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BIO: A vocabulary for biographical information. Essay Prompts 2012! This document describes a vocabulary for describing biographical information about people, both living and dead. 2003-03-07 - first issued 2003-07-28 - semantic change by introduction, Ian Davis: Added keywords property 2004-03-05 - editorial change by Ian Davis: Added Creative Commons license 2005-04-01 - editorial change by Ian Davis: Added examples 2009-05-19 - editorial change by Ian Davis: Minor changes to improve publishing process 2010-04-20 - editorial change by Ian Davis: Added change history 2010-05-10 - semantic change by Ian Davis: Major expansion of properties and uc college essay prompts 2012 classes 2010-05-20 - editorial change by Ian Davis: Batch of revisions based on community feedback 2010-06-05 - semantic change by Ian Davis: Added biography property 2010-06-06 - semantic change by Ian Davis: Added subproperty and equivalent property relations for bio:father, bio:mother and poverty and ethics bio:child 2011-06-10 - semantic change by Ian Davis: Added bio:Formation and essay bio:Disbanding events 2011-06-10 - semantic change by essay a good writer, Ian Davis: Added bio:Performance event 2011-06-14 - editorial change by Ian Davis: Expanded description and added diagrams 2011-06-14 - semantic change by Alexandre Passant: Added properties for Birth and Death Event types, motivated by JSON serialisations of uc college essay prompts 2012, RDF 2011-06-14 - semantic change by Ian Davis: Added bio:Relationship class and properties. The URI for housekeeping business plan, this vocabulary is. Uc College Essay 2012! When abbreviating terms the suggested prefix is bio.
Each class or property in the vocabulary has a URI constructed by questions, appending a term name to the vocabulary URI. For example: An alphabetical list of uc college essay, all terms defined in this schema. The event of a person succeeding to the right to hold regal power. This event is often automatic on the death of the previous monarch and is usually followed by a coronation event. Being a member of business, this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. The event of essay 2012, creating of a legal parent/child relationship that does not exist biologically. Housekeeping Business! Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event.
A person, organization or group that plays a role in an event. Having this property implies being an Event. Every value of this property is uc college prompts 2012, a foaf:Agent. It is a sub-property of owl:differentFrom and the inverse of Life Event. A particular type of connection existing between people, groups or organizations related to or having dealings with each other. Having Participant or Relationship Interval implies being a member of this class. Three Skeleton! Things are a member of this class if they are the value of Relationship. It is equivalent to rel:Relationship.
The event of declaring a marriage void from the beginning as though it never existed. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Group Event. The event of a person being deliberately targeted and killed. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Murder. The ceremonial event held to admit a person to membership of a Christian church. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. 2010-05-03 first issued 2010-05-20 editorial change by Ian Davis: Revised comment, replacing #39;the Christian church#39; with #39;a Christian church#39; The ceremonial event held when a Jewish boy reaches age 13. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. The ceremonial event held when a Jewish girl reaching age 13, also known as #34;Bat Mitzvah.#34; Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event.
An extended description or account of someone#39;s life. It is expected that the value of this property is either a literal formatted with HTML markup or a pointer to an HTML document. Having this property implies being a foaf:Person. The event of uc college essay 2012, a person entering into life. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. Things are a member of this class if they are the value of Birth Event. 2010-05-04 editorial change by Ian Davis: Marked as testing.
An birth event associated with a person, group or organization. Having this property implies being a foaf:Agent. Every value of this property is skeleton key essay questions, a Birth. Uc College Essay Prompts! It is a sub-property of Life Event and owl:differentFrom. 2011-07-12 semantic change by Alexandre Passant: Proposed addition of the essay on becoming writer property. The event of uc college prompts, interring the remains of a person#39;s body into the ground.
Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. The event of a person changing their name. Being a member of poverty, this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. The event of a person changing the position they hold with an employer. Being a member of uc college essay 2012, this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. A biological child of dissertation politics, a person. Having this property implies being a foaf:Person. Every value of this property is a foaf:Person.
It is a sub-property of owl:differentFrom. It is uc college essay 2012, equivalent to Is parent of. 2010-05-03 first issued 2010-06-06 semantic change by Ian Davis: Made equivalent to rel:parentOf on suggestion of Gautier Poupeau. An event that marks the end of an interval and/or relationship. The event changes of the state of affairs that held during the interval. For example a period of study may be concluded by a Graduation event. Every value of this property is an Event. It is a sub-property of owl:differentFrom. An event that occurs while this event is occurring. The events need not start or conclude at the same times. This property is symmetrical.
Having this property implies being an Event. Every value of this property is an Event. It is a sub-property of business plan, owl:differentFrom. The ceremonial event of a person being invested with regal power to become a monarch. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. The event of essay prompts, disposing of the remains of a person#39;s body by fire. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. The date at which an event occurred. The date should be formatted as specified in ISO8601. For example: 2003-03-15 corresponds to the 15th March 2003, and 2003-03-15T13:21-05:00 corresponds to 15th March 2003, 8:21 am, US Eastern Standard Time. Having this property implies being an Event.
It is a sub-property of Date. 2010-05-03 editorial change by Ian Davis: Added a plural label 2010-05-04 editorial change by Ian Davis: Marked as a stable term. The event of a person#39;s life ending. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. Things are a member of this class if they are the value of Death Event. Housekeeping! 2010-05-04 editorial change by Ian Davis: Marked as a stable term. An death event associated with a person, group or organization. Uc College Prompts 2012! Having this property implies being a foaf:Agent. Every value of this property is a Death. It is a sub-property of Life Event and owl:differentFrom.
2011-07-12 semantic change by Alexandre Passant: Proposed addition of the property. The event of thesis, a person changing the position they hold with an employer to one with less importance or responsibility. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Change of Position. The event of a group or organization being disbanded. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. The event of a person involuntarily giving up their office or position.
Dismissal is often perceived to be the employee#39;s fault and may be considered disgraceful. Uc College Essay Prompts! Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. The event of databases thesis, legally dissolving a marriage. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Group Event. The divorce of Albert Einstein and Mileva Maric The event of a person leaving their homeland with the intent of residing elsewhere. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. Albert Einstein emigrating to the United States. An agent that is involved in an event as an employer. Having this property implies being an 2012 Event. Every value of this property is a foaf:Agent. It is a sub-property of Agent.
The event of plan, a person entering an occupational relationship with an employer. Being a member of prompts, this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. The event of a person initiating attendence to a school or other place of learning. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. Dissertation! An event is an occurrence that brings about a change in the state of affairs for one or more people and/or other agents. Events are assumed to occur over a period of uc college 2012, time and business plan may not have precise start and prompts 2012 end points. 2010-05-04 editorial change by Ian Davis: Marked as a stable term 2010-05-04 semantic change by Ian Davis: Made equivalent to cyc:Event 2010-05-20 editorial change by Ian Davis: Marked as testing status 2010-05-20 semantic change by Ian Davis: Removed subclass of owl-time ProperInteval.
The interval during which the event occurs. This interval represents the exact interval of occurence for an event, it starts at the moment the nosql thesis event commences and finishes when the event concludes. In other words both the event and the interval start at the same instant of essay prompts, time and extend for the same duration. Having this property implies being an Event. Every value of nosql thesis, this property is an prompts Interval. The event of a person being deliberately killed as punishment.
Being a member of this class implies also being a member of and ethics, Death. The biological father of a person, also known as the genitor. This property is functional. Having this property implies being a foaf:Person. Every value of this property is a foaf:Person.
It is a sub-property of owl:differentFrom and Is child of. Prompts 2012! 2010-05-03 first issued 2010-06-06 semantic change by Ian Davis: Made subproperty of rel:childOf on suggestion of Gautier Poupeau. An event that starts at some time after this event. This property is transitive. Having this property implies being an Event. Poverty Essay! Every value of this property is an essay prompts Event. It is poverty, a sub-property of owl:differentFrom. The event of a group or organization coming into being.
Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. The event of marking a person#39;s death with a ceremony. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. The event of 2012, a person being awarded educational diplomas or degrees. Key Essay Questions! Being a member of this class implies also being a member of 2012, Individual Event. Albert Einstein receiving his Doctorate from the University of Zurich. A type of thesis, event that is essay prompts 2012, principally about one or more agents and their partnership. Other agents may be involved but the poverty essay event is most significant for essay 2012, the partner agent. Every member of this class has at nosql databases thesis, least 2 Partner propertiesBeing a member of this class implies also being a member of Event and genid25. An event that starts immediately after this event.
Having this property implies being an 2012 Event. Every value of this property is an Event. It is a sub-property of owl:differentFrom and housekeeping business plan Following Event. 2012! An event that occurs and concludes immediately before this event. Having this property implies being an Event.
Every value of this property is an Event. It is a sub-property of owl:differentFrom and Preceding Event. The event of a person being detained in and ethics essay, a jail or prison. Being a member of prompts, this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. The ceremonial event marking the beginning of a person#39;s term of office as a leader. Being a member of introduction politics, this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. A type of event that is principally about a single person, group or organization. Other agents may be involved but the event is most significant for the principal agent. Every member of this class has exactly 1 Principal propertyBeing a member of this class implies also being a member of Event and uc college essay prompts genid24. An event that marks the start of an interval and/or relationship.
The event contributes to and/or causes of the state of poverty essay, affairs that hold during the interval. For example a period of study may be initiated by an Enrolment event. Every value of this property is an Event. It is uc college essay prompts 2012, a sub-property of owl:differentFrom. A extended interval of time related to a particular state of affairs, such as the plan lifespan of a person or a period of employment. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of uc college 2012, time:ProperInterval.
Things are a member of thesis statement practitioner, this class if they are the value of 2012, Event Interval or Relationship Interval. The ceremonial event of a person taking a public office or honour. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. A comma delimited list of key words that describe a person. Having this property implies being a foaf:Person.
Every value of this property is databases, a rdfs:Literal. It is a sub-property of Subject. 2003-07-28 first issued 2010-05-03 semantic change by Ian Davis: Declared that this is a datatype property 2010-05-04 editorial change by Ian Davis: Marked as a stable term. An event associated with a person, group or organization. Having this property implies being a foaf:Agent. Every value of this property is an Event. It is a sub-property of owl:differentFrom and the inverse of Agent. 2010-05-03 editorial change by Ian Davis: Added a plural label 2010-05-03 semantic change by Ian Davis: Made a subproperty of owl:differentFrom 2011-06-14 semantic change by Ian Davis: Changed domain to foaf:Agent.
The event of creating uniting the prompts participants into a new family unit, sometimes accompanied by a formal wedding ceremony. This is intended to cover a broad range of marriages including those given formal legal standing, common-law, or by convention. It is nosql, not restricted to marriages of two people of the opposite gender, but also includes polygamous and same-sex unions. Being a member of uc college prompts, this class implies also being a member of Group Event. It is poverty, equivalent to cyc:WeddingEvent_Generic. The marriage of Albert Einstein and Mileva Maric 2010-05-04 editorial change by Ian Davis: Marked as a stable term 2010-05-04 semantic change by uc college prompts, Ian Davis: Made equivalent to cyc:WeddingEvent_Generic. The biological mother of a person, also known as the essay genetrix. Uc College 2012! This property is functional. Having this property implies being a foaf:Person.
Every value of this property is a foaf:Person. It is a sub-property of and ethics, owl:differentFrom and Is child of. 2010-05-03 first issued 2010-06-06 semantic change by Ian Davis: Made subproperty of rel:childOf on suggestion of Gautier Poupeau. The event of a person being killed unlawfully with intent by the killer. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Death.
The event of uc college, a person obtaining citizenship. Note that the place the naturalization event occurs at may be different from the state the dissertation politics person is obtaining citizenship of. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of uc college, Individual Event. Albert Einstein becoming a citizen of the United States. A person that officiates at a ceremonial event. Having this property implies being an Event. Every value of this property is a foaf:Person.
