linking in essays skills appear stronger.
Here is an example in each category of what I suggest: Show Name Role Year (if fairly current) Theater or Director. Film, TV, or Web Series: When actors are starting, their skills and hobbies can get help them get commercial auditions and sometimes other acting work (when physically right). For the value and how to make it powerful, read this Backstage article of mine on bacon the topic. If you don't have much acting experience then substitute it with training and/or life experience. And Ethics. Tell the story you want people to bacon and eltis thesis hear. The only thing that matters is whether you can do the job.
If your experience does not make that clear, tell them something that does. What’s on on montaigne a résumé: hair and eye color, height and and eltis thesis weight, date of on montaigne, birth (for anyone under 18), credits, training, and and eltis special skills. Standard order: film, television, commercials, voiceover, industrials, theater, training, special skills. Film and television: List the project, credit (character name optional), and studio or production. Voiceover: Voiceover work, music videos, personal appearances, etc. Theater: List the and ethics, production, character, and venue. Training: List the and eltis, class name, coach, venue, and city. Special skills: List physical abilities or other skills that might be needed to 2008 essay land a job.
What’s not on a résumé: age range, categories in bacon which you have no experience, modeling and print work, and essay background work. What doesn’t belong? Fancy fonts and bacon and eltis thesis formatting, your address, eye/hair color or weight, false credits, skills you’re learning and essay ranges you’re reaching, and staples (more than one page). Starting out? See all of the bacon thesis, above, and work with what you have! Until you have professional credits, school productions (or even scenes you’ve worked on in class) are fine. Just notate this experience truthfully. Poverty And Ethics Essay. Until you have representation, personal contact information is bacon thesis fine. Bottom line: Package and present yourself as professionally as you possibly can. When you are first starting out, the first thing that casting directors look at hawthorne critical, is with whom you trained. Seeing acting coaches that they know and respect will open doors when you have a résumé with no real acting credits on it.
Your experience should be divided up into thesis categories: theater, TV/film, and commercials. In three columns list the name of the production, the critical essays, role you played, and and eltis thesis where you performed or who produced it. Your résumé should be on one page only and 2008 essay laid out simply in columns, making it easy to read. Warning: Do not lie! If you are just starting out, list any local or school credits you have. If you have none, just put your training and special skills. Your special skills should only include those you excel in.
For a sample résumé visit this link on my website. Bacon And Eltis Thesis. Best of luck. List contact info and projects in which you’ve acted (not extra work). List your training/education. List your special skills, but only if they are serious skills (musical ability, foreign languages spoken/dialects which you can do, ability to ride a horse, etc.) if applicable. June. If you have dual citizenship, list that, and whether or not you have a green card (if you’re not a U.S. citizen). Bacon And Eltis Thesis. Don’t put silly skills down which would have no bearing on your ability to do a role. And be careful about not overstating your skills. I once cast an actor who said he could ride a horse, and, on the film shoot, he was frightened of the horse and it caused serious problems for the production.
If you’re just beginning, put your education and whatever acting you’ve done on your résumé, as well as teachers with whom you’ve studied or classes you’ve taken. Most importantly, even if you have no credits, be truthful! There is no shame in being a beginner! Have a question? Message us on Facebook or tweet @Backstage. What did you think of this story?
Leave a Facebook Comment: Seeking actors for this paid video shoot for a new smart running shoe. Do you speak German? Get cast in essay in the workplace a Bitcoin commercial. Thesis. stage staff tech. TheatreWorks is looking for experienced Stage Managers for their Spring 2018 tours.
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How to Write a Personal Experience Essay With Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. 1. What you need to bacon and eltis, do to get a good grade. 2. How to frankenstein, explain the meaning of a memory. 3. How to choose a great topic. 4. Easy organizing strategies for fabulous essays. Telling a vivid a story from your past. Explaining the significance of bacon, that story. Want a good grade on frankenstein essay, your essay? Instructors and testing agencies assign a lot of thesis, personal experience type essays and so it is worth your time to know how to hawthorne critical, write one easily and effectively so that you get a top score.
The reason these types of assignments are given so often is bacon that anyone can write about their own experience and it doesn't require any outside resources or research. However, even though anyone can tell a story about their life, that does not mean anyone can write a good essay about that experience. As a professor and teacher for 30 years, I've read thousands of essays and can tell you there is a distinct difference from telling a story about yourself and writing an excellent personal experience essay. The difference between good and poverty, great: Top essays paint a vivid picture of the experience so that the reader feels they are there. Great papers draw a unique meaning from the experience and explain it clearly. The best papers are well-organized. This article tells you how to and eltis thesis, do all that! How to Find Significance of Memory. Writing an essay about a personal experience or relationship can be a powerful way of both discovering the meaning of your own past and sharing that past with others.
When you write about something in your past, you have two perspectives: your perspective in the present and the perspective you had at poverty, the time the event occurred. The space between these perspectives is usually where you will find significance in that event or relationship. Your perspective in the present. Your perspective you had at the time the event occurred. The space between these perspectives is usually where you will find significance in and eltis, that event or relationship. If the essay, event or relationship is recent, you will be closer to the you that experienced the event. And Eltis Thesis. If the event is and ethics essay more distant, you will often find yourself reflecting on the experience, your reactions and the meaning of the experience differently. As you write the essay, you will need to decide if you want to thesis, talk about the experience as you see it now, or as you saw it then.
Often, you may do both of those things, or use your perspective now as the paragraphs in essays, conclusion. At the end of 8th grade, my best friend wrote me a note saying she never wanted to be my friend again. Bacon. I was devastated, and terribly depressed all summer, terrified to start High School alone. Forty years later, I realize that that experience was probably what made me finally reach out to develop new friends. Those friends encouraged me to develop my life-long interest in speech, theater, and writing. More importantly, that experience of rejection gave me a lifelong compassion for others. Any event from your past can be a good topic if it was important to nathaniel, you. You can use either a one-time event, a reoccurring event, a person, or a place. Brainstorm ideas by thinking about the following: A relationship with an important person like a grandparent or best friend.
A single encounter with someone that changed you. An event which was small but significant. A major, life changing event. Something that you did over and over that was meaningful to bacon, you. Your experience and memories of a place that embodies who you are, or has meaning for you. How to Decide if You Have a Good Topic.
To make sure you have a good topic, you need to poverty essay, determine what the meaning of that event or person was for you. To help you get ideas about the meaning and to decide whether this topic is a good choice, jot down some notes answering the following 5 questions: What did I think the bacon thesis, meaning of the experience was when it happened? How have my thoughts about essay coursework, it changed? What did I learn? How has my life direction been affected by this event?
Is there something I would do differently if I could go back to that experience? Any regrets? Why re-invent the wheel? Use the following professional writing techniques to organize your personal essays. These strategies aren't secret and they aren't hard. They are what you've seen over and over in books and thesis, movies. Now you need to poverty and ethics essay, use them yourself.
This is the most obvious way to and eltis thesis, tell the story. You just tell it in the way it happened in the order it happened. Most of the other organizing techniques use this way to tell the main part of the poverty, story. Bacon Thesis. See Anne Dillard's Handed My Own Life for a good example of poverty essay, chronological organization of a personal essay. Characteristics of this organization strategy: Tells story in and eltis thesis, the order that it happened. And Ethics. Tells story suspensefully--least important events leading to more important ones and finally coming to climax. Explains meaning after climax or lets events show the meaning.
For example, Dillard states her understanding in a series of phrases, such as I was handed my own life, and my days were my own to plan and fill along with a lot of specific details of and eltis, how she did that. Of course, she also uses the title to explain her meaning. Expectations Unfulfilled Organization. Want an easy way to organize your essay? Try Expectations Unfulfilled. This organizing strategy works best when there is a contrast (either horrific, funny, or disappointing) between your expectations about the event and what actually happened. You can also do Expectations Fulfilled, but that is generally a weaker paper idea unless you have a situation where the reality clearly superseded all of your expectations. Essay. Rick Bragg's 100 Miles an Hour, Upside Down and Sideways is bacon a good example of this kind of essay organization. Characteristics of frankenstein essay, Expectations Unfulfilled:
Introduction vividly describes expectations for a particular event . Bragg talks about how he was convinced that this V-8 convertible was going to fulfill all his desires. Maybe foreshadow the bacon, problem. Bragg's uncle warns him to be careful because That'un could kill you. Tell the story of what really happened (use chronological organization above). Bragg tells of race and accident which wrecked the car and ruined it for speed. Describe the contrast between reality and expectations . Bragg's memories of the crash are the frankenstein essay coursework, radio still playing and being pulled out unscratched and bacon thesis, of being famous not for having the best car, but for being the kid who survived a 100-mile crash.
Reflection on essay, experience. You can do this by telling your reaction or using an bacon and eltis ironic twist, as Bragg does. Bragg tells how his car was put back together but never the same (just as his ideas of speed, freedom, and fast cars have been wrecked in the accident). Conclude with irony. On Montaigne. An ironic end can sometimes be a good conclusion for and eltis thesis this sort of story. Linking. Braggs writes about how after his car gets rear-ended at the Piggly Wiggly supermarket he sells it in disgust to a preacher's kid who drove the speed limit. Using a frame story for the introduction and conclusion should be familiar to you from lots of movies.One good example of bacon and eltis, a story frame is UP. In this case, the movie opens with the frame of Carl looking at the scrapbook Ellie has made for him about their life and dreams, before flashing to the present story of Carl and Russell and their adventures.
The movie returns to the frame at the end of the movie as Carl looks at essay on communication in the, the last page of the bacon, photobook Ellie has made for him. Essays On Montaigne. He learns that it was the journey of the relationship which was the real adventure. Another kind of frame can be a flashback. In this technique, you start in the middle of the action (or after it is bacon and eltis thesis over) and then flashback to poverty, an earlier memory. The Notebook uses the story of a man spending time with his wife with Alzheimer's as the frame for his re-telling the bacon and eltis thesis, story of essays on montaigne, their romance. The advantage of using a frame is that it makes it easier for you to and eltis, talk about the meaning of the story, especially if you use the present day to flashback to the past. Be sure the june 2008, frame is not just random.
There should be an event, object, conversation, or situation which causes you to flash back in bacon thesis, memory. Internal and External Conflicts Organization. With this technique, you organize your story around what is happening internally in your mind, versus what is happening in essay on communication workplace, the event. Bacon And Eltis Thesis. Of course, like Expectations Unfulfilled this works best if there is a conflict between what is happening in your thoughts and what is happening in the situation. An example of this could be a wedding which seemed to and ethics, be a joyous celebration but which was full of conflict for the bride who wondered whether she had made the right choice in marrying this man. Another example could be a birthday party where the birthday kid seemed to be having fun but was inwardly devastated when her divorced parents acted coldly toward one another. You can combine some of these strategies together to make your essay shine. A good example of this is the student essay by Jean Brandt, Calling Home. Bacon And Eltis Thesis. Along with using a frame.
Brandt also uses internal and external conflicts in her organization. Introduction: beginning frame story. Brandt's essay has her ride to the mall. First conflict and resolution. On Communication Workplace. Brandt has an internal conflict about bacon and eltis, whether she should steal and hawthorne critical, the resolution that she will. Second conflict and resolution . Thesis. Brandt's second conflict is external when she is essay caught by the store owner and he calls the bacon thesis, police. Frankenstein Coursework. Third conflict and resolution . And Eltis Thesis. Brand's third conflict is both internal and external. She wonders how her parents will react.
She is brought to the police station but not punished by her parents. She realizes that disappointing them and realizing she had made the wrong choice is essay coursework worse than if they had punished her. Conclusion: ending frame and expectations unfulfilled. Brandt ends in another car ride home, which parallels with the ride to the mall in the introduction. The twist is that not only was the mall trip not what she expected, she has disappointed the expectations of her parents too.
Small Events Can make Good Essays. Brandt's essay illustrates how to take a single, small incident and turn it into an essay which explains how she learned something about herself. It is thesis a coming of age essay. When thinking about your own essay topic, try to think about moments in your life which were significant turning points. The event can be something small and doesn't have to be dramatic.
What is important is how it affected you. Tips for Chronological Organization. Most students will use this method, so if you want to make your essay stand out, you may want to try one of the other techniques. When you do use this method remember: Where's the Conflict? As you've probably learned in English class, good stories start with a conflict that is either internal (inside yourself) or external (between you and someone else). Poverty And Ethics Essay. Good stories show the development of the conflict, the crisis (called a climax) and then the bacon and eltis thesis, resolution of essays on montaigne, what happens afterward (either good or bad).
Make sure your story follows this pattern. Don't add unnecessary details. You need to clip the memory effectively. Imagine yourself as a film editor. What needs to be in the story?
What can you leave out? Make details specific and interesting. Make your descriptions of the setting, characters and action concrete and specific. For example: Don't say, Maura was a beautiful but boring blonde bombshell. Say, Maura was a sleek, 5 foot 10, long-haired, blonde who never tired of talking about bacon and eltis, her exotic vacations or newest boyfriend.
Keep Boredom at Bay. Paragraphs In Essays. Tell enough detail like setting and character development that the reader is drawn into bacon and eltis thesis the story, but don't spend so much time in essays, details that your reader gets bored. And Eltis Thesis. Action and Dialogue are Best. If you can, make sure most of your paper is either about something happening or someone talking. Both action and dialogue move the story along faster than description.
Anne Dillard's. Sometimes, there is a particular object or repeated event which is the focus of the memory. You can use repetition around this object or event to effectively order your essay. On Being a Real Westerner by Tobias Wolff is a good example of using a metaphor to june essay, organize. Characteristics of this organization: Several memories relating to one object, person or emotion. In Wolff's story these memories are related to his rifle: getting the rifle, his mother's objections, playing with the rifle, acting like a sniper, loading rifle, Vietnam comparison-power, killing squirrel, his mother's reaction to the death of the squirrel, his own reaction, and his continued fascination with rifle. Memories often chronological but also should be climactic , with the most important memory last. In Wolff's story, the climax is when he shoots the bacon, squirrel and has to essays on montaigne, deal with the reality of what owning and using a rifle really means, or what it really means to be a westerner. Tie these memories together with the main theme which would be the main point of your essay.
Wolff ties his memories together with the theme of power, the power of the rifle, how the hunger for bacon and eltis power shaped him, and his powerlessness to change the and ethics essay, past, a man can't help the boy. Write About When You Got Out of Your Comfort Zone. Generally, it helps to keep the essay focused on one to three important memories about that person. And Eltis. These memories can be specific events (best), or anecdotes about events which happened repeatedly. Characteristics of hawthorne critical essays, this sort of essay: 1. Vivid Portrait of Person. Dialogue (the reader can hear how this person talks). Describe a place which reflects the person (the reader can know about the interests of the bacon thesis, person and picture them where you do). Essay On Communication Barriers In The Workplace. Person (describe what the and eltis, person looks like). Pick memories which show the linking paragraphs, person's character or reveal your relationship.
Tell one time incidents: every essay should have 1-3 of these. Describe event in great detail, describing the scene, what happened, what people said, what you were feeling. Explain recurring activities: you can have these also if you describe them vividly and make sure that they are not too general and prove a point. Don't say, My mother always scolded me. Instead say: My mother always scolded me about my messy habits followed by an incident which describes how this affected your relationship. 3. Indication of the Person's Significance. Choose 1 or 2 main points to make: Trying to explain everything that person means to you is and eltis too much to do in a short essay. All of your description and all of essays, your stories should be centered around proving these main points. You can use some of the organizing strategies for event essays for people too. And Eltis Thesis. Here are some suggestions:
I . Revelation/Expectations Reversed. Your usual judgment about the person. Analysis of personality/Physical description /some of background history. The revelation about them (story of a particular moment when you saw this person from on montaigne a different perspective). I I. Bacon And Eltis. Conflict and Resolution Organizing. The story of on communication workplace, a conflict you have with this person. Analysis of thesis, personality/Physical description/background history. The second story of conflict but this one resolves into a closer relationship. Third story--conflict leads to a lesson learned.
Fourth story--a different conflict/ lesson learned is conveyed to nathaniel, others. III. Bacon And Eltis. Comparison and Contrast. Notice that both views are found in june 2008 essay contests, each paragraph or section. This paper is ordered thematically. Another possibility is to and eltis, talk about all the views of another person first, then talk about your views. Introduction: Description of person and paragraphs in essays, set-up of contrast between you.
Body: Comparison and Contrast: How others view this person versus how I view this person. Or how I used to view that person versus how I now view them. Thesis. Conclusion: How I have come to see this person. How to Write an Event Essay About a Memory, Place or Experience. by Virginia Kearney 7. How to essay, Write the Introduction of an Essay.
by wayseeker 18. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. How to thesis, Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 129.
100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. Virginia Kearney 10 days ago from United States. Hi, Ronald-The best topic is something that you know the meaning of easily, but not something that makes you very emotional, or which is hard to talk about. Think of a time when something happened and frankenstein essay coursework, you learned something about yourself or someone else.
Thinking about the bacon thesis, end of your speech (what you learned) means that you already have the hardest part done. Hi what is the best topic to write an poverty and ethics essay personal speech and bacon and eltis thesis, i'll perform it in my teachers and in my classmates. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Hi Ahm, when you deal with the meaning of the event is where you should talk about poverty and ethics essay, how this experience has affected your life. And Eltis Thesis. Generally, you would want to explain the meaning and how it changed you. As far as how long this part should be, I would advise you to give enough detail so that the reader understands the poverty, changes it made to you but avoid being overly personal about things you may not want everyone to know or which might reflect badly on another person. Have someone close to you or someone who understands the experience give you feedback after you write. Do you have any tips for how can I write a personal account of how the ordeal has affected my life?
I'd like ask if I should describe the ordeal prolongedly or briefly. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Jorge--I actually have over bacon and eltis thesis 100 different articles about essays on montaigne, writing posted on Letterpile and HubPages, so generally you can find what you are looking for if you search for it. This particular type of thesis, article is also called reflective writing by some English textbooks and poverty and ethics, instructors. I think what you are looking for is this article: http://hubpages.com/writing/Reflective-Essay-Sampl. which focuses on bacon thesis, the example and gives you a full essay. Jorge Lopez 4 months ago. This is like watching a video about making a soufflé and only hearing people describe how it tastes or how hard it was to essays on montaigne, make. I'd really like to see a sample so I know exactly if I am framing it correctly. And Eltis. Do I write it like an editorial? Do I write it like a 3rd grader?
I get it. It's subjective. Show me some examples of subjective papers. Walk me through it. Essay Peer 10 months ago.
The setting of 2008, a novel or play often plays a big role in the overall telling of the bacon and eltis thesis, story. Below are tips on essay, how to write a settings essay: • State your overall theme. • Write your introduction. • End your introductory paragraph with a hook, a statement enticing readers to keep reading. • Write the body of the bacon thesis, essay one paragraph at essay barriers in the, a time.
• Conclude the essay to tie together all of your points and reiterate your theme. Suzette Gray 23 months ago from Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. I have now finished my very hard personal experience essay. As it is bacon and eltis only for my best friend I will not be posting it anywhere. Thank you VirginiaLynne for your comments and your inspiration. The only thing left to do is to show it to my friend and I must admit that I am being a bit of a chicken in doing this, but I will do it. For me, to essay on communication barriers in the, do this allows me to forgive myself for the hurts I caused my best friend. I thank you again. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Hi Watson.
Your comment does make sense to anyone who has struggled in making a relationship work, and that is most of us! Suzette Gray 23 months ago from Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. Thanks so much VirginiaLynne. Believe it or not the person I am writing about and the person who is trying to get me on the right track are one and the same and bacon thesis, I very much appreciate his critique. I know why he is being tough on me and I too am being tough on linking in essays, myself. The experiences and the feelings are very emotional because when the friendship fell apart it was due to me trusting someone else and also a slip of the tongue. Needless to and eltis thesis, say I don't trust as easily now.
The last line that I just wrote was about nathaniel hawthorne, me giving up on bacon, ever having that friendship again and essay on communication barriers in the, the unexpected happened. We are now friends but on bacon and eltis thesis, a totally different level now than before. Writing about it is hard and I know that he wants me to be honest as he has been. I start writing and I can't stop. It is a friendship of over 3 and half years. It is hard to cut back on it so that it fits essay requirements. Thank you for your input and it is much appreciated. I have a friend who used to essays on montaigne, help with college essays and she will help with this. And Eltis. She also knows what I am writing about. Thanks again. I don't know if this even makes any sense.
Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Hi Watson--I appreciate your comment. One thing that is very difficult to do is to poverty essay, separate your feelings and thesis, experience from the piece of writing about that experience. Paragraphs. It is very easy to bacon, feel that the piece we write is linking paragraphs in essays really a part of bacon and eltis, ourselves and that any criticism of that piece is a criticism of us. Of course, that is hawthorne essays particularly true if the person giving the critique is a close friend. In my view, relationships are more important than the writing, so I think that I would either not share things with that person, or carefully explain that you just want to share the content but don't really feel ready to accept suggestions about the thesis, writing. I'm sure there are other people that you can get suggestions for improvement from. It might be that the hawthorne, same suggestions coming from someone else would be helpful rather than hurtful. However, as an overall help in developing your writing, I suggest that you try to grow into the idea that what you write is a thing you produce, which can be done better or worse some days and which can generally always be improved.
Then you are a participant in bacon thesis, the critique, and a part of the essays, audience trying to see how it can be shaped better. Suzette Gray 23 months ago from and eltis thesis Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. I am not a student but I am wanting to write a personal experience essay about meeting someone unexpectedly who has become my best friend. This person has inspired me to better myself in a lot of ways. Frankenstein Essay. We have had a lot of ups and downs in the relationship but right now the relationship is the best it has ever been.
He is in bacon and eltis, college at the age of 45 and that in itself is inspiring. I have sent this friend a few essays but he is being very critical. I know he wants me to really think about it and coursework, it is going to be very emotional for me. I really just wanted to and eltis, put this somewhere and if anyone has any ideas they would be greatly appreciated. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Ii actually advise students to avoid using quotes to start an essay. I think starting with what you expected, or what most people think about the library would work best.
Another way you could introduce this is with a conversation with someone about using the library or by on montaigne remembering the library you used as a child and comparing it to this college library. A final way to do the introduction is by starting with a very detailed description of the and eltis thesis, library. They you can talk about what your story is and what it meant to linking paragraphs, you. Mary Norton 2 years ago from and eltis Ontario, Canada. I have written some personal experience but it was a hit and miss.
This time, you have given me a platform to write them. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. So very sorry Mary to hear about your loss. I think you could use a frame story for this sort of essay. Start perhaps with a memory right now about paragraphs in essays, taking care of things and maybe feeling frustrated about bacon, this or seeing something which reminds you of essays, your mom. Then go back in time and talk about your mom dying. End with a return to the present time to talk about the meaning of her death and how it has affected you. I need help on how to start my personal essay off. Bacon. It is going to be about my mum dying in March of this year and 2008 contests, me taking on the responsibility of taking over the house and getting left to look after our two pets and my little sister . How would I go about starting this? heart4theword 6 years ago from bacon thesis hub. Some specifics to think about, in writing your essay.
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20 Great Places to bacon thesis Publish Personal Essays. UDPATE: For the latest version of this list, subscribe to Writerland in the right sidebar to receive 31 Great Places to Publish Personal Essays in your inbox! I frequently receive e-mails from people looking for places to publish their personal essays. Fiction and contests nonfiction writers alike all have a great story about the time Aunt Harriet came for dinner and and eltis thesis left on critical the back of a horse, or the bacon thesis time the cat disappeared and returned six years later, or the essay on communication barriers time they had an epiphany about the meaning of life while walking through the woods at dusk. But where can you submit that funny, poignant, life-changing essay that#8217;s gathering virtual dust in a folder on thesis your computer? Who will publish it? And who will pay? Here are 20 newspapers, magazines, literary journals, and anthologies to essay barriers workplace help you begin your search: 1. New York Times Modern Love—Start by reading a lot of and eltis thesis, Modern Love columns to get an idea of what they’re looking for. You may even want to buy this Modern Love collection. Nathaniel Essays. Don#8217;t miss the bacon and eltis thesis Media Bistro article on how to poverty essay turn your Modern Love column into bacon and eltis, a book, and be sure to visit the Modern Love Facebook Page for linking paragraphs submission tips from the editor, Daniel Jones.
2. New York Times Lives—The New York Times Magazine Lives column is another great place to get published. The best way to submit to any large publication is to have someone put you in touch with the editor of the column. The rest of bacon and eltis thesis, us can e-mail our essays to the Lives section at lives (at) nytimes (dot) com. 3. Newsweek My Turn—Start by june 2008 essay contests, reading #8220;How To Get a My Turn Essay Published in Newsweek Magazine.#8221; Then read some of the past essays that have been published to get a good idea of and eltis thesis, what they are looking for and what#8217;s already been done. UPDATE: Submit My Turn essays to editorial (at) thedailybeast (dot) com. 4. Christian Science Monitor Home Forum—The Christian Science Monitor is a highly respected international newspaper and on montaigne is not religious-based. It#8217;s Home Forum page includes a personal essay that can run from thesis, 400 to 800 words.
After you read the Monitor#8217;s contributor guidelines, check out this article for advice on how to june essay contests beat the odds of getting your essay published. And Eltis Thesis. 5. The Sun —A monthly magazine, The Sun pays from $300 to $2,000 for essays and interviews. They receive a thousand submissions (including fiction and poetry) for every issue, so don#8217;t be surprised if you have to wait six months for a response. 6. The Smithsonian Magazine —The Last Page of The Smithsonian is a humor column running 500 to 650 words and pays $1000. For more information, read the submission guidelines. 7. Salon —From what I#8217;ve read, the pay is low for Salon essays ($150?), but it#8217;s better than nothing and paragraphs a great way to get exposure. Check out this list, and then click around the different departments (Life, Sex, Poetry, etc.) to see what they#8217;re publishing. Finally, see their submission guidelines, which aren#8217;t all that helpful. 8. Slate —Slate publishes some essays, but I was so distracted by their targeted banner ads (Camping gear! Children#8217;s outdoor play equipment!) that I gave up on my search before I got very far. 9. Bacon And Eltis Thesis. The Rumpus —An online culture magazine, The Rumpus #8220;[tries] to maintain high standards even though we don’t have any money and can’t pay for essay coursework writing.#8221; For details on submitting essays or book reviews, see their writer#8217;s guidelines.
10. 7?7 —Another West Coast publication, 7?7 has an Urban Ledger column for which readers can pitch their personal essays. They pay $1 a word, and their essays run about 1000 words. For more information, contact the editorial department. And Eltis Thesis. 11. Skirt —An online women#8217;s magazine, Skirt accepts submissions up to 1500 words, but—like most online publications—does not pay.
For more info, read their contributor guidelines. June. 12. Granta —A British literary magazine, Granta publishes original memoir pieces between 3000 and 6000 words. They do not accept e-mail submissions. Read a few copies of the journal (you can find most journals at a library) and then read their guidelines. 13. Tin House —A literary journal, Tin House accepts essays as well as poetry and fiction from Sept. 1 to May 31.
The suggested deadline for their Spring 2012 issue, themed Weird Science, is Oct. 1. The real deadline is Nov. 1. And Eltis. Click here for submission guidelines. 14. Zyzzyva —You have to linking live on the West Coast to publish in Zyzzyva , but it#8217;s another literary journal that accepts personal essays.
The best way to learn what any publication is and eltis thesis, looking for is to read several issues of that publication, and Zyzzyva is no exception. Start by buying a copy. Then read the submission guidelines. 15. Traveler#8217;s Tales — Traveler#8217;s Tales is currently accepting submissions in the women#8217;s travel humor and travel humor categories. Visit their website for submission details. Essays. The deadline is TODAY (Sept. 21) for their Fifth Annual Solas Awards, so get it in fast if you have something ready. Otherwise, you can submit year-round and your submission will be held for thesis the following competition. Hawthorne. 16. Literary Mama —An online literary magazine #8220;for the maternally inclined,#8221; Literary Mama is looking for #8220;revelation so stark that it hurts.
Pathos can reveal, but so can humor and joy; superior craft (clarity, concrete details, strong narrative development); and ambiguity, complexity, depth, thoughtfulness, delicacy, humor, irreverence, lyricism, sincerity; the elegant and and eltis the raw.#8221; View their submission guidelines for nathaniel hawthorne essays more info. 17. Brain, Child —The magazine for thinking mothers (as opposed to literary mamas), publishes essays between 800 and 4500 words, which are #8220;the signature pieces of the magazine.#8221; They pay #8220;as much as we can, although our fees are still modest for now.#8221; View their writers#8217; guidelines. 18. Chicken Soup for the Soul —It doesn#8217;t seem like there#8217;s anything left to publish in this series, but there is!
There is! And here are the submission guidelines. 19. Seal Press Anthologies—Seal Press publishes books #8220;By Women. For Women.#8221; They aren#8217;t currently accepting submissions, but check back periodically for upcoming books. 20. Bacon. Adams Media books—Adams publishes nonfiction books, including some anthologies. Right now they#8217;re taking parodies of Jane Austen writing for an anthology titled Bad Austen . And Ethics. In addition to those listed above, there is a plethora of other literary journals that publish personal essays. NewPages.com provides an thesis, extensive list with descriptions. Writer#8217;s Digest also has a great article called Tips to Help You Publish Your Personal Essays. They also publish the trusted Writer#8217;s Market directory, which you can access online.
Do you have any publications to add to the list, or details/tips about any of those listed above? 227 comments to 20 Great Places to Publish Personal Essays. Coursework. Great list! I only started reading Modern Love a few months ago, but I#039;ve already fallen in love with it. It#039;s a new goal of thesis, mine to get published there someday. I#039;ll have to check the rest of these out! I have that goal, too, Kristan, along with every other writer I know #128578; I hope we all get published there eventually! Researching this list also made me want to publish a lot of other personal essays. Paragraphs. If only I had more time #8230; I have got that post now i can publish my essay there#8230; dissertation writing services UK. Great list. Thanks for compiling the same and taking the and eltis efforts to critical essays help everyone here.
Keep it up #128512; Great job as content writer I think with ur skill u can get a money #128512; Hi Meghan can I order to u ? I neep content writer about bacon english language. Nathaniel Hawthorne Critical. Thanks, Meghan! Inspiring list. I agree about Chicken Soupthey just keep #039;em coming. Risa I#039;m amazed at bacon and eltis thesis, how many there are!
I think we should come up with a few of our own: Chicken Soup for hawthorne the Unpublished Writer#039;s Soul, Chicken Soup for the Self-Published Writer#039;s Soul, Chicken Soup for bacon the Procrastinator#039;s Soul, Chicken Soup for linking paragraphs the Blogger#039;s Soul #8230; Chicken Soup for bacon thesis the Rejected Writer#039;s Soul, volumes 1-100#8230; Oh yeah! I can go with **that** one!! grins For women writers, I#039;d really recommend the UK Magazine, Mslexia. They accept fiction and in essays poetry too. Very helpful list, Meghan, and so generous of bacon and eltis, you to compile and june 2008 contests share. Bacon And Eltis. Thank you. Poverty Essay. What a fantastic resource. Bookmarking it. Favoriting it. Retweeting it. Thanks! Love your Chicken Soup ideas.
LOL. Hi Anne, I agree with you. No doubt it is an awesome idea and best resource. Hey Meghan so helpful to see this all in one place, particularly the link to the MediaBistro interview with Amy Sutherland. Looking forward to delving deeper on your blog! Hei Nancy so do i , i love his/her blog obat peninggi badan. For women writers, I#039;d really recommend the and eltis UK Magazine, Mslexia. They accept fiction and poetry too. This magazine is indeed a place to poverty essay read. Oh and O, Oprah#039;s magazine #8212; they pay really well and the essays are personal and often illuminating and inspiring.
Ah, excellent ideas, Orna! I should have thought of O magazine. And Eltis. I#039;ll add it to the list and june 2008 essay contests check out Mxlexia, too. Orna or Megan, I#039;m back in thesis, school and my media bistro membership is taking a backseat to contests paying the mortgage! So I don#039;t have a resource for finding out just HOW to submit to Oprah Magazine. Can you ladies give some guidance? Great list of links thanks! Awesome resource, I love your chicken soup ideas. Bacon. LOL. [#8230;] Markets: 20 Great Places to Publish Personal Essays – “Where can you submit that funny, poignant, life-changing essay that’s gathering virtual dust in a folder on your computer? Who will publish it?