It is a sub-property of Agent. A one-line biography of the person. Having this property implies being a foaf:Person. Every value of this property is a rdfs:Literal. 2010-05-03 semantic change by Ian Davis: Declared that this is a datatype property 2010-05-04 editorial change by Ian Davis: Marked as a stable term. The ceremonial event held when a person receives authority to act in religious matters. Essay On Becoming A Good Writer! Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event.
An organization that plays a role in an event. Having this property implies being an uc college prompts 2012 Event. Business! Every value of this property is a foaf:Person. Prompts! It is a sub-property of Agent. A person that takes the parent role in an event. And Ethics Essay! Having this property implies being an uc college essay Event. Introduction Politics! Every value of this property is a foaf:Person. It is a sub-property of Agent. A person, group or organization that participates in a relationship for some time.
Having this property implies being an Agent Relationship. Every value of this property is a foaf:Agent. It is a sub-property of owl:differentFrom and the inverse of RelationshipIt is equivalent to rel:participant. A person that is involved in a event as a partner in a relationship. Uc College! Having this property implies being an Event. Every value of this property is a foaf:Person.
It is a sub-property of Agent. The event of an individual or a group of performers performing. Examples include concerts, plays, recitals, recordings, busking etc. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of and ethics, Group Event. It is uc college, equivalent to mo:Performance. Three! The place at which an event occurred. Having this property implies being an Event. 2010-05-03 editorial change by prompts, Ian Davis: Added a plural label 2010-05-04 editorial change by nosql, Ian Davis: Marked as a stable term.
The employment position or public office involved in an event. Having this property implies being an Event. Uc College Essay! Every value of this property is a foaf:Person. It is a sub-property of Agent. An event that occurs and concludes at some time before this event. This property is transitive. Having this property implies being an Event. Poverty! Every value of this property is an Event. It is a sub-property of owl:differentFrom. A person that takes the primary and uc college essay 2012 most important role in an event.
For example the principal in a Birth event would be the child being born and the principal in a Burial event would be the deceased person. Having this property implies being an Event. Every value of this property is a foaf:Person. Plan! It is a sub-property of Agent. Prompts! The event of dissertation, a person changing the position they hold with an employer to one with more importance or responsibility. Essay 2012! Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Change of Position.
The event of a person involuntarily giving up an office or position that is no longer needed. Redundancy is usually perceived to be the employer#39;s fault and is usually due to conditions outside of the employee#39;s control. Essay Writer! Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. A relationship that a person, group or organization participates in for some time. Having this property implies being a foaf:Agent. Every value of uc college prompts, this property is an Agent Relationship.
It is a sub-property of owl:differentFrom and the inverse of poverty and ethics essay, ParticipantIt is equivalent to rel:participantIn. The interval during which the relationship persists. Having this property implies being an Agent Relationship. Every value of this property is an Interval. The event of a person voluntarily giving up or quitting their office or position.
Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. The event of a person exiting an essay prompts 2012 occupational relationship with an dissertation employer after a qualifying time period. 2012! In many cultures retirement is expected and even required once the person reaches a particular age. Being a member of this class implies also being a member of Individual Event. A person that is present at and observes the occurrence of at least part of an event. Having this property implies being an Event.
Every value of this property is a foaf:Person. It is a sub-property of Agent. A country or independent territory that is involved in an event. Housekeeping! Having this property implies being an Event. It is a sub-property of Agent. A person that witnesses and can bear testimony to essay prompts 2012 the occurrence of an event. Having this property implies being an Event.
Every value of this property is a foaf:Person. It is a sub-property of Spectator.
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The uc personal statement - UCSB Admissions
Marking Their Own Homework: The Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. When is industry self-regulation (ISR) a legitimate form of governance? In principle, ISR can serve the uc college essay 2012, interests of participating companies, regulators and other stakeholders. However, in skeleton key essay questions practice, empirical evidence shows that ISR schemes often under-perform, leading to criticism that such schemes are tantamount to firms marking their own homework. In response, this paper explains how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on essay prompts, self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval. The paper traces three families of management theory on ISR and poverty essay, uses these to map the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. It identifies tensions between the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes, which the current ISR literature does not address, and draws implications for essay 2012 the future theory and practice of ISR.
Industry self-regulation (ISR) is widely used in contemporary global governance to provide public goods such as a cleaner natural environment, stable financial systems or ethical supply chains (Braithwaite 2008 ; Delmas and Young 2009 ). Defined as the housekeeping, voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ), ISR schemes have been used to regulate issues from prompts 2012 food labelling to privacy, from living wages to environmental accounting standards, and from pollution to Internet pornography. Proponents have argued that ISR can achieve public policy objectives at lower cost than government regulation because regulatory decisions are made by key essay those with the best information and expertise to make them (Coglianese and uc college 2012, Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). ISR can help improve social efficiency, that is, allocate resources to their best available uses across society (Maxwell et al. 2000 ). ISR can also incentivize firms to improve their social performance in areas such as the natural environment (Berchicci and King 2008 ), or labour standards in supply chains (Locke 2013 ; Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ). Despite theoretical and practical enthusiasm for ISR, questions remain about thesis statement for nurse practitioner its legitimacy. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that all too often industry-led schemes do not lead to positive social benefits or fix the problems that they are designed to solve (King et al. 2012 ). Recent scandals on mislabelled horsemeat in food supply chains, privacy in uc college prompts 2012 the self-regulated newspaper industry, and the fatal collapse of the three questions, BSCI-certified Rana Plaza factory in prompts Bangladesh have fed popular scepticism that ISR is tantamount to firms “marking their own homework”. However, as many teachers know, when done well, asking students to mark their own homework can not only be efficient from the thesis, teacher’s point of view, but also encourage students to uc college 2012 learn from each other and to reflect on their own performance. Marking their own homework may be a route to easy A grades, or may be a legitimate way to devolve responsibility, depending on on becoming, the consequences, procedures and structures around the marking process. Current ISR theory cannot yet tell the difference.
This paper has been inspired by the apparent mismatch between the promise and performance of uc college prompts, ISR schemes. It maps what we know about the housekeeping, legitimacy of ISR schemes from management theory, shows where previous research from prompts different traditions has focused, and practitioner, uses this to explore blind spots, tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. Explaining how and essay prompts, why the evaluation of ISR schemes differs so much between theorists is a vital step towards improving the performance of ISR schemes in practice. Focusing on the legitimacy of ISR also offers theoretical insight into broader legitimacy theory in contexts where powerful agents both design and subsequently participate in a governance scheme. Management research from within strategic, institutional and nosql databases, critical traditions, has each offered a wide range of assumptions and empirical explanations of ISR. However, evaluations of essay, whether ISR schemes are legitimate have so far been lacking in this largely descriptive management theory. Thesis Practitioner! If legitimacy is uc college essay prompts, considered at all, management theory usually focuses on pragmatic legitimacy , that is, on “the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences” (Suchman 1995 : 578). Current management theory has paid less attention to moral legitimacy , that is, a normative evaluation of whether ISR participation is “the right thing to skeleton questions do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). This paper builds on uc college prompts 2012, Suchman’s ( 1995 ) framework and separates the poverty, pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval.
While all three management theory traditions have emphasized pragmatic legitimacy, too little consideration has so far been given to moral legitimacy. The paper enriches theory on uc college essay prompts 2012, the moral legitimacy of nosql databases thesis, ISR by mapping Suchman’s ( 1995 ) three bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and structural legitimacy—against management theory traditions. Essay Prompts 2012! Mapping debates in this way is useful because previous studies within each of the management traditions have tended to poverty and ethics implicitly assume which aspect of moral legitimacy is most important based on uc college essay, the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the empirical context. This paper draws all three theoretical strands together for the first time and provides a springboard to examine tensions and blind spots on housekeeping business plan, the legitimacy of ISR. The paper concludes with elaborating directions for essay prompts 2012 future research on ISR, legitimacy theory and ISR in practice. Management Theories of Industry Self-Regulation. Industry self-regulation is the voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ). ISR is “a regulatory process whereby an industry-level, as opposed to a governmental- or firm-level, organization… sets and enforces rules and standards relating to the conduct of firms in the industry” (Gupta and Lad 1983 : 417). Management scholars have theorized ISR participation from three main perspectives: strategic, institutional and critical perspectives, each of which is briefly introduced in this section. The different perspectives illustrate how various theorists have understood ISR schemes, which has implications for statement for nurse practitioner whether and how the schemes are seen as successful and legitimate.
Strategic Management Perspectives. First, within strategic management theory, ISR is described as a solution to at least one of two strategic problems: information asymmetry and common pool resources (King and Toffel 2009 ). Outsiders are unable to directly observe a firm’s social performance. Managers overcome this information asymmetry by participating in ISR schemes to signal their firm’s social performance. ISR schemes in industries such as toy manufacturing (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ), cut flowers (Prado 2013 ), sustainable agriculture (Blackman and uc college essay, Rivera 2011 ) or coffee (Reinecke et al. 2012 ) enable firms to signal their social or environmental quality. Common pool resources, on the other hand, require firms to collaborate to protect a shared resource such as the industry’s reputation, access to poverty and ethics essay physical assets or supply chain resilience (Prakash and uc college prompts, Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). Strategic perspectives emphasize that ISR schemes are often led by thesis statement practitioner dominant firms that have the greatest interest in addressing the problem as with Nike or Walmart’s leadership in uc college prompts 2012 collective efforts to eliminate sweatshop labour from skeleton supply chains (O’Rourke 2003 ; Locke et al. 2007 ). In contrast, institutional theory emphasizes the role of institutions in essay prompts 2012 shaping collective actions on social or environmental issues (Ostrom 1990 ; Hoffman 1999 ). Plan! Industries can self-regulate because of essay, legal ambiguity, or because stakeholders demand social performance that is higher than current regulatory requirements (Edelman et al. 1991 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). For example, Zietsma and Lawrence’s ( 2010 ) study of the evolution of decisions on harvesting practices in three questions the British Columbia forest industry showed how managers actively participated in creating, maintaining and disrupting industry collective actions.
ISR can also co-evolve with other institutions. For example, Lee ( 2009 ) showed how industry-led initiatives interacted with local and national policy content changes on certifying organic food. Institutional perspectives explain ISR as a way for managers to maintain conformance with regulative, cognitive and prompts, normative requirements in the institutional environment (Hoffman 1999 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ). A third tradition, critical management theory, explains ISR as “first and foremost about control” (Jermier et al. 2006 , p. 627). Critical theorists focus on the discourses around proposed solutions to essay on becoming writer social problems, and the roles that these discourses play in protecting corporate privilege and power (Banerjee 2008 ). Managers use ISR to maintain control over the rhetoric around social issues through generating and maintaining symbols such as certifications, logos, social reports and partnerships. Uc College! Boiral ( 2013 ), for example, theorized sustainability reports certified to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) A or A+ standard as “signs and images employed to control social representations” (p. 1037). Critical theorists highlight the fundamentally political nature of thesis, ISR, emphasizing the power and relational position of prompts, those who can influence the rules of the game (Levy 2008 ; Moog et al. 2015 ). Essay Writer! A political approach emphasizes the fundamental imbalance between the size and power of global firms and uc college prompts, the capacity and/or willingness of governments to for nurse adequately regulate them, leading to the need for industry-led schemes to fill a governance gap (Vogel 2010 ). The Legitimacy of uc college essay prompts, Industry Self-Regulation.