And who will pay? Here are 20 newspapers, magazines, literary journals, and anthologies to help you begin your search.” [#8230;] Meghan, this is a great resource! This blog post has inspired me to work on my essay ideas. Eunice, that#039;s great! I want to work on mine, too! If onlupy there were more hours in the day #8230; [#8230;] 20 Great Places to on montaigne Publish Personal Essays #8212; Meghan Ward#8217;s made a nice starter list, though most of these are pretty top-notch publications and are therefore not the easiest places to break out. Still, for those of bacon, you interested in june essay, this type of writing, it#8217;s a great resource. [#8230;] Thank you for pointing writers toward ZYZZYVA, Meghan! In case people are wondering, we define the bacon West Coast as California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii. Thanks for the post. Essay Contests. I#039;m bookmarking right now.
Hmm, I#039;ll have to check out ZYZZYVA. Haven#039;t heard of many of these#8230; Zyzzyva is wonderful! Thanks for clarifying that, Oscar. And Laura mentioned, too, that you publish international pieces that have been translated by bacon and eltis thesis, West Coast translators. And Ethics Essay. This is a GREAT list with a nice amount of diversity in topic areas. Thank you so much for thesis sharing, Meghan. You#039;re welcome, Laura!
I agree with those who have expressed their THANKS to Meghan for sharing #8212; #128578; Do you think it#039;s easier or get in with a mag via an linking paragraphs, essay or with a straight service piece? I#039;m TRYING to break into more mainstream pubs and it#039;s been a frustrating experience. Thanks. Molly, I#039;m sorry I#039;m not much help since I#039;ve done so little magazine writing, but I#039;ll ask around and and eltis let you know what I find. From what I hear, it isn#039;t easy to get either published at the moment, but good luck. Good morning! Thanks for responding #8230; looking forward to hearing ANY insight you may have. Have a great week.
V/R. On Montaigne. [#8230;] virtual dust in a folder on your computer? Who will publish it? And who will pay? (Source: Writerland) October 10th, 2011 | Jade Walker | No Comments [#8230;] Wow what a wonderful post (and website)! So glad to have found you. Bacon. Another market for essays is june contests, a women#039;s magazine called Underwired. They don#039;t pay much, but I#039;m awfully fond of them, especially since they published one of my essays. Moonbeam, Sorry for this late response. And thank you for telling us about Underwired. I love the bacon and eltis Oct.
2009 cover posted on the blog. I believe they foldedtoo bad. Great magazine. and is it close now? Site does#039;t work( Traveler#039;s Tales requires a $20 submission fee. Feels kind of june essay, scammy to me#8230;? Is this typical of legit publications? Mitzma, You don#039;t need to pay $20 to submit to Traveler#039;s Tales, only to enter its Solas Awards contest.
That seems fair to bacon and eltis me. Yes, only linking in essays USD 20. wow amazing and and eltis too expansive. Charleston Style Design is now running an essay column. Click here (under contact tab of our website) for guidelines: http://www.charlestonstyleanddesign.com/wp-conten#8230; Thanks for the tip, Mary! Thank you so much for being you#8230;exactly what I was looking for#8230;just about essay barriers workplace ready to dive into the personal essay publishing pool.
God bless you. Bacon Thesis. Such a great help and place to start. Linda. Barriers. Glad it was helpful, Linda! Thanks so much! This is bacon and eltis thesis, really helpful. Glad to see The Sun on barriers workplace there. Bacon And Eltis Thesis. Love that magazine. On Montaigne. Another idea with The Sun is that they do a monthly Readers Write section where they take short submissions on a given topic each month. It doesn#039;t pay, and the pieces are really short but it#039;s a way to get your name out bacon and eltis thesis there. Thanks for sharing the info about The Sun Readers Write section, Emilia!
Do you know if My Turn is still around? I can#039;t find a thing about it on their site, and the print edition of and ethics essay, Newsweek is not long for bacon and eltis thesis this world. Poverty And Ethics. LS From what they told me, they occasionally post My Turn essays (not a good sign). I would submit to thesis editorial (at) thedailybeast (dot) com and essay see if they respond. The Boston Globe Magazine has an essay column (formerly Coupling) called Connections. email@example.com. Thanks for and eltis the tip, Susan! Hi there mates, good piece of writing and fastidious arguments commented at june 2008 essay, this place, I am truly enjoying by these. I#8217;m really enjoying the theme/design of your weblog. Do you ever run into any web browser compatibility issues? A couple of my blog audience have complained about my blog not operating correctly in Explorer. Thesis. but looks great in essay contests, Firefox.
Do you have any tips to help fix this problem? Thanks, Susan! I will add it when I update the list! A Foxy Lady with great information, you made my day! Meghan, thanks for sharing this resourceful post. It has helped me. And I wanted to make sure my gratitude was expressed for your effort. thank u very much ur post.
Wow this is the best job as content writer #128512; Thanks for taking the time to comment, Cole! “20 Great Places to Publish Personal Essays. Working in and eltis thesis, the automotive industry for some 27 years I have experienced a lot! I have an poverty, article I would like to publish for personal and professional reasons. I am an Assistant Professor at Colorado State university-Pueblo in the Automotive Industry Management program and to the best of my knowledge the bacon and eltis only women to hold that title. How can I go about frankenstein essay coursework getting an article published#8230; any thoughts? i think 200 great place on the world. And Eltis. Thanks for on communication barriers in the ur order #128578; When I have a spare time I want to and eltis order content marketing to u *_* The best way to submit to any large publication is to have someone put you in touch with the editor of the column. This is a fantastic list, Meghan!
Thanks for sharing. Thinksheet is a new UK based online journal of lyrical and critical eassys. We are currently seeeking submissions in the following categories: Contemporary life, media, experience. Contemporary art art history. perfect. I#039;m always looking for new ways to get my marketing books out seen by more people. This is on montaigne, a great resource helpful and useful information.
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How can I go about getting an thesis, article published#8230; any thoughts? Brevity online blog has lots of paragraphs, contests and space for bacon submissions, the magazine version is more selective. This is poverty essay, a journal/blog of bacon, Flash (1,000-750 or less) nonfiction. and a fun read! Thanks , I have just been searching for hawthorne critical information about this topic for ages and yours is the best I have discovered till now. But, what concerning the bottom line? Are you sure about the supply?|What i don#8217;t realize is in fact how you#8217;re not actually much more neatly-appreciated than you may be now. You#8217;re so intelligent. Thanks for another fantastic article. Where else may anyone get that type of info in such a perfect way of writing?
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Stumbled upon this by accident and so glad I did. It#039;s a GREAT list. Thanks so much for sharing. I stumbled on this while looking for and eltis a place to send an essay. Saw the Modern Love Column. Sent completely different essay to NYT.
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The official IRCTC PNR Status page will load in a new tab displaying your current status of your PNR number. thanks for all this great and valuable informations #8230; Hey, thank you for your wonderful article! Slate publishes some essays, but I was so distracted by their targeted banner ads (Camping gear! Children’s outdoor play equipment!) that I gave up on my search before I got very far. [#8230;] [Reblog] 20 Great Places to Publish Personal Essays [#8230;] Great list Meghan and helpful comments too. This has become a gem of valuable information for a freelance writer like me. hi guy, your post so great, please keep going and i#039;m wait to see another post. Great list! I also want to mention for anyone reading this in a timely fashion that StoryShelter is currently accepting short personal essays to be included in a book called Operation Graduate: Inspiring Stories from Students Who Beat the and eltis thesis Odds. Linking In Essays. If you had to overcome a hardship to graduate high school or college, this is a great opportunity. More info on the blog. And Eltis Thesis. Great list, I really appreciate you putting this together Thanks! A Foxy Lady with great information, you made my day! [#8230;] essays are easy to write: you#8217;re writing about nathaniel essays you, and bacon thesis there are plenty of essay, markets.
Meghan Ward has an excellent list of markets to get you [#8230;] A British literary magazine, Granta publishes original memoir pieces between 3000 and 6000 words. They do not accept e-mail submissions. Read a few copies of the journal (you can find most journals at a library) and then read their guidelines. http://educationboardresults.info/ I want to publish a small essay so I was asking how can I do it. What a fantastic resource. Bookmarking it. Favoriting it. Retweeting it. Bacon And Eltis. Thanks!
Love your Chicken Soup ideas. On Montaigne. LOL. The Boston Globe Magazine has an essay column (formerly Coupling) called Connections. If you ask one of the Roman Soldiers dressed in costume to take a picture with you, they. will require a tip of 5 Euros. Flash photography can also be. damaging to fragile works of art, so if photography is allowed. in a museum in Rome, be sure to turn your flash off and rely solely on natural lighting. Being formally a part of one or another empire they couldassert their. rights for bacon and eltis independence with arms in their. Hi, this weekend is pleasant for me, since this point in time i am reading this great educational piece of writing. Essays. here at my residence. Just found this, Meghan, while Googling magazines to submit to. Thesis. Thanks!
Great help. Hawthorne. A long list of places that are worthy. Do you know if My Turn is still around? I can#039;t find a thing about it on their site, and and eltis thesis the print edition of Newsweek is not long for critical essays this world. We can seemingly only send from the SMTP server of the 3rd party account. IF we add this in Mail Settings E-Mail accounts since a. And Eltis. send + receive account. [#8230;] Found this rather helpful post for all those out there with interesting life stories to tell. Go on, have a look. [#8230;] It#8217;s great to read all this useful information on essay in the dog training. I have a concern however. How do you train a. Thank you for such a useful list, I#039;ll be sure to make use of the and eltis thesis sites suggested #128578; What a material of un-ambiguity and on communication barriers preserveness. of precious familiarity about bacon and eltis unpredicted emotions. Frankenstein Coursework. thank you Meghan for the list! Cheers. Movie star and singer Patrick Bruel ended up being one among France#8217;s biggest stars. And Eltis. throughout the essays #8217;90s, first making his / her name for a teen idol and leading an excellent to. traditional French chanson in the new millennium.
Bruel was. created Patrick Benguigui with Tlemcen, Algeria, on, may 14, 1959. Their father abandoned the family when Patrick was just a year old, in addition to. 1962, after Algeria received its independence, his mommy moved to France, negotiating within the Paris. suburb associated with Argenteuil. Bacon. A great soccer player in his youth, Patrick first. decided upon the idea of being singer after seeing Michel Sardou perform in 75. As good fortune could have it, acting would provide him his. first success; first-time representative Alexandre Arcady ran an in essays, advertisement seeking a man which has a French-Algerian (or #8220;pied-noir#8221; in People from france slang) accent for his motion picture Le. Coup hun Sirocco. Benguigui (as he was still called) responded. and won the business. The following year, he spent a while in New.
York City, where he met Gerard Presgurvic, later to bacon and eltis be his primary songwriter. Acting professional and singer Patrick Bruel has been one of. France#8217;s biggest stars throughout the #8217;90s, first making the name as. being a teen idol and leading an hawthorne critical, excellent return to traditional French chanson from the new millennium. Bruel was given birth to Patrick Benguigui in Tlemcen, Algeria, on May 14, 1959. His or her father abandoned a family when Patrick was just. a year old, and in 1962, after Algeria gained its independence, his mommy moved to France, residing inside the Paris suburb regarding Argenteuil. An excellent soccer player in the youth, Patrick first chosen the. Thesis. idea of like a artist after seeing Michel Sardou perform in 75. As good luck might have it, acting would take him his first achievements; first-time director. Frankenstein Coursework. Alexandre Arcady ran an advert seeking a new man which. Thesis. has a French-Algerian (or #8220;pied-noir#8221; in This particular language slang) accent for his film Le Coup een Sirocco. Benguigui (as having been still called) responded and received the part. The following year, he spent time in Nyc, where. he fulfilled Gerard Presgurvic, later to get his most important songwriter. Although, I am a sincere student, but I became hard to write my essay on time because of illness, so I followed the june 2008 essay contests suggestion of my friends to hire the professional writing service http://www.essaysontime.info/essay/ It was really a good start and that can do it more better way.
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I need further help on bacon and eltis how to publish my essay . You have a great blog, valuable information, keep up the good work. I will be visiting often and telling my friends about this #128578; Thank you for such a useful list, I#039;ll be sure to make use of the 2008 contests sites suggested #128578; It#039;s Really a fake News.Fake News is not allowed.So, be careful Everybody Spam this link Too http://www.austinchronicle.com/news/2001-02-23/80#8230; It Should Not Allowed To Contained. It is a fake News#8230;. This is a valuable list with a good number of topic areas. Thank you so much for sharing, Meghan. This is a valuable list with a good number of topic areas. Thank you so much for sharing, Meghan. It is and eltis thesis, a source of learning. I am also create something new in the shapes of paragraphs and essays about barriers different topics. My website is : http://www.visionbeat.net.
Learning how to write an essay can be a maddening, exasperating process, but it doesn#039;t have to be. If you know the and eltis thesis steps and understand what to do, writing can be easy and 2008 essay contests even fun. This is a great submit! I just desired to share my practical experience even though getting a hair slice. Thesis. Salons in Costa Mesa are the best.
Once you require a super hair style using the newest fashins, make certain to take a look at Costa Mesa California, the attractiveness salons, nail salons, or just a regular salon they are the most effective. simply click my link to linking paragraphs Costa mesa salon now. Several reasons why students are able to get their associate degree in bacon, business is because they can be interested in this area and want to obtain the general instruction necessary ahead of jumping into essay, a bachelor education program. Thx for thesis the tips you actually provide in the blog. June Essay. I just did a Google search and bacon and eltis thesis your list came up. I#039;ve been looking for some time for places to submit my personal essays. Great list! Thank you, Meghan! Each person is born with unique personal traits which combine together to form his or her self. These personal traits include the psychological, emotional, social, cognitive, physical, and physiological characteristics which constitute the human ‘self’, differentiate people, and distinguish one from another.
A person’s self does not remain constant throughout their lives, but it changes over time throughout the different stages of life. Essay On Communication Barriers. In order to bacon prepare this report on the human self, useful dictionaries and june specialized websites have been consulted. Thesis. In this report, a comprehensive examination of the concept of the human self is presented, with a brief personal analysis of the authors self esteem and self recognition. The first page is the table of contents page, the second page is the abstract page, the barriers next pages constitute the research report, and the last page is the references cited page. The Self Concept. The human self is a complex psychological, emotional, social, and personal entity. Every human being is endowed with a characteristic personality.
The human’s internal recognition of bacon thesis, this personality is what constitutes the self concept. Psychology expert Kendra Cherry (2014) explains that “Self-concept is the image that we have of poverty and ethics essay, ourselves.” She states that “self-concept is composed of two key parts: personal identity and social identity.”A person’s self changes dramatically throughout their different life stages: early childhood, teenage, adulthood, and finally old-age. The changes which occur to the human self are caused by bacon thesis, varying social, emotional, cognitive, educational and psychological factors which change correspondingly to the different stages of linking paragraphs, life. The Oxford Dictionary defines ‘self’ as “A person’s essential being that distinguishes them from others, especially considered as the object of bacon, introspection or reflexive action” (Oxford Dictionary, 2014). In other words, a person’s internal recognition of himself or herself constitutes the concept of self. In Essays. Since the and eltis dawn of human history, psychologists, philosophers, and scientists have theorized about the essence and nature of the human self.
They argued about whether the human self is a material or an immaterial entity. It is argued that the human self is a combination of the human’s thoughts. Loua (2014) indicates in an article on the nature of the human self that the recognition of the emotions, the hawthorne critical feelings, and the will “composes the world of self within the mind, body, and bacon soul of our being spirit.” Loua points out that “Thought constructs the self as the function of essays, its expression to bacon and eltis be in its form.” From a general perspective, the human self is in essays, a logical arrangement and categorization of internal concepts, feelings, emotions, introspections and retrospections which combine together to form this unique entity of human self. In conclusion, it goes axiomatically that each and every human being has a distinguished self-perception and bacon and eltis self-recognition of their inner selves. The human self is the internal awareness of essays on montaigne, one’s thoughts, feelings, emotions, and contemplations. The human self consists of many psychological, emotional, social, physical, and physiological components. These constituents combine together to bacon form this unique self concept in linking paragraphs, each person. Thesis. Each aspect of a human’s personality constitutes a human identity which is linking paragraphs, inseparable from the cluster of other human identities. These personal identities can be personal, psychological, emotional, social, physical, physiological and educational. The personal identity includes such personal traits as being generous, brave, coward, selfish or selfless. The psychological identity includes such features as desires, memories, psychological complexes and and eltis emotions.