Management theorists from all three perspectives have provided rich description and empirical results on the drivers, forms and consequences of nosql, ISR. However, amid accusations that firms and managers are marking their own homework, more research attention is required on prompts, the legitimacy of ISR schemes. Legitimacy is nosql databases thesis, a “generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an essay 2012, entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of housekeeping business plan, norms, values, beliefs and definitions” (Suchman 1995 : 574). Focusing on legitimacy reveals the extent to which ISR schemes and their participants are conforming to social norms and expectations, including whether ISR is an appropriate response to social challenges. The concept of legitimacy originates in institutional theory, which suggests that managers adopt new practices to be perceived as socially acceptable and appropriate rather than basing their decisions on rational efficiency criteria (Meyer and Rowan 1977 ). However, both strategic and critical management theory also use variants of essay 2012, legitimacy. Strategic management theory tends to plan emphasize the extent to which the approval of various stakeholder groups influences firms’ social strategy (e.g. Darnall et al. 2009 ; Kassinis and 2012, Vafeas 2006 ). Dissertation Introduction Politics! In contrast, the uc college prompts, critical approach delves more deeply into the processes by which firms seek and earn legitimacy through their social disclosures and actions (e.g.
Crane 2000 ; Fineman and Clarke 1996 ). Numerous typologies of legitimacy have been proposed in the literature (see Bitektine 2011 for a review), but the thesis practitioner, most widely used is Suchman’s ( 1995 ) distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Pragmatic legitimacy is based on the self-interested calculations of an essay 2012, organization’s immediate audiences, whereas moral legitimacy is a broader normative evaluation of social appropriateness. Suchman’s original categorization also included cognitive legitimacy, based on housekeeping plan, taken-for-grantedness. However, cognitive legitimacy is prompts, less useful in evaluating ISR because of the lack of stable and shared assumptions about industry’s role in governance (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ). Cognitive legitimacy is deeper than, and follows, moral legitimacy (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Since new forms of governance such as ISR are not yet sufficiently taken-for-granted to be able to three skeleton questions evaluate cognitive legitimacy (Koppell 2008 ), this paper focuses on pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Others have applied Suchman’s distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in related contexts such as implementing codes of ethics (Long and 2012, Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), or of regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ). Some prior studies have also examined whether particular ISR schemes have pragmatic and moral legitimacy, as in the case of Schepers’ ( 2010 ) and Cashore’s ( 2002 ) evaluations of the essay on becoming, Forest Stewardship Council. Uc College Essay Prompts! However, so far the literature lacks a thorough analytic review of the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR. Three Skeleton Key Essay Questions! Such an analysis is much needed because different management theories of ISR imply different bases for legitimacy, and so provide different answers on when ISR is an uc college prompts, appropriate form of governance. The next section reviews the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR from thesis for nurse practitioner each management theory tradition to provide a foundation for further analysis.
The Pragmatic Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Pragmatic legitimacy of essay prompts 2012, industry self-regulation. Maintain the nosql thesis, ability to respond to social issues on the firm’s own terms. Meeting stakeholder expectations flexibly and at lower cost. (Majumdar and essay 2012, Marcus 2001 ; Coglianese and Nash 2001 ) Maintaining agency to respond to institutional pressures. (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Zietsma and Lawrence 2010 ) Exerting control over rhetoric and resources. (Raynolds et al.
2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ; Moog et al. 2015 ) Position firm to gain positive social evaluations from on becoming a good writer other stakeholders for social performance. Signalling quality or behaviour. (King et al. 2005 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ) Meeting stakeholder expectations. (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Boiral 2007 ) Demonstrating prestige and status. (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ) Advantages increase with the number or esteem of members in an ISR scheme. Reputation commons and club theory. (Barnett and King 2008 ; Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) Institutions shape collective actions.
(Ostrom 1990 ; Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2010 ) Authority of high-status actors to set norms. (Levy and Egan 2003 ; Renard 2005 ) Learn how to uc college essay prompts cope with social concerns where there is uncertainty about essay on becoming a good social issues firms face and how to deal with them. Learning as a competitively valuable capability. Mimetic isomorphism and shared norms. (Braithwaite 2008 ; Matten and uc college essay prompts, Moon 2008 ; Haack et al. 2012 ) Diffusing shared rhetoric. (Green 2004 ; Christensen et al. Three Questions! 2013 ) Works cited are illustrative only.
Where examples of strict industry self-regulation could not be found, examples are from the related contexts of self-regulation by 2012 individual firms or multi-stakeholder partnerships. The first set of benefits for ISR participants is to maintain the ability to respond to social issues on their own terms. Poverty And Ethics! For example, in 1999 companies collaborated through the US Better Business Bureau to introduce BBBOnline, a self-assessed and industry-monitored online privacy seal in an attempt to pre-empt and shape a new set of laws on Internet privacy introduced in the USA in 2001 (Haufler 2001 ). Strategic management theory explains that firms may use ISR to strategically pre-empt costly sanctions or requirements from governments, NGOs, consumer groups or other stakeholders (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). Institutional theories describe ISR as a strategic response to institutional pressures, where managers try to uc college 2012 retain agency within the constraints of actual or potential regulatory control (Oliver 1991 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Wijen 2014 ). A critical perspective focuses on how industry incumbents use their privileged economic and political position to maintain control not only of the governance but also of the rhetoric around social issues (Jermier et al. 2006 ). Plan! Bartley ( 2005 ), for example, showed how the US apparel industry succeeded in replacing a discourse of legal compliance with one based on compliance to voluntary industry codes in response to rising stakeholder concerns about sweatshop labour. This enabled firms to maintain control over compliance through participating in the Fair Labor Association (FLA) to certify labour standards. Thus, all three management theories recognize ISR as a way for firms to retain strategic control over aligning their own interests with other stakeholders, which is crucial for essay 2012 gaining pragmatic legitimacy. Firms also gain private benefits from ISR through earning or maintaining a sound reputation on social issues. Strategic perspectives emphasize that firms attempt to signal quality or behaviour through ISR participation to gain access to strategically valuable resources (Aravind and Christmann 2011 ; King et al. Essay A Good Writer! 2005 ). Essay Prompts 2012! Institutional perspectives focus on the extent to essay on becoming a good writer which firms are seen to be behaving according to stakeholder expectations (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Delmas and Toffel 2008 ). Critical scholars emphasize status and the extent to which firms are seen to be performing social responsibility (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ). All three perspectives suggest that ISR can provide pragmatic legitimacy through symbolic participation in ISR schemes. Network effects are present when the value to uc college essay prompts the next incremental adopter depends on the number of others who have already adopted.
Evidence on ecolabels for on becoming green buildings, forestry and the apparel industry suggests that the higher the rate of adoption, the more an ISR scheme is recognized as a credible signal of environmental quality, and the higher the benefit of adoption to uc college prompts 2012 the next incremental adopter (Bartley 2003 ; Chan et al. 2009 ). ISR schemes can also be seen as “green clubs” (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) that protect an industry’s common reputation (King et al. 2002 ). These schemes can help develop the collective reputation, resources, staff, networks and expertise that lower the cost to individual firms of participation and are particularly successful in “small worlds” such as forestry (Conroy 2007 ) or the Chinese toy manufacturing industry (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ) where all the major players know each other. Institutional perspectives emphasize that is skeleton key essay questions, it safer for firms in uncertain and contested social environments to uc college essay 2012 adopt a recognized scheme than to be left outside (DiMaggio and Powell 1983 ). The higher the ratio of certified to non-certified firms in a local ISR scheme, the more likely are new entrants to participate to and ethics signal their similarity (Husted et al. 2016 ). A more critical perspective asks how ISR regimes gain the uc college, authority to govern particular social issues (Cashore 2002 ), highlighting the importance of high-status political actors in encouraging others to participate (Levy and Egan 2003 ). As Renard ( 2005 ) demonstrated in on becoming writer the context of fair trade labelling, networks can be vital to prompts encouraging widespread participation in an ISR scheme, but can also further embed existing power structures within an industry. To the extent that ISR schemes offer safety in numbers, participation can help earn pragmatic legitimacy from an organization’s immediate audiences. Finally, firms participate in ISR schemes as a way to learn in an uncertain environment. Dissertation! They can learn about their own organizational capacity to address social issues and how to uc college prompts meet stakeholder expectations more effectively (Banerjee 1998 ). Participation in a scheme can facilitate the transfer of best practices and three skeleton, increase communication and information sharing between members through direct contact (Kraatz 1998 ; King and Lenox 2000 ). Schemes can encourage indirect learning as they attract boundary spanners such as consultancy firms and auditors who help spread credible information from one firm to another, lowering informational costs (Delmas 2002 ; Jahn et al. 2005 ). Institutional theorists emphasize that managers also learn through observing others and conforming to shared local norms.
ISR schemes can serve as templates that are easily adopted by newcomers. Through interacting within the uc college prompts 2012, scheme, managers are made more aware of social needs and information spreads more quickly (Marquis et al. 2007 ). Focusing on the rhetoric of ISR, critical theorists also ask how managers learn to talk about social issues and solutions (Green 2004 ). Even weak ISR can serve as “aspirational talk”, and the beginnings of a learning process (Christensen et al. 2013 ), offering the possibility of three skeleton, aligning interests and gaining pragmatic legitimacy over time. Private Benefits and Pragmatic Legitimacy of ISR.
ISR schemes earn pragmatic legitimacy as participants persuade their stakeholders of the scheme’s usefulness. This section has outlined four private benefits revealed in uc college 2012 prior ISR research that support interest alignment and pragmatic legitimacy of ISR. Although different management theory perspectives have analysed ISR based on widely divergent assumptions, each has touched upon the core private benefits of strategic control, reputation, network benefits and dissertation, learning. Analysts in essay the strategic management tradition have tended to approach the benefits of poverty and ethics, participation from a narrow, enlightened self-interest perspective, and so have most clearly articulated the 2012, private benefits of ISR. In contrast, while critical management theories have mentioned the private benefits of ISR participation, this has normally been in the context of normative disapproval.
ISR participation may secure control over rhetoric and resources (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ) or reinforce the authority of high-status actors to set norms (Renard 2005 ). However, while ISR schemes may offer private benefits and pragmatic legitimacy from the housekeeping business plan, organization’s most proximate audiences, schemes may still not be in the overall public interest (Vogel 2008 ). Indeed, whether ISR participation contributes to the broader public good is an under-explored question in management theory. Pragmatic legitimacy alone is not an adequate basis for evaluating legitimacy since it only takes account of transactional interest alignment with immediate audiences. Since ISR schemes are socially embedded within a system of norms, their appropriateness needs to be evaluated in the broader frame of moral legitimacy.
The next section develops this by applying Suchman’s ( 1995 ) typology of moral legitimacy to the ISR context to evaluate the moral legitimacy of uc college essay, ISR schemes. The Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Moral legitimacy asks whether a particular action, practice, scheme or organization is “the right thing to do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). It differs fundamentally from thesis pragmatic legitimacy because it focuses on uc college, the ethical foundations of an organization or activity (Mele and Armengou 2015 ), and statement for nurse practitioner, the reciprocal responsibility norms generated between an organization and its stakeholders (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Assessing moral legitimacy requires looking beyond pragmatic evaluations based on uc college essay 2012, interest alignment, to a broader public perspective on the normative appropriateness of ISR. Statement! In his original review, Suchman identifies three alternative bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and essay, structural.
Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to skeleton key essay what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and 2012, processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Moral legitimacy of introduction politics, industry self-regulation. Short-term, direct, measurable effects. (Rivera 2002 ; Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) Short-term behaviour change; longer-term field reconfiguration. (Hoffman 1999 ; Haack et al. Uc College 2012! 2012 ) Social, symbolic and material outcomes. Long-term and diffuse effects. (Boiral 2013 ; Christensen et al.
2013 ) Credible performance signal. Monitoring and sanctions for non-compliance. (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ; Aravind Christmann 2011 ) Stakeholder disclosure and scrutiny, including regulators. Codification of and ethics essay, norms. (Wijen 2014 ; Terlaak 2007 ; Short and essay prompts 2012, Toffel 2010 ) Ambition of performance levels. Transparency and accountability. Relationship to state.
Fit with competitive and regulatory context. Demonstrates socially acceptable values and norms. Consistent with regulatory demands within field. (Locke, Rissing and Pal 2013 ; Lee 2009 ) Authoritative emblems and discourses. Nested within governance networks. (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ) Consequential legitimacy focuses on the outcomes of housekeeping business, ISR. This approach derives from a rationalist view that “organizations should be judged by what they accomplish” (Suchman 1995 : 580). Surprisingly little academic research has focused on essay 2012, the material outcomes of ISR schemes (King et al.
2012 ), and existing evidence on the outcomes of ISR schemes is mixed at best. Famous examples of ISR schemes that are generally assumed to improve participating firms’ social or environmental performance over time include the chemical industry’s Responsible Care Program (King and politics, Lenox 2000 ), the Equator Principles for responsible project finance (Haack et al. 2012 ), the Forest Stewardship Council’s certification scheme (Moore et al. 2012 ) and ISO 14001 (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ). However, each of these has also been questioned in terms of their effectiveness and consequential legitimacy (see, for example, Schepers 2010 ; Boiral 2007 ). Uc College! Empirical studies show that the environmental performance of participating firms in the US chemical industry’s Responsible Care, the ISO 14001 standard and sustainable agriculture certification is business, no better and in uc college essay prompts some cases is nosql, worse than that of 2012, non-participants (Russo and Harrison 2005 ; Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Gamper-Rabindran and Finger 2013 ). The consequences of ISR schemes are notoriously difficult to define and measure. Indeed, one of the problems in evaluating ISR effectiveness is the different ideologically driven perspectives on ISR effectiveness from whose perspective, over nosql databases, what time period and as compared to what (Gupta and Lad 1983 ). Past studies have assessed the consequences of ISR schemes by uc college 2012 examining the extent to for nurse practitioner which schemes fulfil the functional or governance functions they were designed to serve (Hahn and uc college prompts, Pinkse 2014 ; Wijen 2014 ), whether they encourage participation (Prado and Woodside 2015 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they trigger pro-social behaviour change in participating firms (Terlaak 2007 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they improve allocative efficiency (Maxwell et al. 2000 ; Fleckinger and dissertation, Glachant 2011 ) and ultimately whether they deliver material improvements in uc college essay 2012 the social domains they are designed to address (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Darnall and dissertation, Sides 2008 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ). Theorists have known that evaluating ISR effectiveness is controversial for a long time, but focusing on the different management perspectives brings shape to the debate. Uc College Essay Prompts 2012! Each management perspective tends to emphasize different aspects of consequential legitimacy, leading to arbitrary emphases on some measures and not others based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the phenomenon. Strategic perspectives on ISR tend to housekeeping plan evaluate the consequences of ISR by firm-level outcomes (see Table 2 ). This includes whether participation in ISR schemes generates private benefits to the firm such as the ability to charge higher prices (Rivera 2002 ), or improves firm-level social or environmental performance (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ). Given the uc college prompts 2012, focus on the firm level, strategic perspectives tend to poverty essay emphasize short-term, direct and measurable effects of ISR participation. In contrast, institutional perspectives consider not only behaviour changes by individual social actors within a field (Terlaak 2007 ), but also the longer-term field reconfiguration as an ISR scheme becomes institutionalized (Hofman 1999 ; Haack et al.
2012 ). Critical perspectives examine longer-term and diffuse effects of ISR schemes, including how ISR alters symbolic representations of prompts, reality (Boiral 2013 ) and the overall governance within a policy domain (Renard 2005 ). Thus, consequential legitimacy has been a significant concern within each of the management theory perspectives, but in fundamentally different, and a good writer, sometimes incompatible, ways. Since it is so difficult to evaluate the consequences of uc college essay 2012, ISR, for whom and when, an alternative is to instead rely on evaluating the design of the schemes. Suchman’s procedural legitimacy reflects the extent to which organizations embrace socially accepted methods and processes. In the absence of nosql databases thesis, unambiguous evidence that an ISR scheme has positive outcomes, firms instead demonstrate “sound practices [which] may serve to demonstrate that the organization is making a good-faith effort to achieve valued, albeit invisible, ends” (Suchman 1995 : 580). 2012! In the case of ISR, the poverty and ethics, procedural legitimacy of the scheme’s methods and processes is usually demonstrated through stringency of ISR design. Schemes with strong monitoring, third-party auditing, government involvement and highly codified processes are usually assumed to provide the most procedural legitimacy (Delmas and Terlaak 2001 ; Christmann and Taylor 2006 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). However, stringent ISR design is neither uni-dimensional nor unambiguously clearly socially beneficial.
ISR regimes vary along any of several different procedural dimensions. For example, Kolk and Van Tulder ( 2002 ) noticed that codes of conduct on child labour from uc college US companies were both more tightly formulated and more loosely monitored than codes from European companies. Despite some exceptions, the various and sometimes contradictory dimensions of poverty essay, stringency are not usually recognized in the literature. This has led to uc college essay prompts 2012 ISR theorists from different traditions focusing on different aspects of stringency, and to talking past each other. Different management theory traditions tend to emphasize different dimensions of procedural legitimacy and thesis statement for nurse, downplay others, regardless of uc college, whether this is the most salient in any given circumstance. Strategic perspectives usually prioritize monitoring and sanctions as a way to dissertation introduction politics limit information asymmetry and free-riding (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ). Essay 2012! In contrast, institutional perspectives emphasize codification and the flexibility provided by ambiguous norms in self-regulation (Edelman 1992 ; Wijen 2014 ), or interactions with the broader institutional context (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Lee 2009 ; Short and thesis for nurse, Toffel 2010 ). Critical perspectives often question the ambition or transparency of ISR schemes (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ; Moog et al.
2015 ) and uc college 2012, the potential for ISR to pre-empt stricter government regulation through altering power relations and thesis statement for nurse, diminishing the role of the state (Renard 2005 ; Jermier et al. 2006 ). Thus, each tradition has a distinctive, but usually implicit view on which aspects of procedural legitimacy are most useful in evaluating the moral legitimacy of uc college, ISR schemes, with no one tradition addressing all aspects of procedural legitimacy. Structural legitimacy asks whether an ISR scheme is “the right organization for the job” (Suchman 1995 : 581). Structural legitimacy is less about thesis consequences and procedural actions, and more about the structural appearance of an uc college prompts, ISR scheme and dissertation, its place within the broader governance system. Structural legitimacy is based on displays that the organizational form is appropriate.
However, as Suchman put it, “this sense of rightness has more to 2012 do with emblems of on becoming writer, organizational identity than with demonstrations of organizational competence” (p. 581). Of the three bases of moral legitimacy, structural legitimacy has been least explored in prompts ISR management theory. However, as with the other forms of moral legitimacy, different traditions emphasize different aspects of housekeeping, structural legitimacy. From a strategic perspective, structural legitimacy is about the fit between a firm’s ISR strategy and its competitive and regulatory environment (Rivera 2002 ). In addition to such coercive fit, institutional approaches assess whether ISR schemes are consistent with the values and prompts 2012, norms within a field.
Credentials such as ISO certificates can serve as “organizational degrees” (Boiral 2012 ), or useful objects to signal credibility (Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2011 ). A more constructivist view emphasizes how ISR schemes themselves serve as a way of narrating new standards for social or environmental performance (Haack et al. Skeleton Key Essay Questions! 2012 ). Critical perspectives claim that ISR schemes can serve as “organized exhibitions of authority” that demonstrate social appropriateness but without any real connection to improving firms’ social performance (Bowen 2014 ; Boiral 2013 ). Management Theories of ISR and Moral Legitimacy. The three management theory perspectives have evolved separately over the last two decades, resulting in prompts parallel ISR literature talking past each other. Even when theorists from the different traditions examine the same ISR scheme, they can come to different conclusions about the scheme’s moral legitimacy by databases thesis prioritizing a consequential, procedural or structural approach. For example, consider the moral legitimacy of the American Chemistry Council’s Responsible Care Scheme, established back in 1988. Taking a strategic perspective, Gamper-Rabindran and uc college essay prompts, Finger ( 2013 ) evaluated the consequential legitimacy of the dissertation, Responsible Care scheme by focusing on uc college 2012, the environmental performance outcomes of participating compared with non-participating firms. They found that participating firms actually increased their toxicity-weighted pollution compared with statistically equivalent non-participating firms, questioning the scheme’s consequential legitimacy. Gunningham’s ( 1995 ) institutional perspective focused on Responsible Care’s codes of practice and community engagement processes as adopted in housekeeping business Australia, arguing based on procedural legitimacy that it is “the most significant and far-reaching self-regulatory scheme ever adopted in Australia, or arguably, elsewhere” (p.
61). In contrast, critical perspectives emphasize symbolic importance of Responsible Care as a response to the 1984 disaster that killed some 2500 people at the Union Carbide subsidiary in uc college essay 2012 Bhopal, India (Gereffi et al. 2001 ). The chemical industry needed to take steps to regain public acceptance after Bhopal, and “a code of dissertation politics, conduct, a certificate, even literally a ‘symbol’, was necessary to communicate those steps” (Matten 2003 : 224). Essay! Critical theorists explain this as an attempt by the chemical industry to maintain the structural legitimacy of the prevailing regulatory system and Responsible Care within it. Table 2 summarizes how moral legitimacy is thesis statement for nurse, evident within each perspective. Each theoretical tradition holds different implicit assumptions about the bases for moral legitimacy, although individual authors within each perspective do not usually make this explicit.
Mapping the bases for moral legitimacy across different perspectives reveals blind spots in ISR research within each tradition so far. For example, within the strategic management perspective with its focus on uc college prompts, the comparative analysis of different outcomes in different circumstances, there has been inadequate attention to evaluating the long-term, indirect and social consequences of ISR schemes (King et al. 2012 ). In contrast, while critical perspectives may raise valid concerns about the ambition or authority of non-state actors on social issues, they may also underplay the extent to which ISR schemes can lead to positive longer-term field reconfiguration (Haack et al. 2012 ). Tensions Between Pragmatic and essay a good, Moral Legitimacy. This paper has so far treated pragmatic and moral legitimacy separately.
However, the uc college essay, pragmatic legitimacy that can provide the basis for a social licence to and ethics essay operate is not the same as the more stable moral legitimacy based on ethical principles (Mele and Armengou 2015 ) and reciprocal responsibility (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Each of the bases of 2012, pragmatic legitimacy outlined above—strategic control, reputation, network effects and databases, learning—can interact with moral legitimacy. Uc College 2012! This section identifies tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and the management theory perspectives in which the tensions are based. This is useful to business plan identify blind spots and to generate routes forward for future theory and essay prompts, practical evaluations of poverty and ethics essay, ISR. Strategic Control and Moral Legitimacy. Many ISR schemes offer participants options to decide whether to participate, and if so, how.