The emotional identity includes the various feelings of happiness, sadness, hopefulness, hopelessness, anger or fear. The social identity includes such elements as religion, culture, ethnicity, race and language. The physical identity includes such physical or bodily characteristics as being white, black, fair, tall, short, fat or thin. The physiological identity includes the personal recognition of being male, female, healthy or ill. The educational identity includes such factors as being literate, illiterates, educated, or uneducated. The personal identity, the psychological identity, the frankenstein essay emotional identity, the social identity, the bacon and eltis physical identity, the critical essays physiological identity and the educational identity all combine together to and eltis thesis form one universal identity, namely, that of the human self. The human self is a combination of the various feelings which are experienced by hawthorne critical essays, the human mind and by the human soul.
The human self is the whole collection of fear, love, hatred, jealousy, sad, and bacon happy feelings of the human being. A human’s self is the perception he or she makes of their capacities and defining characteristics. June Contests. This human self can be highly changeable, imitative and adaptive at the early stages of life when one is exposed to and eltis various behavioral and moral patterns or prototypes at home or at school. However, once one fully grows up into poverty, the world of and eltis thesis, adulthood, the human self tends to be formed on a solid basis. While human beings slowly grow up physically, their personal traits, psychological characteristics, and emotional feelings grow and develop with them to form their unique selves. The human self intertwines conscious and subconscious feelings and emotions in an internal organization of ideas, morals, ethics and frankenstein concepts. These ideas, morals, ethics, and concepts recur to the human mind in introspective and retrospective conscious streams or flashes.
This conscious stream of ideas, emotions and bacon thesis feelings constitutes the internal psychological recognition and perception of the human self. The human self varies from a person to another considerably because it is a peculiar feature to every human being. Since the human self is based on the internal conscious or subconscious ideas, feelings, emotions and contemplations, it can express itself in a variety of ways. Poverty And Ethics. It can express itself simply in internal unspoken statements, such as “I am clever,” “I and and eltis thesis kindhearted,” or “I am a bad person.” The human self can also express itself by external oral means, such as stating one’s opinions, ideas, emotions, or feelings. Moreover, the human self can express itself in a practical way by, for instance, helping others, taking exercises, working hard, or studying well for an exam. All in essay, all, it is this human self which distinguishes the human species from other beings in this world. It is this miraculous dimension of the human being which characterizes the human soul and bacon thesis gives sense to the very essence of each human’s humanity.
Very useful information. and thank you for sharing it with us. Meghan, thanks for june 2008 essay sharing this resourceful post. It has helped me. And I wanted to make sure my gratitude was expressed for your effort. top 10 resume writing services. 20. Adams Media booksAdams publishes nonfiction books, including some anthologies. Right now they’re taking parodies of Jane Austen writing for bacon and eltis thesis an anthology titled Bad Austen.
Thanks for tips resources. On Communication Barriers Workplace. My 17 year old son, a keen writer has been struggling on and eltis this very point. will share it with him now. On Montaigne. Such a helpful topic you have chosen. The places suggested by you to get a personal essay published are really good. Bacon. Essay writing is a difficult task; moreover, finding the right place to get it published can be a bigger task. However, after reading your post, one can easily get to essay in the workplace know some good places for getting personal essays published. Bacon Thesis. Thanks for sharing this amazing article and very good content. [#8230;] Meghan Ward: #8220;20 Great Places to Publish Personal Essays#8220; [#8230;] A good sort out. Thanks.
The scientifically experiments and research invented many ease for life. Education faster once efforts to critical achieve the goal. We as women hold up the world. WE hold up the sky. We must call on our spiritual power to stop these attroticities and organize politically to bacon and eltis vote in blocks so our voices will be heard. No more southern bells who do what their told when and who dishonor the essays on montaigne freedoms of their very workers by ignoring the violence that takes place in their very bedrooms. Bacon Thesis. Now we are the future of our grandaughters and we are their hope. [#8230;] Meghan Ward: #8220;20 Great Places to Publish Personal Essays#8220; [#8230;] I think your weblogs is the essay on communication barriers workplace best I#8217;ve ever seen.
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As I think this site is with everything taken into account a rich wellspring of intriguing information. I#039;ve got a genuine kick out of your posts and concur with you totally. I update Opera to version 12 and thesis now this site incorrect. Great Love. Love that magazine. Another idea with The Sun is that they do a monthly Readers Write section where they take short submissions on a given topic each month. You might check MeltedWing.com: fiction, non-fiction, first-person, visual art centered on june the themes of and eltis thesis, depression, despair, suicide, and dark matters. NO GORE! We do not support or enable boduly harm or harm to others. Thank you very much for essays great post to share us. Bacon. I love the layout and amazing tips.
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Mine never where. Nathaniel Hawthorne Essays. I mean probably it was because I always needed helped in writing ones. I would go through all essay review websites like http://essayservicesreview.com/ and thesis search for all samples. My essays just weren’t perfect enough. But it is a practice process, so I don’t get upset much. Nevertheless, I get excited to see someone’s work getting publish even though I’ve never met this person. In any case, thank you for the news.
Thanks for the ideas! Obviously this post still applies all this time later! I know it#039;s been a while since you wrote it, but any thoughts on simultaneous submissions? I have an essay I just wrote that I#039;d like to get out there#8230; but since Modern Love has a 1-2 month wait time I don#039;t want the trail to go cold#8230; Thanks for any insight you have! Thanks for sharing these 20 places. On Montaigne. Good content you have written. Thanks so much for sharing this list, a gift to so many seeking for recommendations and for and eltis their writing.
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copy pasted essay This is an online version of an article first published in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by C. J. Wright. Thesis? London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it.
I don't. He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and phrases to some of the old fragments of original text in the Memorabilia. Perhaps the left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of each line. He's worked out a mathematical method for finding the hawthorne critical essays missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to some degree'.
W.M. Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the following notice in bacon thesis, its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. A Fire broke out in the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the frankenstein House that contained the King's and bacon and eltis thesis, Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for his Greek Testament for linking in essays, these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2)
This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at Hackney, records what was perhaps the greatest bibliographical disaster of modern times in Britain. And Eltis Thesis? It is difficult to quantify the scale of the losses to frankenstein, the Cotton library as a result of the fire at and eltis Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House. A number of nathaniel critical, letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the fire, such as the famous story of Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the most detailed source of bacon and eltis, information about the fire and the damage inflicted by it is a report by a parliamentary committee established to hawthorne, investigate the incident, which was published in bacon thesis, 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. The first was 'A Narrative of the Fire. and of the on communication workplace Methods used for preserving and recovering the Manuscripts of the Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the bacon and eltis clerk in charge of the records kept in the Chapter House at Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of both the Royal and Cotton libraries, with the essays on montaigne assistance of Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in bacon, summary form, with a few amendments, in his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of on communication barriers in the, which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. Bacon And Eltis Thesis? In one sense, they overstate the amount of damage. Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Casley were in barriers in the, fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for consultation today.
In fact, only thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. In this sense, the details given by Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to bacon and eltis, have survived the essay on communication barriers workplace fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the most famous victims of the bacon fire was the essays on montaigne manuscript containing the unique exemplar of Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of thesis, this manuscript were badly scorched and on montaigne, the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss. This manuscript is not, however, included in and eltis thesis, Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Tiberius A. III is a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of St Benedict, works by Ælfric and one of the two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by Casley to essays on montaigne, have survived the bacon fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and the water used to frankenstein, put out the fire caused staining. The drawing of bacon thesis, King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the absence of any meaningful statistics, the best way of conveying the catastrophic nature of the essay barriers workplace losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by a random roll call of some of the victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the bacon fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of Magna Carta.
One of critical essays, these, now Cotton Charter XIII. Thesis? 31a, was the only one with the Great Seal still attached. In the heat, not only paragraphs in essays, was the text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. Bacon And Eltis? IV*) was reduced to half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for critical essays, the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Maldon perished completely. Among the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. VI),(18) the 'G' manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. XI,(19) and the only extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. Bacon And Eltis Thesis? XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the essays Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the illuminated manuscripts ruined in the fire might be singled out bacon and eltis a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only june essay contests, because another fragment of and eltis, this manuscript survives intact in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the greatest period of Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. Nathaniel Critical? The devastation caused to bacon and eltis thesis, Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented.
It is a measure of the essays on montaigne richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an bacon incomparable source for the history, literature and art of medieval and Tudor England. On the morning after the fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. The ground was littered with fragments of burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and june contests, kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the bacon and eltis flames, they had been taken to various rooms in Westminster School. When the fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the school, opposite Ashburnham House.
Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on poverty hearing of the fire had rushed from and eltis his house nearby to help save the manuscripts. Paragraphs In Essays? Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only and eltis thesis, Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at poverty and ethics essay Westminster, the Tower of London and bacon, the Exchequer, to consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and june 2008, rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in the correct order and bacon and eltis, the collation of some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in the codicological history of many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. It is therefore worth describing in some detail the procedures adopted by Whiston and his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to frankenstein coursework, imagine the scale of the thesis problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of frankenstein, experts.
The picture which comes to mind is of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the pattern of thesis, damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and barriers workplace, shrunk in and eltis thesis, the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. On Montaigne? Animal fat had been drawn out from the bacon and eltis vellum by the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle. One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an irradiated armadillo. Moreover, as is still the case with library fires, the water used to extinguish the blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on june 2008 1 November 1731, just over a week after the fire.(32) The stained and damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and a bookbinder employed to clean the leaves and wash them in and eltis thesis, an alum solution. A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to prevent the formation of mould.
The leaves were hung on barriers in the lines to and eltis, dry and afterwards bound up again. It was found that the wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the leaves. The worst affected were dried in front of a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on lines in groups of two or three to dry. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and heat than water. Where possible, the burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon the Edges of the Vellum and essay on communication barriers in the workplace, Parchment by and eltis the Heat of the Fire, was carefully taken off by poverty and ethics essay the Fingers. '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for a few of minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made. Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the and eltis burnt vellum manuscripts were in a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in a fit condition for nathaniel essays, use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to dry.
Afterwards, the bacon thesis leaves were 'several Times looked over; and hawthorne critical, the Pieces, that were Parts of the and eltis same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and some entire Books have been made up out of them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of nathaniel essays, Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in and eltis thesis, the same Order, that they were in before the Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into drawers. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Nathaniel Hawthorne? Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed.
It had been largely completed by the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire. Inevitably there must be doubts about the accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by unskilled assistants, in and eltis, primitive conditions and without the aid of modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of those that have been the essay workplace first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about a third of the volumes in and eltis thesis, the collection were subjected to barriers in the, this rough and and eltis, ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the linking paragraphs in essays modern user of the Cotton library and the library as it existed before the fire. In discussing the collation of any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of and eltis thesis, severe damage from damp, it is worth remembering that in frankenstein essay coursework, 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and the leaves hung up on washing lines by an illiterate artisan. Whiston and his fellow workers stand as the first of a series of intermediaries between the modern scholar and the original Cotton library. And Eltis? They inaugurated a process of conservation work on the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Just as the story of the Cotton collection to 1731 was one of growth and development, so its history since then has been one of successive attempts to restore the paragraphs in essays collection to its pre-fire state. Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an increasingly elevated status. Bacon? For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of intellectual debate.
In the poverty case of the bacon and eltis thesis Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and change as successive curators have sought to restore them to their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is little more than an intelligent reconstruction of the original, comparable to, and just as open to doubt and challenge as, say, an archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in poverty and ethics, more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Westminster School, in his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on how these 'learned Spoils of twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in bacon and eltis thesis, Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in a fire. On Montaigne? In the climax of the poem, Fitzgerald called for each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the Fury of the Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in 1732. The manuscripts languished in their temporary accommodation in Westminster School for another twenty years. During this time, the building where the library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at bacon Ashburnham House appears to have been to in essays, encourage the first moves in 1751 for the publication of Domesday Book, then kept in the Westminster Chapter House and and eltis thesis, also at great risk from fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in which to preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of antiquities, ancient coins, medals and other curiosities to come to 2008, the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and and eltis, pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the collections of the record scholar and historian of the 2008 essay Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the bacon and eltis last vestiges of the essay contests idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of a national historical archive.(49)
The future of the Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in national ownership it was transferred to thesis, the custody of the Trustees of the new Museum.(50) One of their first actions was to poverty, inspect the bacon thesis collections placed in on communication in the, their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to examine the and eltis Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by nathaniel hawthorne critical essays now 'disabled by age and infirmity from executing the duty of his post in his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by bacon his wife, who showed the library to visitors. It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to essays, the library a handful of burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the library of Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on the charters, probably the most confused part of the collection. Despite the decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found.
They declared that the Old Dormitory 'though it has not the advantage of so much light, as would be proper for a library. is bacon thesis, dry and secured from the weather. The MSS. as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from damp since the depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of linking paragraphs in essays, them is necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the bacon thesis committee felt that the essays on montaigne Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the bacon new Museum. The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to nathaniel, receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and it was not until 1756, immediately before the removal of the Cotton collection to Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library.
In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of Printed Books and from 1772 to bacon and eltis thesis, 1776 Principal Librarian, and june essay contests, Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of manuscripts damaged in and eltis, the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the contents of a sample from each press against the catalogue entries. They declared that the manuscripts in ten of the presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to paragraphs, agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to bacon thesis, dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley'. And Ethics Essay? Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of loose fragments, and did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and Rimius were unable to bacon, find Tiberius D. Coursework? VI, a cartulary of Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of thesis, loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact.
This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands'. These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an even greater cause for concern were the environmental conditions of some of the barriers presses, particularly the Vitellius press. 'Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the thesis first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of barriers in the, most of them, defaced the marks [presumably the and eltis pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and linking paragraphs, food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Maty and Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in bacon, the last press of the essays Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described'.
This necessitated an examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into and eltis thesis, two parts. Sixteen drawers in the top section and essay, seven in the lower were stuffed with paper and parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta. This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident'. It was placed by bacon and eltis thesis itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at the bottom'. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship'.
The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the frankenstein essay coursework statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of and eltis thesis, bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by essay barriers in the the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'. These were the fragments which Whiston and bacon thesis, his colleagues had been unable to place in essay, 1731, and had put to one side. Bacon And Eltis Thesis? They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Linking Paragraphs? Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on shelves there by the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in bacon and eltis thesis, the same order in which the manuscripts stood in the old; without regard to the intermixture of tall and critical, short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'.
It was suggested it would be better to bacon, 'range them all anew'. The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the and ethics present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for bacon and eltis thesis, the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the items noted as usable by Casley were put in their appropriate places in the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and loose leaves' were however kept in the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of paragraphs, it; and to remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into and eltis thesis, close presses to essay, be kept by themselves'. Approving this proposal, the Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in the closet of the thesis room where the hawthorne Harleian Carts. Thesis? now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in 1775 the Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in Garret no. June Contests? 8, which became known as the charter garret.(62)
In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to the Principal Librarian claiming to have developed a method of restoring the leaves of vellum books damaged by and eltis thesis fire. Mores was authorized to examine the critical essays damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of and eltis, his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of critical, some loose sheets of fire damaged parchment restored by Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the and eltis thesis Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to give Padeloup one of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts. A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. The fragments lingered with the Harleian charters in june 2008 contests, Room I on the Upper Floor of Montagu House.
It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in bacon and eltis, the Museum, they were at least secure, but this was not the case, as can be seen from the sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about 60 pieces of Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to essays on montaigne, make watercolour drawings of them to be shown at the Society of Antiquaries. Engravings of these drawings were published in Vetusta Monumenta in 1747. Bacon Thesis? These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the manuscript before the fire, stated that the fragments of the Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the frankenstein essay coursework eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by Vertue. In fact, the bacon and eltis loss was due (at least in part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the first Assistant Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and books were collected from the linking paragraphs Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Bristol.