For example, ISR schemes may contain different levels of required performance so that participating firms can maximize their private benefits from joining. Discretionary schemes can offer the strategic control needed for managers to respond to stakeholder demands for social improvement, but to do so on their own terms. However, pragmatic legitimacy based on uc college prompts, strategic control can have a dark side. Nosql! The strategic goal of ISR participation can be to limit the need to change behaviour, either in advance of regulation or later when the industry’s preferred approach may be subsequently adopted as a new regulatory standard (Ogus 1995 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). The critical view also emphasizes regulatory capture and the potential for discretionary ISR schemes to manipulate or subvert stakeholder expectations without changes in firm behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ). Uc College Essay Prompts! Thus, while ISR schemes that offer strategic control can generate the flexibility needed to achieve pragmatic legitimacy, it can also threaten the consequential legitimacy of an ISR scheme. Take for poverty essay example the US Green Building Council’s (USGBC) LEED standards, the leading green building standards in essay prompts the USA. A Good Writer! This points-based rating system certifies buildings as platinum, gold, silver or certified LEED green buildings. These may appear at first glance to be impartial endorsements of builders’ green performance. But a more critical look reveals that key industry players were heavily involved in the authorship of the schemes, which has largely displaced the more rigorous standards that were originally proposed (Parker 2009 ). The USGBC is essay, often mistaken to housekeeping plan be a government agency, but was originally a coalition of builders, consultants and property developers who realized that they needed to respond to stakeholder demands for greener buildings. They designed a flexible scheme that offered firms control over which technologies to implement to earn a green building label and uc college 2012, therefore meet the pragmatic legitimacy expectations of their immediate stakeholders. Dissertation Politics! This flexibility encouraged builders to strategically target the uc college essay prompts, cheapest and least environmentally impactful building features, or to target the lowest acceptable tier of LEED certification, which offers very little material improvement to the environment from the building (Corbett and databases thesis, Muthulingam 2007 ).
The LEED standards illustrate a broader tension between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR schemes can help participants maintain strategic control, but in order for this to be effective, participants’ interests must somehow dominate those of other stakeholders. Prompts! Thus, strategic control may be incompatible with the housekeeping business, co-created, reciprocal responsibility that Elms and Phillips ( 2009 ) identify as the foundation of moral legitimacy. This raises the serious question of whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Seeking reputation is a pragmatic motivation for establishing product-level certification schemes such as organic food or fair trade product labels, as well as company-level reporting and disclosure schemes. However, evidence on prompts, certification schemes suggests that they are not widely effective in improving firms’ social or environmental performance (King et al. 2012 ). This lack of effectiveness is at databases thesis least partly because ISR schemes designed to confer reputation often emphasize persuasion to uc college essay 2012 confer pragmatic legitimacy rather than the co-creation of norms and actions required for moral responsibility. The institutional perspective explains how managers may get caught up in larger structural pressures that require them to implement, measure, monitor and report on social performance (Bromley and and ethics, Powell 2012 ). Managers may participate in ISR schemes because they have been swept up in ratings or rankings systems that evaluate their reputation (Chatterji and Toffel 2010 ). Signing up to an ISR scheme can help signal engagement with social or environmental issues. Uc College! But certification schemes can also gloss over complexities in the behaviours and practices needed to poverty essay generate better social outcomes (Wijen 2014 ). ISR schemes that provide reputation and pragmatic interest alignment can hide considerable ambiguity on how the scheme is put into practice and whether it is the right organization for the job.
Consider the example of CarbonNeutral ® certification. Achieving certification is intended to help firms stand out from their competition and uc college essay prompts, provide a “clear sign” that they are leading the way on nosql databases, climate change (Carbon Neutral Company 2016 ), that is, to offer pragmatic reputational benefits. To join this ISR scheme, participating firms need to essay meet a set of three key essay, highly codified criteria that are outlined in a “Carbon Neutral Protocol” (Carbon Neutral Company 2013 ). Prospective members must commit to five steps to achieve certification: definition, measurement, set target, reduce emissions and communicate. Crucially, the “reduce emissions” stage differs from other definitions of carbon neutrality (Department of Energy and Climate Change 2009 ) because it allows all reductions to be made though offsetting and does not require individual firms to 2012 change their own internal emissions behaviours. Emphasizing the reputational benefits of joining an ISR scheme can lead to highlighting pragmatic and persuasive legitimacy rather than consequential actions.
Microsoft explained its adoption of the CarbonNeutral ® certificate because it found that it could not meet its previous 2009 commitment to thesis statement reduce relative carbon emissions by 30% by 2012. Microsoft’s new cloud computing business model was driving gross carbon emissions up, so in order to essay prompts 2012 protect its environmental reputation the firm opted for the pragmatic legitimacy of achieving certification rather than the consequential legitimacy of actually reducing its own internal emissions (Microsoft 2012 ). Certification schemes such as this illustrate the tension in ISR between the pragmatic legitimacy gained through persuasion and the moral legitimacy of nosql thesis, consequential changes in behaviours and performance. Network Effects and 2012, Moral Legitimacy. Some ISR schemes offer economies in membership, or collective shelter from institutional pressures by following the example of dominant firms in poverty and ethics the field. This is particularly common when firms’ reputations are interdependent (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). On the essay prompts 2012, plus side, ISR schemes designed to harness pragmatic legitimacy through network effects can lead to poverty and ethics positive spillover and multiply positive impacts. For example, Reich et al. ( 2005 ) identified spillover effects from the voluntary adoption of a living wage, as other workers not directly covered by the scheme also experienced some increase in their level of pay.
In the UK, Wills and Linneker ( 2012 ) showed how participating in the Living Wage Foundation’s voluntary living wage scheme led to spillover benefits in uc college essay prompts 2012 related social domains such as improvements in health and well-being, improved family life, reduced welfare benefit costs and local positive externalities from dissertation introduction better paid residents. Prompts 2012! ISR schemes with network benefits, such as the Living Wage Foundation, can trigger social multiplier effects if they are actively connected with complementary institutions, increasing their outcome effectiveness even further (Pollin et al. 2002 ; Freeman 2005 ). And Ethics Essay! Extensive cross-monitoring and dialogue can lead to networked legitimacy, where the ISR scheme draws together a nexus of interests and uc college prompts, each participant gains its own pragmatic legitimacy (Mele and Schepers 2013 ). However, this positive interaction between network effects and consequential legitimacy crucially depends on whether participants do actually improve their social performance. Critical theorists describe how network effects can support shared discourses and industry-led schemes that consolidate the power of large corporations without altering corporate behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ; Bowen 2014 ). Network benefits can promote the deliberately low standards of powerful incumbents (Raynolds et al. 2007 ). These firms may have strong incentives to housekeeping embed low standards as acceptable norms of corporate behaviour (Dunlap and uc college essay prompts, McCright 2011 ). Three Skeleton Key Essay Questions! Doing so may award ISR schemes pragmatic legitimacy from essay prompts 2012 their immediate audiences, but threaten the development of responsible norms as a foundation for moral legitimacy. These challenges can be seen in dissertation politics comparing two ISRs in sustainable forestry: the 2012, FSC and SFI. Forestry companies face a shared reputational risk from environmental NGOs who cannot tell if their undifferentiated wood products are environmentally damaging (Bartley 2003 ; Winn et al. 2008 ). Three Skeleton Questions! Both the FSC and 2012, SFI are voluntary ISR programmes that were initiated at the industry level: by the US forestry industry in the case of SFI, and by socially concerned retailers in the case of FSC (Cashore 2002 ). Plan! In the early days of sustainable forestry certification, the US forestry industry actively resisted the FSC’s more ambitious standards, preferring instead to start their own lighter touch, SFI scheme in essay prompts order to attract more participants (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ; Meidinger 2006 ). The US forestry industry adopted the less ambitious SFI scheme, and the more ambitious FSC scheme failed to take off in the USA as it did in statement for nurse Canada, the UK and prompts, other countries (Cashore 2002 ; Conroy 2007 ). Dissertation Introduction! The lower environmental standards required within SFI compared with FSC became entrenched as the SFI standard spread.
Worse, because forestry certification is interlinked with other schemes, such as for green buildings, this consequential legitimacy loss spilled over into other US industries when the USGBC controversially decided to uc college essay prompts 2012 award LEED points for thesis using SFI-certified wood in their buildings. In this example, responsibility norms were co-created by uc college scheme participants and their surrounding stakeholders. However, the performance level for SFI was established at a lower performance level than for FSC. More generally, the moral legitimacy of thesis for nurse, ISR schemes with potent network effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the emerging shared norms (Mele and prompts, Armengou 2015 ). Essay On Becoming A Good! Without firm ethical foundations, networked ISR schemes may be awarded pragmatic legitimacy by uc college essay 2012 their immediate audiences, but lack deeper moral legitimacy. ISR schemes vary in their potential scope for learning opportunities and statement practitioner, the extent to which these learning exchanges are actually realized (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ). Uc College Prompts! ISR can provide spaces for experimentation and innovative solutions to social problems, leading to opportunities for wider learning, conversation and three key essay, interest alignment between participating firms and their immediate audiences.
ISR schemes designed for essay 2012 learning can improve both pragmatic and consequential legitimacy. For example, firms were more likely to change their waste management practices when managers said they joined EPA’s awareness-raising WasteWise programme to promote their relations with the EPA and to learn about waste (Delmas and Keller 2005 ). Similarly, Locke’s ( 2013 ) study of labour standards in essay a good apparel, electronics and metalworking supply chains showed the potential of uc college, learning through sharing best practices and capability-building in ISR to provide cleaner and safer workplaces for introduction politics workers than other scheme designs. ISR on labour standards in global supply chains has helped managers incorporate and uc college prompts 2012, learn from the voices of traditionally excluded groups of workers such as women export workers (Pearson and Seyfang 2001 ) and has also stimulated learning among activists about what worked in introduction politics affecting change in essay 2012 previous campaigns (Freeman 2005 ). However, as with network effects, the consequential legitimacy of ISR schemes designed for learning depends on what is learned and databases, shared within the scheme. Outcomes depend on the performance of the leading firms and the expectations they share with later joiners.
The primary motivation to participate may be to learn how to uc college essay 2012 avoid, deflect or pre-empt more ambitious regulatory requirements (Ogus 1995 ), or to co-opt or deflect stakeholder interests (Parker 2002 ; Raynolds et al. 2007 ). All four of the ISR schemes examined by Lenox and Nash ( 2003 ) in introduction the chemical, textile and pulp and paper industries were designed with sharing mechanisms such as industry newsletters, annual conferences and member meetings. These were intended to uc college essay 2012 help participants learn to and ethics essay manage the uc college 2012, uncertainty surrounding new environmental demands. However, in most of the schemes, the performance bar was not sufficiently ambitious to offer learning to new members on reducing pollution. Similarly, Lin-Hi and Blumberg ( 2016 ) emphasized the learning potential from schemes such as the politics, Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI), which focuses on essay, learning and capacity building to improve working conditions in global supply chains. However, two of the factories in housekeeping the Rana Plaza building in prompts 2012 Bangladesh that collapsed in 2013 were participants in the BSCI. Learning within the on becoming, BSCI scheme did not extend to assessing the safety or regulatory compliance of the physical buildings, or to empowering local workers to act when they identified cracks in the building before the collapse (Gross 2013 ). Opportunities to uc college prompts learn about facility safety were lost because of weak performance standards in the scheme (Chao 2013 ). As with network effects above, the moral legitimacy of ISR depends not only on databases, interactions and learning with stakeholders, but also on essay, the ethical content of nosql, what is learned. 2012! Moral legitimacy requires the learning to have firm ethical foundations (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). However, these ethical foundations can become unmoored from the ISR scheme if participants do not place adequate emphasis on what and skeleton questions, how they are learning from uc college prompts ISR schemes. This section addressed each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy in turn and used past ISR research from writer all three management theory perspectives to explore potential tensions with moral legitimacy.
Focusing on tensions between pragmatic and moral responsibility offers several implications for essay prompts ISR research. First, with respect to strategic control, the balance of evidence considered here seriously questions the consequential legitimacy of discretionary ISR schemes. Rather like students marking their own homework, it is statement practitioner, tempting for managers to award themselves the easy points but without truly engaging with fundamental changes in their activities. Essay Prompts! This is even the case in performance-based ISR schemes such as the USGBC’s LEED building standards. Future research should pay more attention to the specific outcomes of flexible ISR schemes, particularly ISR schemes that offer choices on a range of performance standards. Second, the current ISR literature challenges the consequential legitimacy of certification schemes that offer reputational benefits. Certification-based ISR schemes often provide pragmatic legitimacy from firms’ immediate audiences as they reassure stakeholders that firms are taking their social obligations seriously. Within the broader social context, such emblems and credentials can offer structural legitimacy that an industry-led scheme is the thesis statement practitioner, right form of organization to address a social challenge.
However, increased structural legitimacy from reputation-enhancing ISR schemes is often decoupled from the scheme’s outcomes. Thus, future research should further investigate the structural conditions of ISR schemes and prompts 2012, their outcomes. Finally, for ISR schemes that offer network and politics, learning effects, the 2012, pragmatic reasons to participate can multiply the positive outcomes of an ISR scheme. This is an writer, under-explored area in empirical studies and offers new optimism that there may actually be learning and prompts, relational benefits in firms marking their own homework. The current ISR literature is inconclusive about whether these network and learning effects are positive or negative, since ISR outcomes depend on what is learned and shared within ISR. More research is needed on formally modelling learning effects and network spillover in ISR. A particularly exciting frontier for three modelling might be when self-regulatory mechanisms interact, as in the case of the uc college essay prompts, SFI sustainable forest products scheme and the USGBC’s LEED green building standards. So far, serious empirical treatments of the consequential legitimacy of databases thesis, overlapping, networked ISR schemes is lacking from the academic literature.
The wide range of ISR schemes now operating provides an prompts 2012, opportunity for future empirical research to explore these ideas both within and across industry sectors. In principle, ISR can provide flexible and innovative social improvements at lower cost than direct state regulation (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and plan, Rees 1997 ). However, mixed empirical evidence and some high-profile ISR failures have fed scepticism that ISR allows firms to mark their own homework. Uc College Essay 2012! Although marking their own homework may not be unambiguously bad, current ISR theory cannot explain when or why this may be case, as it has not fully examined the legitimacy of ISR. Essay On Becoming A Good Writer! While legitimacy theory clearly separates the pragmatic legitimacy of gaining a social licence to essay operate from a deeper, more stable moral legitimacy (Suchman 1995 ; Mele and Armengou 2015 ), ISR research has been slow to recognize this distinction. In response, this paper mapped what we know about the housekeeping business plan, legitimacy of prompts, ISR from management theory, clearly separated pragmatic from moral legitimacy, and used this distinction to nosql databases thesis expose tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. This paper offers extensions to three strands within ISR theory. First, it provides integration across different theoretical perspectives within current management theory of ISR. It derives an integrated approach drawing on uc college essay 2012, strategic, institutional and statement practitioner, critical management perspectives. Pulling these perspectives into a single analysis is a significant contribution because previous management scholarship has been fragmented and context specific. Essay Prompts 2012! Strategic, institutional and critical management theories of ISR have evolved in parallel, as have scholarly communities that focus on particular content domains such as firms’ impacts on thesis for nurse, the natural environment, labour standards, ethical trading or diversity practices. Uc College Essay! This paper leverages and integrates across these parallel studies and offers the broader view needed to explore the biases, blind spots and boundary conditions of ISR.
Second, this paper moves beyond the largely descriptive analyses of ISR in the current literature to examine the housekeeping, normative legitimacy of ISR. The framework contributes to ISR management theory by moving beyond the private benefits that provide pragmatic legitimacy to ISR schemes to examine the more ethical foundations and shared responsibility norms that underly moral responsibility. The framework derived in Table 2 can guide a comprehensive evaluation of moral legitimacy based on the details of a particular ISR scheme, rather than implicitly assuming which aspect of uc college essay prompts 2012, moral legitimacy is most important as has been so common in management theories of ISR. Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the housekeeping business, right organization for essay the job (structural). Focusing on different types of dissertation, legitimacy gives different answers about the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. Very stringent schemes can give procedural legitimacy, but this does not necessarily mean that they will have good outcomes (i.e. consequential legitimacy). Similarly, a well-functioning scheme with positive overall social benefits can lose legitimacy if it does not somehow signal appropriate emblems or credentials to prompts maintain structural legitimacy. Previous research has been hampered by nosql databases thesis blinkered approaches from within particular management traditions. This paper offers an essay 2012, integrative view of moral legitimacy of ISR based on the different bases of for nurse, moral legitimacy, rather than the implied theoretical worldview of the analyst. Finally, the paper contributes to a burgeoning literature on the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of other phenomena such as codes of ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ) or controversial projects (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). Uc College Prompts 2012! This literature recognizes that pragmatic legitimacy and moral legitimacy do not always go together. The extension made in this paper is to specifically examine three tensions between pragmatic and housekeeping, moral legitimacy in the ISR context.
First, ISR schemes that offer pragmatic legitimacy through strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility required for moral legitimacy. 2012! Participants in thesis statement for nurse practitioner ISR schemes cannot simultaneously dominate and responsibly reciprocate with stakeholders, leading to serious questions about whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Second, ISR schemes that offer reputational benefits rely on gaining pragmatic legitimacy through persuasion, which can become decoupled from consequential changes in behaviours. Focusing on the exchange and transactional aspects of reputation can help gain pragmatic legitimacy, but disconnect schemes from deeper, reciprocal moral legitimacy. Third, the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network or learning effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the scheme. Ethically weak ISR schemes will lack moral legitimacy regardless of how many firms join or how much participants share learning within the scheme. Focusing on ISR has opened up some new frontiers in research on the interactions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR is uc college, unusual in that firms play a dual role in influencing the design of ISR schemes and then deciding whether and three, how to participate. To the extent that firms can influence the design of ISR schemes, there is the essay, potential for introduction firms to deliberately design schemes to maximize pragmatic legitimacy. For example, ISR schemes could be designed to uc college essay prompts 2012 emphasize strategic control (as in housekeeping business performance-based ISR schemes such as LEED), or to emphasize reputation (as in certification schemes). Uc College Essay 2012! These design choices can ultimately influence the moral legitimacy of the scheme in action.
It is possible that the tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy identified in this paper are a consequence of this dual role in ISR. Poverty And Ethics! This analysis challenges legitimacy theorists to assess whether these tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy are unique to circumstances where organizations both design and participate in governance schemes or are generalizable to uc college essay 2012 other contexts beyond ISR. This paper was partly motivated by a good the mismatch between the promise and performance of ISR schemes, and a desire to better evaluate ISR schemes in practice. Table 2 generates a wide variety of normative considerations in assessing the appropriateness of essay prompts 2012, ISR schemes that takes evaluation of ISR schemes far beyond simple cost–benefit logic. Scheme participants and business plan, stakeholders can use Table 2 to generate a systematic set of 2012, questions to three questions evaluate the uc college 2012, legitimacy of three questions, specific ISR schemes. From a consequential legitimacy point of view, questions focus on the outcomes of the scheme: what are the outcomes for participating firms, non-participants and other interested stakeholders?
What are the direct and indirect outcomes over 2012, the short and long term? Questions of procedural legitimacy include whether inclusion criteria are sufficiently ambitious to set new standards, whether the housekeeping plan, scheme is sufficiently codified to shape action and to what extent non-compliant participants are sanctioned. Structural legitimacy questions ask about the extent to uc college 2012 which the authority of the ISR scheme is formally recognized within the relevant country or industry, whether the ISR scheme reflects acceptable values for its social context and whether and how the form of the ISR conveys that firms are performing their proper social function. Thesis! Systematic questions beyond simple short-term cost–benefit analysis have the potential to identify and develop relatively more socially beneficial ISR schemes in the future, and ultimately to improve ISR schemes in practice. The primary limitation of this analysis is 2012, that it is statement practitioner, based on an analytic review of past research from a sprawling range of traditions and substantive policy domains. A formal, systematic review could have been a useful way to generate a more comprehensive, unbiased and transparent literature review. However, a systematic review would also have had to be necessarily limited to particular policy domains or contexts or sets of journals (that is, theoretical tradition) to formally limit the scope of the review.
By adopting a more analytic approach, this analysis linked up insights on ISR that would not usually show up in a narrower key word search. It did not offer the replicable and more structured findings of a systematic review, but instead served as a conversation starter based on uc college, an analytical overview of a wide span of literature. This paper is introduction, also limited in that it did not attempt to 2012 empirically explore, verify or test key insights. Future research on the structural conditions of ISR schemes and nosql databases, their outcomes is particularly needed, and is now increasingly possible because of the very large number of essay prompts, schemes that could be compared. Databases! For example, the International Trade Centre lists over 210 voluntary standards operating in over 200 countries, many of which would meet the definition of ISR used in this paper (see www.standardsmap.org ). Similarly, www.ecolabelindex.com lists over 450 ecolabels across 25 industry sectors.
Empirical researchers might collate existing evidence on the effectiveness of these standards or ecolabels and develop preliminary tests and categorizations on which ones have the most learning or network potential, and how they rank on the various dimensions of essay 2012, consequential, procedural or structural legitimacy. As data availability improves, empirical researchers will be able to conduct more complete systematic reviews and even meta-analyses of the legitimacy of ISR in the future. This paper examined the legitimacy of ISR in response to mixed empirical evidence and accusations that firms are using ISR schemes to housekeeping “mark their own homework”. It explained how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate pragmatic legitimacy of ISR schemes based on prompts 2012, private benefits, from moral legitimacy based on reciprocal responsibilities, a firm ethical foundation and normative approval. Mapping the literature has revealed tensions between pragmatic and databases, moral legitimacy, and generated implications for theory on essay, ISR and on legitimacy. Future ISR research should examine the full range of moral legitimacy questions about ISR. Only then can ISR achieve its full potential as a fully legitimate mode of governance in the contemporary economic system. The work was funded by the UK’s Economic and three, Social Research Council (ESRC: ES/K007440/1). Compliance with Ethical Standards. The author declares that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Open Access This article is distributed under the essay prompts, terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Frances Bowen 1 Email author 1. School of introduction, Business and Management Queen Mary University of London London UK. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.
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4 Steps to uc college essay prompts Writing a Job-Winning Resume. Writing your resume, or even updating your resume, can be a scary, daunting task. But with the right approach and thesis practitioner know-how, you can create your own standout document in no time. Essay Prompts 2012. And the good news is we’re here to help. We’ve broken down the dissertation introduction politics, resume-writing process into 4 simple steps to uc college 2012 make it easier for you to thesis practitioner get started! Our Resume Writing Guide gives you an overview of uc college 2012, each section of poverty and ethics, your resume, followed by some quick tips and actual resume examples that you can use as model for your own resume.
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Your statement can be written in either sentence form or bullet-point form and should be short, but effective – no more than 3 sentences or bullet points; it should also contain the following information: Your professional title Top 2-3 skills Specific expertise, professional traits, accomplishments. Prompts 2012. Need help writing your own professional summary statement? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of expertly written summary statements and career-specific phrases that you can easily and three quickly add to uc college your resume. Registered nurse with 9 years of experience in introduction, medical centers and operating rooms ICU and ER experience in 40+ bed units Strong organizational and interpersonal skills. Dedicated assembly line worker with 5 years of uc college prompts, experience. Well-versed in machinery assembly and for nurse practitioner production line efficiency . Fast learner who picks up new processes and uc college 2012 technologies easily. Senior Sales Associate with excellent customer relations skills in business-to-business sales Increased global sales by 20% over the last two years, exceeding goals each quarter for the past year Seeking new sales challenge with management opportunities. Experienced veterinary technician with 3 years of experience in delivering comprehensive care to animals at animal rescue facilities and shelters.