There they remained, unidentified and forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an old copy of the Septuagint said to have been found in thesis, the ruins of the city of Herculaneum'. Poverty? They were only bacon and eltis thesis, finally reidentified in 1834 by essays Frederic Gotch, who wrote to Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out their survival. Horne amended a footnote in one of bacon thesis, his publications referring to frankenstein essay, the Cotton Genesis, but the bacon and eltis Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the linking paragraphs text of the bacon and eltis fragments left in the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for nathaniel hawthorne critical essays, 13 March 1856,(72) the redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. However, they have never been identified there. More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. In 1928, the Bristol fragments were deposited on loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of and eltis thesis, Records at the Tower of London, urged the Trustees to authorize the coursework compilation of a new catalogue of the Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue.
To establish if a manuscript had survived the fire, they had to cross-refer to Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the bacon and eltis thesis Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the corrections of Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of essays on montaigne, damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to bacon, readers grappling with Smith and Casley. Accordingly, the essay in the Standing Committee of the Trustees ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the and eltis thesis matter. In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of contests, articles 'bound up with very little attention to any arrangement either as to authors, matter or date'. This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in and eltis thesis, any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in june contests, its arrangement and in bacon and eltis, the lack of detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.
In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. Nathaniel Hawthorne? This would also provide an opportunity of bacon, rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to essay on communication barriers workplace, have the preference'. Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the bacon and eltis thesis Trustees were unwilling to see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the 2008 contests need for a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the published preface describing the procedures adopted by Planta in conserving and cataloguing the manuscripts is copied almost word for word from a report submitted to the Trustees by him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of and eltis, major restoration work on the Cotton collection.
Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and frankenstein, which had been placed on bacon thesis their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to tackle the mass of burnt fragments stored with the Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in in the, 1731 -- had been further confused by their use in and eltis thesis, the Reading Room. Frankenstein Coursework? Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Consequently, his 'first care on entering on my task, was to bacon and eltis, cause all the volumes to be regularly paged, or at and ethics essay least the old paging to be regularly ascertained'.
This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and were probably made for Planta by various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to position the bacon thesis numbers and occasionally the foliators were forced to linking, write them in the middle of the and eltis thesis page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the bundles in cases, and on montaigne, found means, after many repeated and not a few unsuccessful attempts, to thesis, arrange several volumes and parts of volumes of State Papers. Some of the june 2008 contests shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on the part of the bookbinder'. In his original report he identifies the binder as C. Elliot, the Museum binder from 1773 to 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the manuscripts kept in cases were restored and bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of and eltis, little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the condition of the Cotton collection at the conclusion of his work. Poverty? Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. XIV).
These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to 'restore' by separating and to some extent flattening them. Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases. Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. Thesis? V), the Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. X), and the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. This is borne out by comments by two later Keepers of Manuscripts. Essay Barriers In The Workplace? In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in bacon, 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of doing more injury by any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by the fire than if it is left in its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts. And Ethics? Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest.
Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of bacon, Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in cases, as were some volumes of the early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and reconstituting the paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the linking in essays number of folios in and eltis thesis, the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to the rearrangement of papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for poverty essay, identifying loose papers and reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by him were in fact sitting in a room not far from his study. Nowhere in the catalogue is the existence of this material even hinted at.
Planta's complacent account of the state of the bacon collection at the completion of his catalogue is therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in some ways Planta's work made matters worse. The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the june essay manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the provision of a catalogue encouraged the use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in bacon and eltis, a fit state for public handling. Nathaniel? The vulnerable edges of the manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of bacon and eltis thesis, text broke off as they were used by coursework readers. Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. It seems reasonable to assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at the beginning of his work. The state of the manuscript in bacon, the 1780s is essay, recorded in the two transcripts associated with the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the bacon and eltis crumbling of the edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared.
The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Essays? Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. Bacon? XV.(96) Given the testimony of Ellis, Forshall and frankenstein essay coursework, Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to the Beowulf text occurred in thesis, the process of essay on communication barriers workplace, binding the manuscript in the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the poem and the original manuscript, marking the letters he could no longer see. According to Conybeare, over 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to the manuscript in the early nineteenth century was due to bacon and eltis, unrestricted handling of it by readers. Essays? Ironically, both Conybeare and Madden, by handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay.
The erosion of the Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and and eltis thesis, preventing further loss. Presumably a number of other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at linking this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of Cotton Manuscripts remained with the and eltis Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the essay barriers in the upper floor of Montagu House, the last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Both collections remained in their original order, the 1808 synopsis of the Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the bacon and eltis Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case). The use of boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the system of one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for 2008 essay contests, the press and a letter for the shelf, in pencil on the flyleaf of the manuscripts. Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for loss and confusion. Thesis? In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of essays, Manuscripts in 1812, reported to the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the Cotton manuscript with another in his possession. 'Having but one eye, and very indifferent sight in the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the Cotton manuscript with his own papers.
On discovering his mistake, he had returned the fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold. Bacon Thesis? One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to discover that the lot consisted of essay on communication barriers in the workplace, fourteen leaves of the bacon and eltis thesis Cotton manuscript. On Communication In The Workplace? He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to their proper place.
Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by the Museum authorities. Bacon? On 14 May 1825, the Standing Committee of the Trustees agreed that a small bundle of essays on montaigne, cinders and other fragments of Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on bacon and eltis them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about paragraphs in essays, electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in the Cotton fragments are unclear. His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by Wollaston was described in his diary by Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of and eltis, their original size! Simply soaking them in water would have been much more effectual. Hawthorne Essays? Of these leaves sent to Dr. Thesis? W. sixteen prove to be part of Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and complete the and ethics volume ; while eleven others belong to and eltis thesis, the Higden, Otho D. I, and one to hawthorne essays, Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the and eltis thesis effects of Wollaston's process by soaking the leaves in linking paragraphs, water, so that they expanded again to 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the bacon and eltis thesis unpromising results of Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for linking, the commentators'.
This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the fragments but trying to make them more legible by using some form of chemical agent. The results of his experiments on the Cotton Genesis are not known. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the affair is Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the and eltis thesis Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at the present time but are kept in paragraphs, a garret at the top of the and eltis House, perfectly useless to the Museum in paragraphs, every sense of the word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of bacon and eltis, Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the Fragments of the Cotton Library. which are at present preserved in cases, may be rendered readable without the essays risk of losing portions of their leaves from their adhesion and bacon and eltis, brittleness whenever an attempt is 2008, made to ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to bacon thesis, talk to Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the plan proposed by Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the burnt manuscripts on vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of contests, 1731 be adopted, from time to time, upon and eltis thesis, such MSS. as it may be desirable to examine: also that the edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for hawthorne critical, the sake of separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the bacon and eltis Royal Society for the restoration of paragraphs in essays, these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. III, a collection of saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched. This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to bacon thesis, separate the leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the columns and lines of essay, writing, thus making room for bacon and eltis, an expansion of the parts most shrivelled and contracted by the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to admit of the contents being read for the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to soak the essay on communication barriers workplace manuscript to make it more pliable and bacon and eltis thesis, then cut it open. The exact nature of the solution used to soften the manuscript is not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of spirits of zinc and linking paragraphs, water.(116) Encouraged by their success with Tiberius D. III, Ellis and bacon, Forshall were keen to try and restore some of the fragments stored in the charter garret.
Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and cinder'. After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the paragraphs in essays Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the Fragments which are written in the Saxon language. ; they amount to thesis, some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of and ethics essay, them single, and many adhering to each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in bacon thesis, this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in essay workplace, solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and and eltis, were clearly still at great risk from essay careless handling in the Reading Room. Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and this seems to have been a justified criticism. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of a number of bacon, important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Among the most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. VI);(124) 131 leaves from the and ethics essay Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great (Otho C. I, vol. 2); the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the bacon insular gospels in Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. V and Vitellius D. XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from essays Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of Junilius.
Among the later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of cartularies and bacon thesis, an important manuscript of Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Most notable of all was the work on the Cotton Genesis. Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the poverty essay fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the and eltis thesis volume, previously among the loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to appropriate to their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to be numbered and deposited in cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the number of on communication barriers in the workplace, fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the fragments to the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the restored volumes, and proposed printing these in a supplement to Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for bacon, Sir Frederic Madden and inserted in an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in the reference library of the Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and the results were not always completely satisfactory. Not only was the restoration incomplete, resulting in a pile of loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused.
In particular, vellum leaves were cut at the edge both to allow the fat-covered crusts to be opened and individual leaves to be flattened. Barriers? In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to be unnecessary and indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the bacon and eltis thesis leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for essay on communication in the workplace, the serrated appearance of the leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and are particularly visible in, for and eltis thesis, example, Otho B. Linking Paragraphs? II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. XIII, an early copy of Layamon, and Otho C. I, volume one, an bacon thesis Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on essay Forshall's record in the conservation of the Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. And Eltis? 31a. In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of 'Magna Carta and the ancient and otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to frankenstein, the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. It is and eltis thesis, clear from a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to the burnt Magna Carta rather than the other exemplar (Augustus II. 106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Essays On Montaigne? Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the restorer who had been used in unrolling and fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and secure the bacon thesis charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to have been far from satisfactory. In Essays? This document at present is bacon, largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii.
31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the and ethics burnt Magna Carta which showed the damage caused by the fire as limited chiefly to the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and thesis, Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Most of the damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of essay, a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the Museum in 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by Forshall's statement that 'There were in the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of bacon, manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 2008, 'the fragments and relics left by the fire, namely, the remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to a considerable extent, and and eltis, perhaps much more than one half of poverty and ethics, them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the year 1824. Bacon Thesis? I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and and ethics essay, opening them. The operation took up much time, and occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to bacon and eltis thesis, how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on the description in Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from bare inspection', and that the crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the restoration of the Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult. He repeatedly told the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in the Museum.(144)
During the 2008 Easter week of 1827, the Manuscript collections of the Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of placing systems used in Montagu House was abandoned and replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on bacon and eltis thesis the shelf according to size, regardless of june 2008 essay, previous numeration or subject content. They were then given a separate pressmark. At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf; from the mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. In order to find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on the flyleaf.
They were also put on the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for bacon and eltis, Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the hawthorne critical essays modern procedure of using printed labels on the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the thesis office of poverty essay, Secretary of the Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to bacon and eltis thesis, his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of Secretary and resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at my request, up with me to the garret called the Charter-Room (because the charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only a few fragments not worth the bother of dusting or sorting. To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of on communication, Bagford's Title-pages. covered with the accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of which appeared to me well worth the process of thesis, restoration.
Mr F. had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to doubt the linking in essays accuracy of his statement, and going on with my searches, I discovered in an old cupboard the identical Cartulary of Christ Church Twinham in Hampshire [Tiberius D. VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and very little the worse for the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. from the middle of the last century to the present day. I saw enough to make me resolve in my own mind, to have the entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the MSS. and bacon and eltis, I resolved at once to bring down into my own room the two large bundles which formed the barriers in the workplace Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an English Chronicle. I left up in the garret fragments of thesis, crusts of hawthorne critical, vellum enough to fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of receipts of and eltis, Sir Robert Cotton's, and three boxes said to contain the refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is very much to poverty and ethics essay, the discredit of Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the bacon long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over and over again could not by any possibility exist! Madden took the Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to his room, and began washing and flattening them, using the frankenstein essay methods pioneered by Davy and thesis, Forshall. His personal diary for essays, 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the bacon and eltis thesis washing pressing of the burnt Cartulary of Ch.
Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. The Calendar of june 2008 essay contests, Contents prefixed is complete, so that I shall be able by that means to easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. And Eltis Thesis? The account given of nathaniel, this Priory in the New Editn. And Eltis Thesis? of the Monasticon is very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of all the essay on communication barriers in the workplace Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of bacon thesis, fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into handing over the keys of the charter room,(154) and 2008 contests, immediately made a further examination of its contents. He gave a detailed account of the material stored there in his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November): Went up in the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. The contents of this room are at and eltis thesis present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and single leaves. In a dreadful state of dirt and confusion. (lock)
2. 2008 Essay? A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the burnt vellum Cotton MSS. (lock) 3. A large box recently made, containing portions of the burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of and eltis, Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. Hawthorne Critical? A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Ellis (Nailed down)(155) 7. A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of attorney) and bacon, some miscellaneous papers of no value, the latter placed there by poverty and ethics myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on 2 November again spent most of the bacon and eltis day personally washing and flattening the further fragments of the cartulary of Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of and ethics essay, Hampshire and planned to write a history of the county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an bacon achievement of which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the essay barriers in the first attempts at restoring the Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for major conservation work at his disposal. He doubted whether the thesis Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to the intricate task of dealing with the brittle vellum fragments.
Forshall had preferred to use Hogarth on more delicate work, such as unrolling the Egyptian papyri, and even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to the Trustees: that he has received from essays on montaigne Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and bacon and eltis, restore damaged manuscripts in the Bodleian and poverty, several of the College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to bacon and eltis, have a trial, in the restoration of the burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in which they are in, impossible to be used), and frankenstein, also on a few of the most valuable MSS. Bacon Thesis? such as the Greek psalter on papyrus, purchased of Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at on montaigne present [be] consulted without injury to them, and which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Bacon? Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. On Montaigne? that the terms of Gough are very moderate. He is at present still employed at Oxford, but will shortly come up to and eltis, London.(161) It is evident that Madden did not at essay this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the cost of and eltis, such a project. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by Forshall and which were in danger of damage as a result of the handling of loose unprotected leaves in the Reading Room.
It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of such elaborate conservation work was justified. On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of and ethics, opinion they neglect the interests of this Department by such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the newly recovered fragments. In his personal diary for 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in the Old Charter Room and finished looking over the larger box containing the burnt Cotton fragments, and bacon and eltis, selecting the poverty best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Saxon MSS. and discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. XIX], supposed to have been totally destroyed in and eltis, the fire'.(165) The impetus for the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from essays that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps.
On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and suggesting that the most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for action and instructed Madden to repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to thesis, be worth the expense of transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the poverty condition of the bacon thesis manuscripts, since he described all the volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the fragments) into three classes. The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by the agency of 2008, heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and bacon, rendered in a comparatively good condition for general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. are among the most valuable of those possessed by the Museum, such for essay, instance, as the unique Saxon poem of Beowulf [Vitellius A. XV], the Saxon Grammar of Ælfric [Julius A. II], a copy of the Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. IV], two copies of and eltis, Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the hawthorne author [Tiberius C. Bacon? II, and presumably Tiberius A. XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at this time, and linking paragraphs in essays, was elsewhere correctly assigned by Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. Thesis? V and C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the Cartulary of Worcester with the essays on montaigne Saxon Charters c. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. Bacon? He observed that 'None of these MSS. are at present in a state fit for paragraphs in essays, general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of these manuscripts: 'The expenses of bacon and eltis thesis, transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of some impossible. Sir F.M. thinks that the whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for in the workplace, this delicate work. He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by thesis the fire at Ashburnham House, needed treatment. He drew the Trustees' attention in particular to in essays, Royal MS.
15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of Plautus of the 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the and eltis original State Correspondence between England and essay workplace, other countries from the reign of Henry the Eighth to thesis, the reign of James the First'. This was by far the largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in frankenstein essay, all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by Tuckett'. However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the written edges must sustain further injury in being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the bacon thesis letters should be transcribed before they are placed in poverty and ethics, the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Thesis? Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to linking paragraphs in essays, this class, including some portions of paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in his letter.(171) Madden pointed out that the edges of bacon and eltis, this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and linking, broken by readers'. This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and kept with the main manuscript collections.
There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of which might be flattened and preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by stressing once again the need for outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the and eltis Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. And Ethics Essay? He also returned to an old hobbyhorse, the need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and the same is the case in regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the and eltis thesis Cotton Manuscripts. His classification and listing of the different types of damaged manuscripts provided the basis on which the work was organized over the next forty years. His analysis of the treatment required was acute and needed little modification as the essays on montaigne work proceeded. Thesis? He backed up his case by laying before the Trustees some of the most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at frankenstein essay the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. In particular, they were worried about the cost of restoring the vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to make use of Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to concentrate on the manuscripts in Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.
They ordered that the damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of these were marked by him as at risk of serious textual loss in the course of binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and bacon and eltis thesis, between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to reduce the cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in intire , but only the marginal words, which run the risk of being broken off in nathaniel essays, the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of this class of scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the bacon and eltis transcript is made, to bind it up leaf by leaf with the frankenstein coursework original.'(174) Madden describes the Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the necessity, yet the expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in their eyes, that they would only authorise me to have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to recommend that the and eltis preparation of transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the contests transcripts would have almost doubled the size of the collection and there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of this class should be inlaid and thesis, rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in earnest. Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the nathaniel critical essays paper manuscripts proceeded quickly.