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Hiring managers should be able to scan your resume and find this list of skills easily. Here are a few helpful tips for writing a skills section that will get you noticed. Target your skills to the job : This is one of the best ways to customize your resume for the job you are applying to. Read the job description and list all of the required and essay desired skills for poverty and ethics, the position. Then, see if you have any skills that match up with those on your list; these are the abilities you should include in uc college prompts, your skills section. This way, when hiring managers skim your resume, they will see that you have the skills they’re looking for in a candidate. Include transferable skills : Transferable skills are skills that cross from one career field to dissertation introduction another. These skills can be applied to a variety of positions. Some examples include communication skills, presentation or public speaking skills, any foreign language skills you have, social media skills, organizational and planning skills, and management and leaderships skills. Use keywords : If you are applying to uc college prompts 2012 a job online and housekeeping business plan are asked to upload your resume or fill in an application online, chances are you are entering your information into an application tracking system. This is 2012 a machine that companies use to scan a resume for keywords specific to the job.
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Hiring managers will be looking for uc college prompts 2012, your achievements and successes, not just your responsibilities, so it’s important to include both. When listing your responsibilities and duties, be sure to use action verbs to increase the strength of your writing and make potential employers take notice. Some action verbs to poverty and ethics essay use include: Communicated Negotiated Joined Reported Customized Initiated Planned Budgeted Developed Prepared Contributed Ensured Provided Led. It takes practice and time to come up with your accomplishments and successes and to add numbers to them numbers such as how much money you saved the essay, company, how you increased efficiency, or how many sales you achieved in thesis statement, a certain period of time. However, using two or three bullets under each job to describe your successes, along with metrics, will land you an interview. Need help writing a work experience section that shows your value?
Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to uc college essay 2012 your own resume. Bayle Industries, Hutchins Creek, MD. Poverty And Ethics Essay. July 2010 – present. Prioritized and managed multiple administrative projects while managing day-to- day tasks such as receiving and distributing mail, maintaining conference rooms, managing calendars, and maintaining office supplies. Increased conference room scheduling efficiency by 25% by implementing new company-wide online booking system. Provided travel arrangement support for 25+ employees per month for offsite meetings and national conferences. Managed operations and prompts logistics for annual onsite company conference for 150 employees and 200+ guest attendees. Parkview Elementary School, Summerfields, PA.
September 2014 – May 2016. Assisted in a classroom of 25 elementary school children, ages 5-6, for two consecutive school years. And Ethics Essay. Engaged children with diverse and enjoyable activities involving theatrical play, musical instruments and essay hands-on learning. Offered detailed weekly reports that outlined each child’s activities and implemented new email letter system to offer reports online, saving the faculty 4 hours per week. Ft. Hood, Killeen, TX. January 2008 – August 2015. Developed and led 5 new training programs over 12 months in preparation for combat.
Performed reconnaissance operations in compromised regions to housekeeping business develop combat training programs. Essay 2012. Performed as a fire team member during situational training exercises and all infantry dismounted battle drills. Communicated urgent orders and directions effectively to team of 200+ military personnel. Your educational background can be an important part of your resume and should communicate your background quickly and nosql databases thesis simply to potential employers. Even if you don’t have previous experience in a particular job, you may increase your chances of being considered for the position if you can show that you have taken courses that are relevant to the position at hand. Here are some tips to help make your education section work for you: List the highest level of education first. This will help catch the hiring manager’s eye and ensure that he or she is prompts able to determine your education level quickly. If you are recent graduate without a ton of work experience, then you can place your education section at the top of your resume for emphasis.
Include your educational information in this order: Degree or diploma name is key essay questions listed first. Major(s) follow the degree. Uc College Essay Prompts 2012. If you have minors, these are optional to thesis statement for nurse list but it’s recommended to list them if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. List the date you received the degree or diploma by year (for example, 2003). If you are soon-to-be grad, you can list your expected graduation date. Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Do not include your GPA on your resume unless you are a recent graduate. If you don’t have a degree, never fear! If you have an essay 2012, associate’s degree, you can list it in poverty and ethics, the same way as above. Prompts 2012. It is also perfectly acceptable to on becoming writer list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. In the absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to uc college list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to the job you are applying for.
Then, make sure to three emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and effectively outline your classroom achievements. More Articles about How to Write Your First Resume. Essay. 3 Critical Mistakes to Avoid on Your First Ever Resume. Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career. How to Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience. Essay. Get Hired In 30 Seconds: Resume Summary Tips. Get Your Resume In Front of the Right People: Four Tips. Create a Resume That Stops Traffic.
How to Write a Resume that Lands More Job Offers. Uc College 2012. Resume Tips for Job Search Newbies. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST. Sat 8am - 5pm CST, Sun 10am - 6pm CST Stay in touch with us.
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My Hobby My hobby Everybody has different hobbies that we enjoy and do it for essay prompts 2012, fun or . relaxation. They can be either physical activities like jogging, playing football, swimming, … or mental activities like reading, watching movies, playing computers… and it depend on personality. My bobby is football because it’s part of databases, my life and uc college 2012 I cannot live without it and I have playing this sport since I was a litle boy. Nowdays looks like everibody is thesis, playing football and it most popular sport in the. American football , Association football , Australian rules football 493 Words | 2 Pages. Over the last few years, as I got bored with my life and tried to pick up some new hobbies to make my life more . enjoyable, I came across so many great things from indoor rock climbing, gardening to making handmade stuffs. Among all those things, I really got into making scrapbook since I has discovered a lot about myself doing so. First of all, scrapbooking is a popular past time of many people, especially women.
This is the way of keeping personal and family history in the decorated book. It. Arts and crafts , Photograph , Photography 716 Words | 2 Pages. | A hobby is what people enjoy doing in their free time. People . Prompts. have different hobbies such as playing guitar, watching movies, reading books, sleeping etc. Thesis Statement For Nurse Practitioner. My hobby is playing football. Football is the most popular sport in the world and 2012 is played in poverty and ethics essay a lot of countries. I started to play football when I was ten. At the first time, my father did not allow me to play football because he thought it would be dangerous. American football , Football , Help 399 Words | 2 Pages.
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My love of music began in the first year of my elementary. Blues , Funk , Guitar 548 Words | 2 Pages. Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0313-7891989, 0333-5319544 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org website: www.onlineislamabad.com ENGLISH FOR CLASS 6TH . TO 8TH CLASS ( ESSAYS ) ============================================================ QUAID-E-AZAM Date of Birth: Quaid-e-Azam was born on prompts 2012 25th December 1876 at Karachi Fathers Name: His father name was Jinnah Poonja. Three Skeleton Key Essay Questions. He was a rich merchant of uc college prompts, Karachi. Early Education: He received his early education from Karachi. He passed his Matriculation. Islam , Karachi , Lahore 1068 Words | 3 Pages.
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Vision of My Dream India International Day against. Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. My Progress as a Reader and Writer. English 20M-Section 2 12 May 2011 My Progress as a Reader and Writer in poverty essay English 20M If I had a time travel machine, I would love to go back . to our class’s first meeting. It was such a memorable day. I was so nervous that my first piece of uc college prompts 2012, writing seemed less than mediocre as I reflected on essay what I had written that day. While being happy that my name was randomly chosen to be added to the class, I was very scared of this class. The last time I wrote an essay was two years ago, and before this class. Better , Essay , Grammar 1361 Words | 4 Pages.
Topic 6 In my opinion, I think that humour is one of the uc college essay part and parcel elements in our daily lives. Without humour, our lives will be boring . and three skeleton questions dull. In my a few years of observations, I found out that person who is humour is always the essay prompts 2012 one who gives creative ideas and has a brilliant mindset. Those people usually have critical thinking and can think very fast. They are also good in socializing. It is essay on becoming, because most of the essay prompts people like to nosql thesis be friend with people who are humour.
I have no exception. Black hole , Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge , Learning 1310 Words | 3 Pages. My hobby is stamp colleting. When I was still only uc college essay prompts 2012, a baby, my mother began to collect for me. Of course, she did . And Ethics. not let me touch the uc college prompts stamps until I was old enough not to spoil them. I remember that it was on my fifteenth birthday that she first put them into my hands. Databases. They were in uc college essay four fat books, but since that time I have added three more, so that now I have a bigger collection than any of my friends. How do I get my stamps?
I have never bought a single one from a shop -- so my collection. A Story , I-Pass , Mother 688 Words | 2 Pages. Compare-Contrast Essay Eng121: English Composition I (AXC13480) Regina McKinney Professor: Nancy Segovia January 1, 2014 A . For Nurse Practitioner. narrative essay is about storytelling for a narrative story to prompts 2012 work it must capture and hold the nosql databases thesis audience attention you must give a clear understanding of your story. A descriptive essay lets you describe in detail what the essay is essay 2012, all about essay on becoming a good writer using words that appeal to your sense of smell, hearing, see, touch, and taste. A descriptive essay lets you use words that. Essay , Maya Angelou , Narrative 1226 Words | 4 Pages. lose her temper. She remains calm even when there is a crisis of any kind. Essay 2012. She makes me love going to school. I always look forward to my . science period.
She is an ideal teacher and provides the students with a good role model. I love her the most and hope to poverty be like her one day. You Ma Also Like: How to stop corruption in India ? Essay 366 words short essay on Good Manners Advertisement file:///D:/Essa on uc college prompts M Favourite Teacher.htm 2/3 9/17/12 Essa on M Favourite Teacher Free. All rights reserved , Casting , Copyright 595 Words | 4 Pages. presence always leads into a celestial experience of three skeleton key essay questions, all who enter in and experience it.
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Fiche Fran§ais : analyse Le Feu Henri Barbusse partie 1. Mise à jour le 18-02-2015. → Téléchargement disponible après inscription. Cette fiche d'analyse du Feu, de Barbusse d©taille les personnages de l'oeuvre ainsi que la position de Barbusse par rapport la guerre. Retrouvez ©galement la suite de cette analyse dans la partie 2. Plan du document : 1. Essay Prompts. L'escouade, un groupe d'hommes.
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Fouillade a quarante ans, Marthereau est le plus ўg© et Biquet le plus jeune, et le sergent Vigile est presque un enfant. For Nurse Practitioner. Tirette se fait remarquer par son accent de titi parisien. Uc College Prompts 2012. Le narrateur, quant lui, efface son appartenance professionnelle et r©gionale, mais revendique son appartenance au groupe de l'escouade en usant du ЂњnousЂќ communautaire. Housekeeping. Malgr© tout ce qui les s©pare, la guerre et la tranch©e ont r©unis les soldats : « l'©troitesse terrible de la vie commune nous serre, nous adapte, nous efface les uns dans les autres ». C'est presque comme si l'exposition de toutes ces diff©rences mettait au jour un homme originel, ant©rieur aux conventions. Essay. La promiscuit©, l'exposition au mЄme danger Page 3 sur 10 ont en effet donn© aux soldats « le mЄme caractЁre simplifi© d'hommes revenus l'©tat primitif ». La question de la d©gradation de l'homme r©duit aux instincts animaux se pose, notamment de par l'agressivit© qui se d©veloppe chez les soldats : « c'est ici qu'on devient pareil des bЄtes, force de leur ressembler ? » demande Paradis. Poverty And Ethics Essay. De mЄme nous pouvons lire dans le dernier chapitre : « Tout de mЄme, que sommes-nous depuis deux ans ? De pauvres malheureux, des sauvages, des brutes, des bandits, des salauds ». Uc College Essay Prompts 2012. L'animalit© est trЁs pr©sente. Three Key Essay. Alors qu'au d©part les soldats se comparent « espЁces dЂ™ours qui pataugent et grognent », le local o№ ils vont habiter est un « chenil ». Essay. Le chapitre 11, intitul© Le chien, ©tablit lui aussi un point de comparaison entre les bЄtes et les hommes : « l'animal est attach© toute la journ©e, il a froid, il a mal, il est abandonn© » comme le sont les soldats. Databases Thesis. La guerre fait des hommes des Єtres incivilis©s au plus proche de lЂ™animalit© la plus d©cadente qui soit. Le chapitre 2 ©numЁre et pr©sente chacun des membres de l'escouade, qui, parce qu'ils ont un nom, ont un destin particulier et une existence propre, au-del de la masse d'hommes anonymes qu'ils repr©sentent en tant que soldats.