By the end of 1841 the bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the damaged vellum manuscripts. His reaction to the Trustees' decision to concentrate on the paper manuscripts was to thesis, urge on them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on the use of the essays on montaigne damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of persons properly qualified to and eltis thesis, examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at this time read in the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to hawthorne critical essays, outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on the contents of the boxes of burnt fragments and to bacon thesis, prepare a further detailed schedule of the current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to frankenstein essay, Tuckett for inlaying a few of the damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from allowing them to remain as loose leaves is illustrated by bacon thesis an incident involving Forshall. Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of a few of the Norreys papers in contests, the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of bacon thesis, Tiberius A. X and 2008, found ff. And Eltis? 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search. Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Tib. A X, ff.
141-172 together with some other fragments of vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in a wicker basket, covered by his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is wonderful to me; for my own part I think him greatly to barriers workplace, blame in this matter. Among the fragments in and eltis, this basket I found portions of the 2d text of Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from including the lines in 2008 essay, my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to bacon and eltis, the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to 'the deplorable condition of the valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to which they are now daily subject. He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to repair MSS. in poverty, the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for me to and eltis, confer respecting the reparation of the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an essay coursework evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. And Eltis Thesis? Gough, the person to be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on Madden and essay on communication barriers in the workplace, Sir Frederic 'placed in and eltis thesis, his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to flatten and inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the linking paragraphs evening received from Gough the and eltis thesis additional fragments of injured Cotton MSS. Linking Paragraphs? that I placed in his hands. On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and thesis, it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for hawthorne, use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the and eltis fragments flattened and inlaid by Gough to the Trustees and linking, reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of work at the rate of 12s. per diem, from 9 in bacon thesis, the morning till 4 in the afternoon. He estimates the time and labor expended on the six fragments placed in his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to 16 might be taken in hand at the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to proceed with the paragraphs flattening and inlaying of such of the bacon thesis valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, the essays on montaigne interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell.
E. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. And Eltis? I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. A. XV, the Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. Poverty And Ethics Essay? D. VI. etc. These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to inlay the manuscripts separated by bacon Forshall and preserved as loose leaves, with the addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Essay Barriers In The? Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the bacon and eltis Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information. Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and essay workplace, disgracefully in and eltis, this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is evident in his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of 16 June on the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the necessity of having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to refer you to my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. However, he went on to give a detailed breakdown of the amount of work required.
The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to about 7300 leaves. With the exception of one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. In the drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and frankenstein coursework, additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the and eltis thesis boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of these, about 2900 leaves were from essay on communication barriers Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. The final 400 consisted of theological works from before the twelfth century. Bacon Thesis? Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to have all this material treated by Gough. He pointed out that 'The greater part by far of these consists of inedited matter , of a very valuable description.' The size of the leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of course the expense would vary with the size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to produce an accurate costing of the work, and Madden urged that, to establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and inlay three of these MSS. simultaneously '. He also took the opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to nathaniel, press the bacon and eltis case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of Gough's experiment on the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and I shewed them and urged the necessity of repairing the Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. They all appeared to approve of what I said, particularly the Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the on communication workplace Trustees authorized Madden to employ Gough to flatten and inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. VI) and the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV).
It was afterwards decided to leave the Alcuin volume for the time being, and use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. I, volume one, for the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work. The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In his work diary for 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and elsewhere, and discussing the subject with Ellis. 'The only room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the small room underneath my own, which is very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and bacon, Tiberius D. VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the nathaniel hawthorne essays results of and eltis, Gough's work before the Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. were accessible for literary purposes, and even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.
They are now completely secured for the future, and can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. In regard to hawthorne critical essays, the expense, the bacon great value of the MSS. of this class, in essays, Sir F. M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and bacon and eltis thesis, he begs leave to remark, that in the payments made to Gough, no charge is made by frankenstein essay him for the tracing paper at thesis 12s. per quire or isinglass at essay coursework 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the flexibility of the leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to be restored and inlaid, are of the bacon thesis latter class . Sir F.M. trusts that the volumes will meet with the on communication in the workplace approbation of the Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the bacon Trustees, worried at the expense, would agree to paragraphs, Gough's working only on 'four or five of the more valuable MSS. which Sir F.M. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. VI and 'one without a number', a household book of Edward I. Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to Madden, by writing on 19 April to say that 'having made his mind to reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in his work diary, 'This really is vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the inlaid leaves of Tiberius C. VI and Otho A. Bacon And Eltis Thesis? VI, Madden tried to persuade him to change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for the present, but I am in hopes that he will be able to give 3 months of his time yearly to the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to in essays, further work on the vellum manuscripts in thesis, 1843, and Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to supply Gough's place, and until he resumes and proceeds with the work undertaken by him, Sir F. Workplace? M. Bacon And Eltis? feels himself under the necessity of witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to 2008 essay, be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to bacon, settle this problem. On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to give up the frankenstein coursework whole of his time to the Museum, until the and eltis injured Cotton vellum MSS. are entirely restored; and to in essays, facilitate this, he begs to be allowed an assistant at the rate of 5d per diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in and eltis thesis, mind was his son Philip, who started work at the Museum in March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of poverty and ethics, 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215) For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts.
At last he had secured it. He interpreted the Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Not only were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and all necessary repairs undertaken. Bacon? Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to be the annus mirabilis of nathaniel hawthorne critical essays, conservation work on the Cotton collection. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the bacon Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. XV), the essay barriers in the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV), and the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the manuscript, Otho B. III, as well as cartularies from thesis Chertsey and coursework, Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and Otho B. Bacon? XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and some of the less badly damaged vellum material. Indeed, Madden's confidence in Tuckett's ability to deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to inlay the leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to equal if not surpass that of Gough. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to open the MS. of Capgrave [Otho D. On Montaigne? IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the bacon thesis worst in his hands. Gough's work could draw to a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219)
By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the length of time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to indicate 'which of these MSS. Nathaniel Critical? still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the beginning of his work on the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and bacon thesis, could be readily identified. As the work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and flattened. Thus, in his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on examining it, I found it to nathaniel critical essays, be Vitellius F.III, which is bacon, stated to be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. 2008 Contests? It contains the Lives of several saints c. by Ailred of thesis, Rievaux, and on montaigne, is a fine copy of the 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221) Madden therefore laid before the Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an bacon important change in procedure to speed up the work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and fragment, and after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at present, that for the present Mr Gough should be directed to confine his operations wholly to the task of cleaning, separating and and ethics, flattening, until the whole have been done. By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. would be enabled, as the bacon thesis mass was rendered capable of examination, to class the leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. When this was done, the more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only were Tiberius B. Workplace? VI, Otho A. Bacon? VII, Otho C. XI, part of Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and XIII, and Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to have been lost in the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to report that 'the entire mass of the burnt vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the inlaying of linking, these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements.
In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the Museum. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and of the vellum alone about 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the first public exhibition of manuscripts at the Museum in bacon and eltis thesis, 1851, arranged on hawthorne the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Gough from the miniaturist and accomplished imitator of medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Wing, showing an bacon and eltis thesis early manuscript of Roger of essays, Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and skill of Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the exhibition also included an example of a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. 9 C. Bacon And Eltis? X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts. He left behind a huge quantity of loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the most arduous task of all. In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of hawthorne, his brightest assistants, including the young Edward Maunde Thompson, in a final assault on the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of this concentration on the Cotton material that the cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at and eltis least pleased with himself for having pushed to the verge of completion one of the largest programmes of manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to recognize its importance. On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of poverty, Mr Thompson, one of my assistants, the whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to bacon thesis, go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and then identify, as far as possible, the rest. I have long had this work at heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to bind up in boards the whole of what now remains of the loose 'refuse' of the Cotton MSS. left after the fire of 1731 and which by my own labor and essay, perseverance were rescued from dust and oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in one of the garrets of the bacon old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the Museum.
I may then give a brief list of the Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and made available to scholars. I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in having undertaken and carried out june 2008 contests a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235) When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to receive its greatest setback. On the evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in his residence when at about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the bacon and eltis work of essay on communication workplace, a few moments to bacon and eltis thesis, fly downstairs, put on my boots and 2008 essay contests, overcoat, get out the bacon thesis Museum keys, and rush into the Court. The first thing I saw was an immense column of black smoke, followed by essay barriers workplace flames, rising apparently out of the corridor leading to Mr. Bacon? P's house, but on approaching closer, I perceived that the fire was not in essay in the, the corridor but in Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for bacon thesis, I knew that many MSS. of value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective.
Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on leave, and no trained replacements could be found, so that on essay on communication barriers in the the first attempt to bacon, use the fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the fire brigade, summoned by linking paragraphs telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'. The fire raged for over an and eltis thesis hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to try and find out essay coursework which manuscripts had been damaged. Fortunately most of the and eltis manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in the stone-vaulted room where the Duke of essays, Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and had escaped injury. This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the workshop. It was burnt on the outside and saturated with water. 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !'
On the and eltis thesis following day, Madden visited the essays devastated bindery to bacon and eltis, survey the damage. It appeared that the cause of the fire was a charcoal brazier in the finishing room, and essay, the manuscripts left overnight in this room had been destroyed and damaged. Madden ordered one of the bacon and eltis assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and check it by those returned so as to ascertain the extent of the loss. 'The MSS. brought to my house last night by Gatfield prove to essay on communication, be the remains of several Cottonian MSS. which after having had so much labor time expended on bacon thesis them, in nathaniel hawthorne essays, flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to be bound. It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the and eltis fire of 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. June Contests? The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in bacon thesis, a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to the salvage work to be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to acquaint some of the Trustees with the nathaniel critical essays bad news. Bacon And Eltis Thesis? He returned to the scene of the disaster in the afternoon. 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in barriers workplace, the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to bacon thesis, learn that the and ethics essay Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and myself had in our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. of the Arundel Collection, No. 243.' The techniques used by Madden and his staff in trying to rescue the thesis damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and june 2008 essay, myself, were at work to and eltis, separate the linking paragraphs in essays burnt soaked leaves of bacon and eltis, vellum and paper, and frankenstein coursework, then, with the help of one of C. Tuckett's men, to bacon and eltis, wash them, and hang them on lines to on communication in the workplace, dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night.
It ought to have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. And Eltis? P[anizzi] and accompanied him and his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the Museum in essay on communication barriers in the, 1753. In terms of the quality and importance of material destroyed, the loss was greater than the destruction of a large number of and eltis thesis, printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in coursework, establishing which manuscripts had been in bacon thesis, the bindery.(237) One at least (Arundel MS.
152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to june essay, have been damaged had been completely destroyed. The process of bacon thesis, separating, drying and identifying the linking in essays surviving fragments took at least two months.(239) The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the bacon and eltis Great's Pastoral Care. Madden described the circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the bin of charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the heat, and the MS. (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the fire) and are all that remains of the manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in the fire: Galba A. I, II and III.
Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and other texts. Thought to nathaniel critical, be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of it before they all perished in the bindery fire. Galba A. II and III were a collection of Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of which Madden had found a large part. In addition to bacon and eltis, Tiberius B. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. Paragraphs In Essays? I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the damage to Otho A. X, containing the unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. XII, the bacon and eltis manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and Asser. At the time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and restored to Otho A. XII.
In fact, these leaves were from the text of essays, Æthelweard in Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the effects of the fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. And Eltis? 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed. Arundel MS. 152 and Additional MSS. 25686 and paragraphs in essays, 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the complete impression of the bacon third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the Catalogue of Maps and Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of time finally preparing for the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of corrections and additions, only to see it suppressed by Panizzi and the Trustees.
As a result of the fire, this volume of the catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of so much of essay barriers workplace, his recent work on the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and bacon and eltis, the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and sank into despondency. The last straw came in the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to retire.
On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and inventories of the manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on essay coursework to describe his work on the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the Restorer of the Cottonian Library, for out of the number of volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and superintendence have been in bacon and eltis thesis, great measure recovered, and the whole of the damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on 29 September 1866. His official diary for the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the remaining fragments on frankenstein coursework vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to be prepared for the binder. I now say Finis to my long and bacon thesis, arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by means of which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in essays, 1802 will prove the extent of what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the bacon and eltis thesis Cotton Manuscripts is a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of tragedy in its conclusion.
The scale of the achievement of Madden and his colleagues is even more apparent when the linking techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. An appreciation of this process is essential to a full understanding of the present structure of many of the Cotton Manuscripts. The records of Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the Cotton library. Bacon? However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for purchase -- is carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the key for essays, tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of and eltis thesis, 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the essay coursework gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in bacon and eltis, tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is provided by three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of key information from his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in giving evidence to the Royal Commission into workplace, the Museum in 1848 and 1849.
The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the thesis Cotton MSS. in reference to the binding, inlaying and nathaniel essays, repairs since the year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and provides perhaps the best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the exact treatment each volume received, the date when it was done, the number of folios in the volume, and the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the 1732 report on the fire which he had interleaved and which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the basis for bacon and eltis thesis, the detailed description of the in the workplace current condition of the Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Madden,(254) and and eltis, two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the 1732 report.(255) A number of Madden's working lists and notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to hawthorne, use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by Madden in 1837, which he described as 'a list of the whole of the MSS. Bacon And Eltis Thesis? then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the contents of each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the printed notes of Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. notes of critical, Mr Forshall and himself'. Bacon And Eltis Thesis? Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to describe the manuscripts restored by him. The only frankenstein, exceptions were some of the State Papers, for which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the articles not noted in bacon thesis, Planta. These have never been published, and indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by Madden in the copy of Planta kept in the Keeper of Manuscripts' Room and preserved in the Departmental Reference library.
This volume summarizes much of the information about the structure of the Cotton library accrued in the process of restoration. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of masses of material is recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of scribbled notes, many of them by Madden and sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection. Another valuable source for the history of the restoration under Madden is the printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on critical the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. His notes on the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from bacon public view until recently. Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the paragraphs in essays contents consisted of not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and and eltis, lists of acquisitions.
Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the Curators of the Bodleian Library offered them to on montaigne, the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the and eltis thesis business of the Department of MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for on montaigne, the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to and eltis, the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the department instead of being placed with collections open to the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the frankenstein coursework restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in thesis, 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on his restoration work, including the linking ledger recording the work on each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of and eltis thesis, this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and linking paragraphs, far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to Treasures of Art in Great Britain , described how in 1835, on bacon thesis his first visit to the British Museum, the leaves of the poverty and ethics Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the effects of the fire'. By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and bacon and eltis, mounted on separate sheets of paper, so as to admit a due estimate being formed of their style of paragraphs, art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to bacon, the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. June 2008 Essay? He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the bacon and eltis thesis binder could not help covering some letters or portions of nathaniel hawthorne, letters in every back page with the edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on Vitellius A. XV was part of thesis, a general restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.
A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the critical restoration.(264) The work of Madden and Forshall was also briefly noted by Edward Edwards in thesis, his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of coursework, material in the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and his binders in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts were first described in bacon, detail, by Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the poverty essay procedure adopted in inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the binder then cut out the center of the paper, following the and eltis outline, but leaving from poverty and ethics essay 1 to bacon and eltis, 2 mm. of paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to this marginal retaining space, and the folio was pressed into place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on the recto, thus to secure the mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the advantages of this procedure. It saves having to handle the vellum while consulting the manuscript. Frankenstein Essay Coursework? Moreover, it avoids the risk of confusing leaves inherent in handling the bacon thesis loose vellum. The drawback is that the in essays edges of the paper frames cover letters and parts of and eltis, letters on the verso of each leaf, which are thus effectively lost.
However, as Kiernan points out, at least 'there is something left to try and june, decipher; without the bacon paper frames many of these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. He showed that by lighting the obscured vellum from essay contests behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the obscured letters and demonstrated the thesis use of computer imaging to coursework, restore the hidden letters to their place in the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the condition of the vellum, Madden and Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in and eltis thesis, the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of poverty, all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Wherever the text on the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the thesis paper frame, there is essays, likely to be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to and eltis, both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in the case of the vellum manuscripts.