La plupart des d©nominations relЁvent du surnom, ©vocateur. 2012. Cocon a un nom qui reflЁte sa fragilit©, quand Farfadet repr©sente le physique mЄme de celui qu'il d©nomme, « fin, flexible et frissonnant comme un lilas ». Politics. Volpatte est qualifi© quant lui de semibrigand, quand Tirloir et Fouillade suggЁrent des pratiques de chasse ou de pЄche. Uc College Essay 2012. Tirette, en rapport au vin que l'on boit, Biquet, P©pin. A Good Writer. Certains noms relЁvent de l'argot (Blaire, le nez) quand d'autres sont tir©s de vocables antiques : Eudore, Eudoxie, Euterpe, Palmyre. Essay 2012. Ironique, le nom de Lamuse, « l'homme b“uf », employ© contre emploi. Three Key Essay Questions. Pigeon, Guenon, Cornet, Bigornot, Canard, La Mollette.
Certains ©chappent ce type d'onomastique, Tulacque, le grand Barque. Uc College 2012. D'autres sont des patronymes : Cadlihac, Poterloo, Mesnil Andr© et Joseph, Becuwe Adophe, etc. On notera que dans le chapitre ЂњLa corv©eЂќ, l'auteur ne fait plus mention des noms, tous les hommes ©tant d©sormais mass©s et confondus dans un ЂњonЂќ anonyme. †’ Cette partie est disponible sur le document t©l©charger gratuitement. Le destin de certains personnages s'avЁre profond©ment tragique. Introduction. Chapitre 11, ЂњLe chienЂќ, scЁne apparemment comique : la gesticulation d©nu©e de sens et ©pique de Fouillade, mais qui traduit en r©alit© un profond d©sespoir face l'insupportable cantonnement, qui l'amЁne s'assimiler un chien. Essay. Autre trait tragique : l'immense nostalgie qui habite les soldats, dont la vraie vie semble r©duite de simples souvenirs d'un temps lointain. Poterloo et Ramure incarnent quant eux l'arbitraire de la guerre. Three Skeleton Questions. Poterloo est triplement tragique, dans le chapitre ЂњLe PortiqueЂќ, il doit d'abord faire face l'an©antissement de son lieu de vie, ray© de la carte, village devenu une morgue ciel ouvert. Uc College Essay Prompts 2012. Ensuite, il d©couvre la fin de la mort, en ©piant sa femme, heureuse prЁs de soldats allemands. Practitioner. Enfin, la guerre finit par tuer Poterloo, alors qu'il revenait de son village, « devenu comme s'il n'©tait pas ». Uc College Prompts. Fauch© par une explosion, il part, « une flamme la place de la tЄte » Ramure, lui, repr©sente la mort obscure et consentie : bless©, immobilis©, il attend en vain d'Єtre ©vacu©, et prend les traits du h©ros tragique de par sa grandeur face la mort.
Paradis est part, parce qu'il se caract©rise par sa p©rennit©. Business. Il est le premier appara®tre dans le roman, et il est aussi celui qui clґture le roman. Uc College Prompts. Le seul qui traverse le roman, sans mourir. Skeleton Key Essay. Il semble incarner la force, de par sa grandeur et sa largeur. Essay. Mais aussi un grand sens de l'humanit©. Statement. Il r©vЁle ce dernier dans le chapitre 16, o№ en se jetant au secours de la femme qui cire des chaussures de jeune fille, il se transforme presque en h©ros chevaleresque, boulevers© qu'il est par la bottine, all©gorie de la f©minit©. Prompts 2012. Sa g©n©rosit© appara®t dans le chapitre 20, ЂњLe feuЂќ, o№ il d©cide de taire la mort de Mesnil Andr© pour prot©ger son jeune frЁre Joseph. Housekeeping Business. Dans les deux derniers chapitres, Paradis accorde l'asile aux soldats allemands en d©route.
Et c'est lui qui ©met des constats critiques et pacifistes, et qui ouvre le dialogue des anonymes : « quand on uc college essay 2012 parle de toute la guerre, c'est comme si on and ethics n'disait rien. Essay Prompts 2012. Ca ©touffe les paroles. Plan. On est l , r'garder §a, comme des espЁces d'aveugles. Essay. » Les femmes sont l'arriЁre, derriЁre l'action des tranch©es. Plan. Pr©sentes mais absentes, elles apparaissent comme ©tant presque inaccessibles. Uc College Essay 2012. Les femmes sont scind©es en deux groupes : les laides, repoussantes, grossiЁres, vieilles. Introduction Politics. et les belles, pures et d©sirables. Pr©sente dans quatre chapitres, 4, 5, 6 et 17, elle est pr©sent©e comme une « femme biche ». Uc College 2012. C'est une femme d'une beaut© universelle qui de ce fait s©duit son insu tous les hommes. Thesis For Nurse. Blonde, grande, svelte, des yeux de biche : tout chez elle aspire la douceur et la puret©. Uc College Essay 2012. C'est une r©fugi©e qui se d©place sans cesse dans les lignes.
Elle vit une histoire d'amour avec Farfadet, mais qui se termine horriblement : la guerre ayant transform© la belle Eudoxie en un cadavre pourri. Thesis Practitioner. La guerre d©truit l'amour et impose la supr©matie de la mort. ‰ternel combat entre Eros et Thanatos, symbolis© au chapitre 17 par l'©treinte macabre de Lamuse et du cadavre d'Eudoxie. Uc College Essay. Lamuse, amoureux ©conduit d'Eudoxie, voit son fantasme se r©aliser, quand, creusant la terre, il ne peut se d©barrasser du cadavre de cette derniЁre : « Elle voulait m'embrasser, je n'voulais pas, c'©tai' affreux ». Databases Thesis. La guerre d©truit toute forme d'©rotisme et impose la supr©matie de Thanatos sur Eros. †’ Cette partie est disponible sur le document t©l©charger gratuitement. 10. Uc College. Les gens de l'arriЁre, un second pays. †’ Cette partie est disponible sur le document t©l©charger gratuitement. Lorsque la guerre de 1914 est d©clar©e, Barbusse a prЁs de 40 ans, une notori©t© artistique c©lЁbre et des positions politiques pacifistes.
Malgr© cela il demande s'engager dans l'infanterie, mais atteint de dysenterie, il est r©form© en 1917. On peut lire Le feu comme une charge antimilitariste qui exalte la solidarit© entre les soldats mais d©nonce la guerre comme une horreur et une absurdit©. And Ethics Essay. L'ouvrage re§oit un accueil controvers© : d'un cґt© le texte s'inscrit en faux contre le patriotisme ambiant et est ce titre mal per§u l'arriЁre, mais de l'autre il suscite l'enthousiasme des soldats, qui y voient la premiЁre peinture r©aliste de la situation qu'ils vivent. 2012. Barbusse est surnomm© le Zola des tranch©es pour ses tableaux trЁs sombres et d©taill©s de l'horreur guerriЁre. Le roman de Barbusse peut Єtre rattach© ce qu'on appelle la litt©rature imm©diate. Essay. D'une part le texte s'inscrit d©lib©r©ment dans une logique contemporaine et r©aliste et d©crit pendant la guerre des conflits dont personne ne sait encore l'issue. Uc College 2012. D'autre part Barbusse d©veloppe une ©criture de l'instant et une focalisation trЁs subjective, qui permet au lecteur de suivre au plus prЁs le quotidien de soldats qui ne savent jamais de quoi l'instant est fait. †’ La suite de cette partie est disponible sur le document t©l©charger gratuitement. Le r©cit de Barbusse s'organise de fa§on circulaire : le dernier chapitre « L'aube » reprend le premier, « La vision », lors de la r©p©tition de la phrase : « deux arm©es qui se battent c'est comme une grande arm©e qui se suicide », et les deux chapitres font allusion un bouleversement semblable celui de la R©volution fran§aise. Mais les hommes jet©s dans la guerre apparaissent dans le premier et dans le dernier chapitre comme porteurs d'espoir.
Au sein de cette structure circulaire qui semble circonscrire la guerre comme une exp©rience radicale, le roman refuse le procЁs classique du r©cit et ©vite tout sch©ma narratif. Dissertation. Il se d©ploie plutґt comme une composition symphonique o№ s'entremЄlent des motifs r©currents. 3. 2012. La guerre, c'est- -dire nulle part. Le th©ўtre des op©rations, qui se situe dans la r©gion du Pas-de-Calais, fait r©f©rence au front ouest et la bataille de Carency du 9 mai 1945. Les cantonnements successifs Gauchin L'Abb©, Ablain-Saint-Nazaire, les deux chapitres consacr©s Souchez (Le Portique) et Argoval (chapitre 10) montrent des d©placements trЁs limit©s de l'escouade entre des communes limitrophes. A Good Writer. L'©pop©e du Feu, avec sa violence et ses souffrances, se d©ploie sur un espace trЁs ©troit : celui des collines de l'Artois entre Arras, Lens et B©thune : encore aujourd'hui, Carency est un arrondissement d'Arras et relЁve du canton de Vigny. Essay Prompts. Cette unit© spatiale de l'“uvre extrЄmement resserr©e accentue la dimension tragique du r©cit : les 24 chapitres avec leur poids de morts et d'horreur en tirent une densit© particuliЁre. Databases Thesis. Cette condensation de l'espace isole les soldats dans leur contexte et les montre englu©s dans une situation fig©e. Cet effet produit par la restriction de l'espace se trouve renforc© par le choix de l'achronie, lЂ™absence de temps. Barbusse refuse tout d©roulement chronologique, et se faisant il abolit le temps.
Les indices temporels qu'il fournit sont indicatifs de dur©e, dur©e de la guerre : « quinze mois, cinq cent jours, en ce lieu du monde o№ nous sommes, le bombardement et la fusillade ne se sont pas arrЄt©s du matin au soir et du soir au matin ». Quelques indications laissent entrevoir le d©roulement des saisons : beaut© de l'automne, annonce du printemps, la neige de l'hiver, etc. Uc College Prompts. Mais les indications temporelles sont rares et floues : « il fait bleu fonc© », « il doit Єtre cinq heures du matin », et impr©cises. Politics. Ce choix de l'achronie restitue le caractЁre chaotique du v©cu des soldats. 5. Uc College Essay Prompts. L'envers de la cr©ation du monde : le retour au chaos. †’ Cette partie est disponible sur le document t©l©charger gratuitement. Dans son atrocit©, la guerre bafoue toutes les valeurs. Nosql Thesis. Biquet rassurait sa mЁre en disant qu'il n'©tait « plus, dans la tempЄte et le froid, qu'un peu de cendre mouill©e ». Essay. La r©f©rence l'Apocalypse est rappel©e par des images saisissantes : la route tant de fois emprunt©e dans la nuit appara®t comme fantastique : « elle semble un passage maudit, sans couleur, ©corch©e et vieille, sinistre et grandiose. Statement. » Les hommes se sentent engag©s dans un processus infernal. Essay 2012. Le bombardement devient un bruit diabolique qui nous entoure, une tempЄte de battements rauques et sourds, de clameurs furibonds, de cris per§ants de bЄtes, il confronte les hommes un « cycle immense d'incendies qui paraissent et disparaissent, dans ce paysage de sabbat ». Statement For Nurse. Un anonyme y voit la marque du diable et s'©crit : « on prompts 2012 est maudits ». Key Essay. Au-dessus d'eux, la mort semble ricaner dans « cette d©bўcle d'ordures et de chairs o№ sont sem©es des profusions d'images religieuses ». †’ La suite de cette partie est disponible sur le document t©l©charger gratuitement. - le 11 Juillet 01h19.
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