Moreover, the inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the in essays vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of text are concealed beneath the thesis mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to essay on communication, be inlaid in this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. V, the sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the first description of a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to thesis, order, and are thus decribed by Dr Smith(273) in his Catalogue. Cod. chartac. in fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the june 2008 essay edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Bacon? Nevertheless, the result is an impressive first attempt. On Communication In The? Just as in the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and words around the edges of the leaves on the verso which can now be read by the use of fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the inlaid leaves of bacon and eltis thesis, Vitellius F. On Montaigne? V and and eltis thesis, compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the poverty and ethics essay MS. when perfect, and who quotes largely from it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to its original order. He carefully noted the thesis month and year of each entry in ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an entry is mentioned by Strype, gives the frankenstein essay coursework reference in pencil on the manuscript itself.
His comment on the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for the labor and time consumed in arranging them in their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to bacon and eltis, produce the first full edition of frankenstein, Machyn's diary in 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the results of this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and VIII (which afterwards turned out to in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. IV) inlaid and rebound in September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the credit for bacon and eltis thesis, devising the techniques used in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of Gough's work he had seen in june 2008, Oxford. This is confirmed by Madden's stress on the fact that the volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and and eltis thesis, the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in the work undertaken by Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to open up, clean, flatten, make frames for and mount thousands of leaves.
Each stage of the work required manual dexterity and essays, skill of the highest order. Bacon And Eltis? Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the inlaid leaves. As these were returned to Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to Tuckett for binding. Linking Paragraphs? It should be noted that, in this respect, the bacon thesis notes made by essay coursework Madden in bacon and eltis, the binding ledger, Additional MS. Nathaniel Critical? 62577, as to the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading.
Even where the letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and rebound, Gough was responsible only for the inlaying of the and eltis thesis leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by Madden were actually bound up by Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by nathaniel hawthorne essays him in sorting and arranging the inlaid leaves.(282) References to work on individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is and eltis, clear that, in establishing the order of the essay coursework leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and Wanley. In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS. Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Originally it consisted of 291 leaves, but previous to Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only 255 and at bacon and eltis thesis present I find only 239 much injured by linking fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the remaining leaves and placed them in the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the bacon and eltis thesis process of arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for the binder the vellum fragments of MS. Linking Paragraphs In Essays? Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale.
This volume was much injured in the fire of thesis, 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by Gough. I am enabled to place them in order by comparing each leaf with the printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. 2008? II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the and eltis same text, Tiberius B. Critical Essays? XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and and eltis thesis, the care with which he carried it out is evident, to take a random example, from a collection of twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. Nathaniel? The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Henry of Huntingdon. These represent a very partial survival of the original volume, comprising parts of articles 3, 5-8 and 11 of the manuscript as described by Smith. In the first of the and eltis thesis surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the and ethics essay order of the leaves has been determined by reference to two different manuscripts (Royal MS. 13 E. Thesis? VI and Cotton MS. On Montaigne? Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Detailed references to these various works are supplied in pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. And Eltis? On f. Frankenstein Coursework? 10 a reference to the Royal MS. has been replaced with one from Claudius E. III and the folio number altered from 6 to 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. And Eltis? Between ff.
15 and 25 there are a number of on communication in the workplace, erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to the sequence and rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the blank leaves if found. On ff. 26 and 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of this type. Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and the foliation of the subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at thesis various points to indicate the original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. ff. 62-65). Nathaniel Critical Essays? This was useful to and eltis thesis, him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.
To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on frankenstein essay the top right hand corner, which is still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in and eltis thesis, the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of and ethics, this manuscript had survived the fire and indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by bacon thesis Planta. On Montaigne? The fragments were eventually retrieved from the refuse in the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. The manuscript consisted in 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by Forshall to thesis, belong to Otho C. V were in fact from Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in and ethics essay, Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is and eltis thesis, clear that the bulk of the manuscript was recovered by paragraphs Forshall, and that the additions made by Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. Bacon And Eltis Thesis? The leaves treated by Forshall can be identified from the june 2008 contests 'notching' left when the and eltis thesis manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. On Communication Barriers? I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by Madden during the and eltis latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in order more effectively to protect the fragments, which are particularly brittle. In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for each leaf on the top of the paper mount. Some of the points at which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of these references.(295) During the course of the arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and could be joined together, so he returned them to Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to be bound. Four leaves were added to the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and were given starred folio numbers.
In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in essays, fact came from Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in the sequence of bacon and eltis thesis, Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from this is that the leaves from essays on montaigne Otho A. I had been placed at the end of the volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the same time as the leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of any disruption in the foliation are the and eltis four starred folios, the most likely explanation is that these are the and ethics fragments identified by Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to and eltis, the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of Otho C. V were mounted on june essay contests guards and rebound in 1963.(302) Although the various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the bacon thesis weaknesses of Madden's work was the confusion he left in the referencing system of essay on communication workplace, particular manuscripts. New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done.
Thus, in Vitellius C. VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. Bacon And Eltis Thesis? 139. Barriers Workplace? He continued Planta's foliation sequence from this point in pencil up to f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the bacon and eltis numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation. As a result, before 1875, the manuscript contained two sets of ff. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and was one of the reasons for the refoliation of all the on montaigne Cotton Manuscripts in the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by Madden and his team on the arrangement of the thesis restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in on montaigne, scope: Smith, Wanley and bacon thesis, a handful of coursework, very old editions. Many of the fragments were scorched and shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. And Eltis Thesis? The task of sorting and arrangement of the leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the fragments started to be flattened and linking in essays, inlaid without preliminary sorting. By 1856, thousands of inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of and eltis, which had to be individually identified.
In the meantime, Madden was growing older and his sight began to deteriorate. On Communication? He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in bacon, the sorting and arrangement of the fragments. The first to be recruited in this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on the State Papers. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to the task. In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the Cotton MS. Otho D. Critical? I (which was done in a very slovenly way previously by thesis Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.
Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the remains of MS. Cott. Calig. D. X, XI, E. I and E. II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the work was N.E.S.A. Paragraphs In Essays? Hamilton, who in 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to his attention as a result of his work with the Cotton Manuscripts. This document records an early stage in the Domesday survey of bacon and eltis thesis, Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to on communication, the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the bacon Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by 2008 contests Madden 'to arrange and where possible to bacon thesis, restore to their proper places a considerable number of essay on communication barriers in the, separate and damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and and eltis thesis, it was while thus employed that he made the linking paragraphs in essays discovery of the important nature of the Domesday portion of the bacon and eltis thesis manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310)
Hamilton did a great deal of work on the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable. On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. Paragraphs In Essays? XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to be lost ';(311) on closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the and eltis identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of which are now in frankenstein coursework, Otho A. VIII, Otho B. Bacon? X and Otho B. XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and assigned to poverty and ethics, the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and were sent to Madden for checking. On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the thesis Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, and directed them to coursework, be inserted in their places which I ascertained by collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of them. Five leaves of bacon and eltis, Boethius he notes as Colloquy. On Communication Barriers In The? Description of Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of bacon, identifying and arranging the fragments was the young Edward Maunde Thompson.
Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. Poverty And Ethics? In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of bacon, Vitellius A. III(318), located a number of fragments from Otho A. 2008 Essay? III and rearranged Vitellius A. Bacon And Eltis? VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the june essay contests chronicle of Roger of bacon and eltis, Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the leaves of the commencement of Tib. A. IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of Vitell. A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is poverty and ethics, a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to bacon and eltis, have been responsible for identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. Essay On Communication In The? X, as part of the unique manuscript of Asser, the first article of Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the bacon thesis placenames in Asser(325) and was only paragraphs in essays, rectified by bacon thesis Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in poverty and ethics essay, the bindery fire, still form the first seven folios of Otho A. XII. It is perhaps only when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the bacon thesis Cotton Manuscripts are in a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the hawthorne essays original materials by Madden and his colleagues. Bacon And Eltis Thesis? The words of Susan Sontag describing the 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to essays on montaigne, mind: 'neither replica or original.
A perfect job of reconstruction, for the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the bacon Cotton collection. They were the only part of the poverty and ethics collection which was renumbered when it came to the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and an arabic number recording the piece number of the charter within the drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3. The numbers from this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the thesis 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to essay contests, the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the bacon thesis use of a separate designation for these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and Rolls. This has led to the confusing situation where the essays item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in bacon thesis, fact presented to the Museum by Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in june essay contests, the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of bacon and eltis thesis, their likely provenance.
Hand in hand with the essay coursework restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the thesis history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of essays, much lost and stray material. Madden compiled a detailed list of lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in his possession, Vitellius D. IX, to bacon thesis, the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. Essay In The? On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from Mr D. Laing giving me a description of a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. And Eltis Thesis? Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. I think so too .'(335) The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in critical and editorial standards. Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of fundamental importance in this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of essay contests, many of the thesis key English historical sources edited in the Rolls Series and elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only two extant manuscripts of Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. On Communication Barriers? V) and a presentation copy of Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. VIII).
Moreover, the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the exact extent of the survival of particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for bacon and eltis thesis, new editions of 2008 essay, texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to a few fragments, such as Gildas and bacon thesis, Asser. Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of poverty and ethics essay, modern historical technique in Britain. This is reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the work on the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and bacon, Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the Cotton Library, those of Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to the collection they describe. June 2008? The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to the status of a historical document: an bacon thesis indispensable guide to the contents of the collection before the fire but no longer an up-to-date working catalogue.
The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating. Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by on montaigne Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in his Observations on and eltis thesis the State of Historical Literature , published in 1830. Poverty And Ethics? This attacked the work of the Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of short and vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the general index at the end of the volume is extremely incomplete. Bacon? For example, the Cottonian collection contains the essay highly valuable chronicle of thesis, Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to it in the general index; and other omissions of equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338) In giving evidence to the 1836 Select Committee on the Museum, Nicolas not only repeated the criticisms in his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of manuscripts thought to workplace, be completely lost, and and eltis thesis, offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in paragraphs in essays, the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of course, already rendered Planta seriously out of date in this respect and it was no longer an accurate statement of and eltis, those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in the Reading Room.
Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to Planta's catalogue was needed. The basis for this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in his catalogue. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to critical essays, distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue. Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of bacon, loans and survive elsewhere. Contests? Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the and eltis refrain of 'deest' and 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and linking, more misleading. Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Planta as lost or useless were being made available for and eltis, public consultation.
Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by june essay Planta were rearranged, so that the description itself became out of date. This was communicated to readers, if at all, by bacon and eltis brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in the margins of copies of Planta's catalogue in the Reading Room. Nathaniel Hawthorne Critical? Not surprisingly, towards the end of and eltis, Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for 6 December 1861 contains the following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to him by the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of MSS. has taken the trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the references to the injured Cottonian MSS. which have been restored by my direction and under my superintendence, and then by way of a grievance, asking why a copy of Smith's Catalogue of 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an account of those MSS. Essays? which had been restored.
My answer is thus, to this anonymous piece of spite. 1. There is a copy of Smith's Catalogue in the Reading Room always has been. 2. At the end of Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. damaged or lost by fire in 1731. 3. A great part of the MSS. so restored have been bound placed on bacon the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for every reader who wishes to know of any remains of a MS. (said by Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to hawthorne critical, ask, and he is immediately informed. 5. Thesis? For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of Planta's Catalogue for the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the essays MSS. wholly or in part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to bacon, execute this, since it would require the services of an extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342) Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to provide better information about the availability of particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to the Trustees that all the poverty essay restored manuscripts needed to bacon thesis, be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to be made; to do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in English History and Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the barriers in the workplace committee's report. One was retained for bacon thesis, internal Departmental use.
The other was placed at the catalogue desk in in essays, the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in the Reading Room for bacon and eltis thesis, very long. Nathaniel Hawthorne Critical? It was withdrawn from the catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in and eltis thesis, 1885. It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the copy originally intended for the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. In 1984 this information was finally made available in print, when one of the volumes was published in facsimile in Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the linking parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the work done by bacon Madden on the Cotton Manuscripts but is hawthorne essays, nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.
It was not kept up to date and does not record the further work on the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Thesis? Many leaves were added to manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and there are only indirect references to the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and sorting the manuscripts in the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the and ethics interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of bacon thesis, a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of hawthorne, successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to Madden's time. In the thesis 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them. Shortly before the First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and in the workplace, the remaining loose fragments. These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to bacon and eltis, be the first stage in the preparation of a new catalogue. With the outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library.
The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to start work on a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the frankenstein essay Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. The rules drawn up for the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by the Trustees on the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. It is important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. It was proposed to issue the catalogue in a series of bacon and eltis, fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in Emperor order. It was hoped to linking paragraphs, draw on the expertise of readers and an appeal for information on the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. M. Powicke and V. H. Galbraith were to be consulted on the treatment of chronicles and F. M. Stenton was to act as advisor on the cartularies. This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of war. The dispersal of and eltis, staff and collections during the war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the Blitz of the printers stock of the descriptions of the Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for 1921-1925 and part of 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of essays, Madden did not mark the conclusion of work on the restoration of the and eltis thesis Cotton Manuscripts.
He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of inlaid fragments not yet identified and a little loose material. The annual reports of the Museum for 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on linking these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to concentrate on his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the decision seems to have been taken to bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. And Eltis Thesis? Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of barriers workplace, particular fragments. This was the origin of the present series of bacon and eltis, Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in the garret in 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by Madden was kept respectively in essay, a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. And Eltis? Detailed work on the identification of this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to have led to any extensive rearrangement. Essays On Montaigne? The loose material was not generally available for bacon thesis, public consultation. Eventually in 1990 the june 2008 decision was taken to sew the bacon thesis loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in the Students' Room. This work was undertaken by Cyril Titus of the june 2008 essay contests Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on the work of Millar and Warner. The material from the former 'case' is now available as Fragments XXX.
It is intended that the contents of the 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in this fashion. The story of the restoration is not yet ended. Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the bacon and eltis thesis possibilities opened up by the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to show signs of age. Vellum behaves in essay, a different way to paper. As the vellum moves in one direction, the paper moves in another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in one or two places the bacon and eltis thesis vellum is nathaniel hawthorne critical essays, becoming detached from the bacon thesis paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for the mounts of some of the fragments.
This accounts for the yellowing of some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. A conservation technique which balances the need to preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to be developed. In some respects, we are back in the time of Ellis and Forshall. June 2008? Again the words of Susan Sontag in respect of the Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of reconstruction, for its time. And Eltis Thesis? Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely.
No, to essays, the mind'.(357) Reports of bacon and eltis thesis, Matthew Maty and Henry Rimius on the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the essay copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. Bacon And Eltis Thesis? 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and june 2008 essay contests, Mr Rimius concerning the state in which they have found the manuscripts and medals in the Cottonian collection. According to the order given us by the Honourable Committee of the Trustees of the British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at the Cottonian Repository, and examined the manuscripts, by comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in 1695, and with the account which was given by Mr Casley in 1732 of the state of the manuscripts after the fire. For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by the names of the twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and Faustina, and the Appendix; and and eltis thesis, having counted the number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and compared them with the catalogues, to frankenstein, be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of and eltis, them. And though, for want of time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to frankenstein coursework, the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by and eltis the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue.
Yet several of these being placed in contests, presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to bacon thesis, be aired and and ethics essay, carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of those which he declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. Yet the most damaged still capable of being read, either in part or entire. B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and bacon, 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to in essays, be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. Though nothing is said of them in the account, have most of them greatly suffered by the fire. D. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. Answers to the catalogue compared with the report.
A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by the fire, and and eltis, have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to Mr Casley's account of the effect of the fire upon them. A. 6 is essay on communication in the workplace, not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to thesis, in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to paragraphs in essays, be lost by Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Bacon And Eltis Thesis? Answer to the catalogues compared one with the poverty essay other. A. According to thesis, the report consists of 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of number XII being the Life of Alfred by in essays Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to bacon and eltis thesis, be destroyed, are in part legible. The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. Several bundles and loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in part, be recovered and read.
Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and poverty and ethics essay, 17 under F, which were the only ones under the several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at bacon and eltis least in part, among the sad remains of this precious part of the hawthorne critical essays collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 1747 and 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and answers only to the number, which we found to and eltis thesis, be as follows: Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the charters, curiosities co. and essay on communication in the workplace, of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to the meeting of the committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. And Eltis? July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described.
But as nothing of all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of a catalogue, which the Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to look them over one by one, to pick up the late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to affix to every one of essays on montaigne, them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and bacon, indeed we ought not to frankenstein essay coursework, be very particular in our account of these precious relicts, as such an account would not only be dry and tedious, but also in a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in the future arrangement of this part of the collection. Bacon And Eltis Thesis? We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. Nathaniel Critical? These few appeared to us to be of little consequence, to lose more time than we could spare in bacon, looking for them amidst the rubbish of bits of hawthorne critical essays, parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and are now going to add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Several of them being entirely relative to the Cotton family seem to thesis, be of little use to the public, and the same may be said of many more, which only serve to swell but in our opinion by no means to enrich this collection.
Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the greatest care of them. Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the essay contests sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident. Bacon And Eltis? We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at bottom. The explanations of Magna Carta and of that of the Forests by Edward the essays First are likewise subsisting, and ought we think to and eltis, be brought nearer than they now are to on communication, the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in 1297, the bacon and eltis thesis Scotch Barons' submission to nathaniel hawthorne critical essays, the English King's determination, the declaration of John, King of France, about the quarrel between the Dukes of bacon thesis, Lancaster and Brunswick in 1352, the essays on montaigne Archbishop of Canterbury and bacon, of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in the affair of the divorce with Ann of linking, Cleves, an instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the pieces contained in this press is alone sufficient to render them venerable.
Several of them are of the ancient Saxon and Danish kings, viz. Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the and eltis books and effects of the several monasteries, expenses for essay, the table of thesis, their abbots, and orders for the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared. But what constitutes by much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Essays On Montaigne? Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and bacon and eltis thesis, dispensations, ordinations of bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of that honour, and on montaigne, proper to ascertain the titles of several churches to their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of this press do not appear to us of bacon, very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to have abused the june essay contests patience of and eltis thesis, this learned assembly by our hasty and very imperfect account.
London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of essay contests, Caligula D. V (f.
11) and Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of lost Cotton and Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.
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essay oprah winfrey Oprah Gail Winfrey. Lifespan development begins from birth and includes all happenings in bacon and eltis a person’s life until their death. Oprah Gail Winfrey was born on January 29, 1954 in a small farm in poverty and ethics Kosciusko, Mississippi (Krohn 4). Vernita Lee, Oprah’s mother was eighteen years old at the time and unmarried. However, she was in a relationship with twenty-year-old, Vernon Winfrey who was in the army service. At the time of Oprah’s birth, Vernita was still living with her mother and did not have a source of income. Bacon Thesis? Soon after her birth, Oprah’s mother went in search of employment and left Oprah with Hattie Mae Lee, her mother. Life in the farm was not so pleasant as Oprah’s grandmother was poor. They did not have enough money to cater for their basic needs like food and clothing. Poverty And Ethics Essay? Oprah’s grandmother knew the importance of education and bacon and eltis thesis, taught her granddaughter basic reading skills at an early age.
She was also introduced to the Christian religion at this early age and essay coursework, would often recite poems at the local church. When Oprah turned six, she went to live with her mother Vernita in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which was an urban neighborhood as compared to the farm in and eltis Mississippi (Krohn 8). Essay Coursework? During this period, she did not get as much support as would have been required since her mother had to thesis, work long hours as a housemaid. Oprah had a hard time settling in this neighborhood and was raped by linking in essays, one of bacon her cousins when she was nine years old. 2008 Essay? This case went unreported and she was sexually harassed by one of her mother’s friends and an uncle.
As there was no therapy to help her deal with the trauma, she became rebellious and and eltis, ran away from home at the age of nathaniel critical thirteen. Subsequently, she engaged in promiscuous sexual behavior, which resulted in and eltis thesis a pregnancy at the age of fourteen. On Montaigne? However, her delivery was unsuccessful as she had a stillborn child. This added to her trauma and her mother sent her to live with her father in Nashville, Tennessee (Garson 9). From this point on, Oprah’s life changed and she became more disciplined under her father’s strict rules. Additionally, her grades at school improved and her success could be seen from bacon her participation in various contests in East Nashville High School (Krohn 17). Moreover, her career path started taking shape after she joined the on montaigne speech team and and eltis thesis, won an oratory contest helping her secure a scholarship at Tennessee State University. Her teenage years were also characterized by her winning beauty pageants in her neighborhood. Oprah’s talent and efforts were recognized by a local radio station (WVOL), which employed her while she was still in high school and when she joined college.
At the age of twenty-two, Oprah wanted to pursue her career further and she moved to Baltimore. 2008 Essay? Here she started her television talk show, which was reasonably successful because it went on for eight years. After this, she was employed by and eltis thesis, a Chicago broadcasting company as the host of a morning show, which was an opening in her career as a TV personality. Nathaniel Critical Essays? In 1986, and at the age of and eltis 32, the show was renamed to the Oprah Winfrey Show as it had attracted the attention of poverty and ethics many Americans. The content being shown in bacon the show changed in 1990 when Oprah decided to cover social issues that affected people. Poverty And Ethics Essay? This increased her ratings as people found the show not only and eltis thesis, entertaining but also educative. Poverty And Ethics? The Oprah Winfrey show has lasted for and eltis thesis, twenty-five years and is expected to essay, end in 2011. Socially, Oprah is not married but has been in bacon and eltis thesis a long-term relationship with Stedman Graham since 1986 (Krohn 100). Additionally, she has no children but is involved in numerous charity events for disadvantaged children. Her contributions are distributed through the Oprah’s Angel Network.
One of her most notable efforts is nathaniel critical her contributions towards enhancing the lives of South African children affected by AIDS and poverty. She has also established a leadership academy named after her in Johannesburg, South Africa. Additionally, she is thesis credited for her support to President Barrack Obama during the 2008 elections. She continues to essay, be one of the most influential people worldwide. Bacon Thesis? Oprah’s mentor is Maya Angelou, one of the most famous African American writers who Oprah names as a mother figure and friend (Garson 79).
Her influence on how people react to different issues is profound and she is often called to barriers workplace, give her opinion on bacon thesis, societal issues. According to psychological studies, a human being’s life is divided into several stages. Over the years, various theories have been brought up explaining the linking paragraphs different stages that every human being must go through in their life. As much as these theories talk about the same thing, they have some similar and some differing points depending on era and personal views that they exhibited during their time. Bacon And Eltis? One of the most famous psychologists of the twentieth century is Erik Erikson who developed one of the most popular theories of human development. His theory covers eight stages, which can be efficiently applied to Oprah Winfrey’s life span. The stages are divided in reference to a person’s age and experiences and how these affect the future stages. The first stage in Erikson’s theory of frankenstein coursework development spans 0 to 1 years and is referred to as trust vs. mistrust or the oral sensory phase (Berk17). Bacon And Eltis Thesis? In this stage, a child is completely helpless and they depend on others for everything. In this phase, if the in essays parent or any other caregiver meets a child’s needs, the child will develop trust. This enables a child to achieve comfort and reliance on the ability of the caregiver to provide for their needs.
In Oprah’s life, her grandmother was the one taking care of and eltis thesis her at this stage. Although she did not have financial power to cater for all her needs, she tried and thus Oprah developed a reasonable level of trust to move to june 2008 contests, the next stage. The second stage is called autonomy vs. shame and doubt or the muscular-anal stage. This phase of development takes place between one to three years. During this phase, a child is able to bacon, achieve some level of frankenstein essay independence only bacon and eltis thesis, if they are encouraged by the caregivers. A child in this stage has the ability to june contests, choose what she wants depending on the freedom granted to her. In this stage, Oprah was still living with her grandmother and was beginning to learn reading skills. This enabled her to achieve some sort of autonomy as she could choose whatever books she wanted to read. In Erikson’s theory, the third stage is bacon thesis referred to as initiative vs. guilt or the locomotor stage (Sigelman and Rider 55). Poverty Essay? A child between the ages of thesis three to five years is said to be in this stage. At this stage, children are curious and will take the initiative to do something that they have chosen by themselves.
This may be a good or a bad thing. If the essay caregiver encourages the child to continue with the activity, it will be embedded in and eltis thesis their behavior. Poverty? On the other hand, if the caregiver discourages certain activities, children will lose interest due to guilt. In Oprah’s case, this period was characterized by bacon thesis, a development of interest in reading. Her grandmother supported her and encouraged this behavior. Subsequently, this behavior was embedded in Oprah’s behavior and can be seen in her interest in reading even at an advanced age. The fourth stage is referred to as industriousness vs. inferiority and takes place between the ages of six and eleven years (Berk 17).
According to Erikson, this period is june essay contests characterized by bacon thesis, physical development that enables a child to nathaniel hawthorne critical essays, complete tasks at school and at home. Additionally, this stage is formative since unrecognized efforts may lead to the development of inferiority complex and low self-esteem. This was a very crucial stage for Oprah since she had to move to her mother’s house in Milwaukee. Due to the lack of support from her mother, Oprah developed feelings of being inferior to others leading to low grades in school. Additionally, the lack of attention from her mother could have led to bacon, her delinquency. In Erikson’s theory, the fifth stage is referred to as identity vs. role confusion (Sigelman and Rider 50). This occurs between the ages of twelve to eighteen and is commonly known as adolescence. In this period, a person is developing physically and they are very conscious about self-image.
Additionally, children begin to explore different roles, which they assume are in line with their personalities. A person may change goals often as they keep rediscovering themselves in the search for identity. If a person is well rounded and supported by caregivers, they will develop a strong sense of identity with a clear picture of what they want in june 2008 essay contests life. However, if this is the opposite, a person will be in an identity crisis. For Oprah, this stage was divided into two due to bacon and eltis thesis, the different characters she developed.
When she was eleven to fourteen years old, Oprah was in an identity crisis, as she did not know who she was or what she wanted to be. The sexual harassment incidences confused her leading to her promiscuous behavior (Krohn 19). Additionally, the pregnancy and the death of the baby was the essay barriers in the workplace turning point as she went to live with her father. Due to the strict and supportive nature of her father, she was able to find an identity and improve her grades while understanding her talents in public speaking. In the years between her fourteenth and eighteenth years, she had developed confidence and retreated from the confusions that had existed when she was younger.
The sixth stage is referred to bacon and eltis thesis, as intimacy vs. isolation and 2008 essay, lasts between eighteen and thirty five years. In this stage, persons are focused on intimate relationships or significant development of career (Cooper and Roth 39). Bacon Thesis? For Oprah, this stage was characterized by growth in essay coursework her career, which lessened her focus on intimate relationships. The seventh stage is called generativity vs. stagnation and lasts between the ages of thirty-five to fifty-five. Thesis? A person in poverty and ethics this stage is actively involved with future generation as a parent or as a mentor (Cooper and Roth 40). For Oprah, this stage has been characterized by her numerous philanthropic actions toward disadvantaged children. Additionally, she also teaches some classes in the leadership school she started in bacon and eltis South Africa.
The last developmental stage takes place when a person is fifty-five years and june, above and is referred to as ego integrity vs. despair or maturity (Cooper and Roth 42). And Eltis? People in this stage focus on evaluating their life and accepting who they are and their life achievements. Oprah is nathaniel hawthorne critical currently in this stage and this can be seen from her ending the talk show and starting her own network. This shows that she has settled and is ready to take on a less active role in the business. Another psychologist who is renowned for his theories is Sigmund Freud. His theories on lifespan development focus more on a psychosexual perspective as opposed to that of Erikson. He noted that sexual development determined which stage of growth a person is in. This led to bacon, the formation of a phased out theory, which explained child development depending on linking in essays, the source of pleasure. The first stage is referred to as oral and occurs from birth to one year.
At this stage, a child learns how to and eltis, suckle the breast or the bottle and 2008 essay contests, this is the mouth represents a source of pleasure and satisfaction. During this period, a child expects the caregiver to thesis, meet his or her oral needs adequately. If these needs are not met, a child is likely to develop finger sucking or fingernail biting habits. According to Berk , this may also lead to smoking and overeating as the child matures (16). The second stage in Freud’s psychosexual development theory is the anal phase, which last from one to three years. During this phase, caregivers focus on paragraphs in essays, toilet training as a form of physical and thesis, cognitive development. In this perspective, caregivers have to start this training at critical essays the right time and bacon and eltis thesis, give children the chance to develop. Essay? If they are too strict, children may fail to and eltis thesis, develop this important skill.
In Freud’s theory, the third stage is phallic whereby children between three and six years enjoy genital stimulation (Sigelman and Rider 35). Additionally, this period may lead to the development of Oedipus and Electra complexes. The fourth stage is the latency stage, which occurs between six to eleven years. Children in this stage lose interest in linking sexual activities and focuses on same-sex friendships. The last stage is called genital and develops from bacon adolescence to poverty essay, maturity. In this stage, people focus on mature sexual behavior, which may lead to marriage and childbirth (Sigelman and Rider 36). Oprah has gone all through the first four stages and is currently in the genital stage. Though unmarried, she is in a relationship, which has lasted almost twenty years. However, the early pregnancy may have led to thesis, her lack of interest in child bearing. Jean Piaget is renowned for his theory on human cognitive development. In his theory, human development is decided into essays on montaigne four major stages, which define the kind of development that they are undergoing.
The first stage is called sensorimotor and bacon and eltis, last from birth to two years (Berk 19). During this stage, the thinking process is restricted to essay workplace, what children see, hear, touch and taste. As the child develops further, they are able to solve simple problems like how to hold a bottle so that they can suckle. And Eltis? The next stage is called the preoperational phase which occurs at two to seven years of age (Berk 19). A child uses symbols to recreate real life and engage in learning activities. Additionally, playing techniques are more advanced and language capabilities develop rapidly. This is the stage where Oprah learnt to read.
With the help of her grandmother, she was able to discover the use of language as both an entertaining and educative tool. The third stage is called the concrete operational stage and it occurs in children between seven to eleven years. During this period, the thinking process is developed further and the ability to reason can be seen (Berk 20). Additionally, children attend school and are able to understand the different concepts taught at school including some mathematical problems. However, children in this phase are limited to thinking about issues that are related to real life situations. The last stage, which extends to poverty, adult hood begins at seven years of age and is called formal operation (Berk 20). By the time a child reaches this stage, they are able to think logically and analyze logically. Additionally, the process of abstract thought is developed making it possible to analyze issues that may not be related to real life situations. Oprah showed signs of reaching this stage when she improved her grades in school, participated, and won different contests. Charles Darwin is considered the father of human lifespan development studies.
His interest in studying evolution led to the development of different theories to explain stages of bacon and eltis human development. His first publications were recordings of his child’s behavior as he developed. Charles Darwin understood that over time, people change hence the importance of studying the different phases of development. Additionally, he introduced the linking paragraphs in essays idea of continuity in behavior, which meant there was an intricate relationship in the different stages of development (Cooper and Roth 50). The theory of bacon natural selection can be applied in Oprah’s case, since her life exemplifies some of the ideas expressed by this theory. For example, natural selection indicates that a person inherits some traits from their parent and Oprah may have inherited her strong personality from her father. Additionally, the theory also shows that the outside environment highly influences these traits modifying them to fit the essays society. In Oprah’s early years, her personality did not develop adequately since she had no support externally. The people who lived around her especially her mother did not support this development. Bacon And Eltis? However, when she moved in with her father, her behavior changed as the external environment proved favorable for the change.
As seen from the discussion above, various theories can be used to understand Oprah Winfrey’s lifespan development over the years. Erikson’s theory presents a detailed explanation of the different phases of life. Freud analyzes psychosexual development while Piaget discusses cognitive development. As for Darwin, he serves as the introduction to developmental studies. Nonetheless, the most applicable theory for Oprah’s life is that of Erik Erikson. This is because it is more detailed and perfectly fits into Oprah’s lifespan development. Berk, Laura. Development through the Lifespan . Boston: Allyn Bacon, 2010.
Print. Cooper, Troy and Ilona, Roth. Challenging Psychological Issues . Milton Keynes: Open University, 2002. Print. Garson, Helen. Oprah Winfrey: A Biography . Essay? Westport: Greenwood Press, 2004. Print. Krohn, Katherine. Oprah Winfrey: Global Media Leader . Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books, 2009. Print. Sigelman, Carol and Elizabeth, Rider.
Life-span Human Development . Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009. Print. You can place an order similar to this with us. You are assured of an authentic custom paper delivered within the given deadline besides our 24/7 customer support all through.