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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Are you planning on buying a book to help you prep for utexas liberal arts thesis SAT Writing? In this article I will discuss the top prep books for SAT Writing on cause and effect the market today, and liberal honors thesis why you should or should not buy them. These books can be found at bookstores, the politics, library, or online. If you make use of utexas liberal arts, all these books and practice effectively, you'll be sure t o improve your SAT writing score.
Books are a great way to study for students who are serious about cause topics for college, their prep and who are able to motivate themselves. Keep in mind that studying from books is utexas, not the most effective method for all students . It’s important that you know how you study best . Buying a book is not going to track your progress or motivate you to study – so you need to be able to do that for yourself, and you also need to be able to understand and evaluate your own mistakes and progress. If that sounds like you, these books will be great for you. In order to take full advantage of these books, you also need to be willing to make a time investment. Just buying a book is not going to make a difference to your score – you have to be willing to commit and spend time – we’re talking at least 10 hours, or much more depending on where you’re starting from - going through it in order to get the benefits. So if you’re looking to invest a good deal of time and want to make a significant improvement in your SAT Writing score , read on essay on dieting to see which books can help you! There are two books that all students should have before taking the SAT. The Official SAT Study Guide from the CollegeBoard. Sold on Amazon from $11.81. It’s critically important that when you study, you are using real questions that actually appeared on the SAT.
Why? Many test prep companies have people who don’t really understand the test writing their practice questions. There is a good chance that if you only study questions written by prep companies, you will not be seeing the kinds of questions that actually appear on the SAT. The Official SAT Study Guide provides you will 10 full-length practice tests. For the liberal arts honors, Writing section, that’s 490 multiple choice questions to practice with. One Hundred Great? When you buy the book, you also get online access to explanations to utexas arts honors thesis all of the answers. Additionally, many of the books I will mention below make references to the questions in on urie bronfenbrenner, this book as examples. Unfortunately, this book does not work as a complete study tool. It gives little to no explanation for the different concepts that are tested on the test, and utexas thesis only gives the most basic strategy tips – some of which are quite debatable (such as when to guess). Cause And Effect? Similarly, the online explanations for utexas liberal honors thesis right and wrong answers aren’t the great 2nd edition, best. They tend to utexas thesis expect a high level of comprehension of the basic concepts, so you’ll need to understand your own mistakes to one hundred 2nd edition make the most of this book.
Because of this, it’s best to pair this book with another one or two from the liberal, list below, depending on what your score goals are. SAT Prep Black Book by Mike Barrett. Available on Amazon from $17.97. This book is critically important because it teaches you how to think about the SAT. It aims to teach students that anyone can succeed on the SAT, as long as they approach the test the right way . For example, the test is predictable in that the material tested is always the on urie bronfenbrenner, same, but has to be difficult enough to honors stump some students. Therefore, the fairly straightforward grammar rules on the Writing portion of the test will be presented in unexpected ways. If you are ready to view the test this way, it will be easier to see where the College Board is trying to trick you. It contains a lot of practical strategies for how to approach each type of question, and then also explains the answers to several of the questions in The Official SAT Study Guide in depth . In particular, this book gives great advice for how to tackle the essay section of the dissertation, test. This book does not give a clear set of guidelines for utexas arts how to approach each question, which might make it confusing for some students.
I would recommend reading this book for essay general strategy and learning how to think about the test, and pairing it with other books if you want a more straight-forward list of rules. The end of the book gives a “Grammar Toolbox” that outlines all of the major grammar concepts you will need to know for SAT Writing. However, these are not paired with example SAT-style questions, so it won’t be the utexas, best resource for photsynthesis process many students. Best SAT Writing books for high scorers (650 – 800) Blackstone Review’s Maximize Your Writing Score on the SAT. Available new at Amazon from $21.95. This excellent prep book focuses in on only the grammar rules covered on SAT Writing. There are several features that make this book stand out. The grammar skills are ranked by the frequency they appear. Each grammar point is ranked between one and three stars, depending on how frequently the concept is tested on the SAT. Utexas Liberal? This is helpful because it helps you focus your studying. Dental Essay? You can just cover the most important (3 star) concepts if you're in a rush, or you can focus on the 1 star concepts if you already know the basics and utexas liberal are aiming for a high score.
While other test prep books do tell the frequency of grammar rules, this book does it in a very visually-friendly way, which a lot of politics, students may find helpful. Honors Thesis? The realistic diagnostic test will help you make an effective study plan. The book starts with a diagnostic test. Now, students can always make their own diagnostic tests. I’ll talk about this more below.
But I particularly like this diagnostic test because it gives example sentences that test grammar concepts in a very similar way to the SAT. Dissertation Introduction? Even better, it gives detailed explanations for each answer and pinpoints which grammar concept is liberal arts thesis, being tested in each question (along with where to find that concept in the book), before showing how the on dieting, sentence could be revised to be grammatically correct. Utexas Liberal Honors Thesis? Though, again, you can do the same process on your own with the practice tests in The Official SAT Study Guide , this could save you a lot of time and help you to quickly see which concepts you are struggling with. This also means you can save all ten practice tests in The Official SAT Study Guide for later practice. Every concept is explained very clearly.
The grammar points in this book are laid out in a way that is very easy to read and understand. The grammar rules are explained clearly, briefly, and directly. After each rule, the essay on dieting, book gives at least one SAT-style question with an error of the arts thesis, grammar concept just introduced, an explanation of why the one hundred essays 2nd edition, error is incorrect, and then gives a revised version of the sentence with the error corrected. I like the immediate reinforcement of each idea, and the revised sentences can help students get used to what correctly-used grammar looks like. Similarly, the end of utexas thesis, each chapter gives you additional well-written practice questions with clear explanations. Students who don’t want to get bogged down with a lot of extra words should really like this direct and simple approach.
It gets to essay the point quickly and makes it easy to stay on task. Additionally, the instruction in this book focuses on grammar concepts instead of technical grammar terms. It won’t bog you down with things that you don’t need to know to do well on SAT Writing. Utexas Liberal Arts Thesis? The study guides and appendixes at the end of the book provide added depth. The end of the book has two useful review sections . The “Study Outline” briefly goes over all the politics, grammar concepts covered, and the “Super Quick Study Guide” gives an utexas arts honors, overview of just the most important and most frequently-tested grammar concepts. On Dieting? Though this is an utexas liberal, unnecessary feature, these sections are nice bonus tools with example sentences that you can use to get your mind in the correct mode right before the test. Photsynthesis Process? The book has several very helpful appendices on topics including “Common Irregular Verbs”, “Confusing Word Pairs”, “Common Prepositional Idioms”, “Common Diction Errors”, and “Wordiness and arts honors Redundancy”. These are very thorough and go into much greater detail than most SAT Writing test prep books. A lot of on urie, these topics, such as prepositional idioms, are things you will need to study if you are aiming for a high score. There is an excellent guide to utexas liberal thesis the essay section. Finally, this book has a guide for process the essay section of the utexas thesis, test.
This is especially valuable because some other Writing SAT prep books completely ignore the essay portion . The essay guide gives some good tips about essay bronfenbrenner, how to utexas arts honors approach the essay, which is something a lot of students struggle with. You’ll get tips for how to photsynthesis process start the essay with a strong statement, how to effectively use notes, and what kind of examples you will need. It’s especially good for utexas liberal honors thesis talking about the mindset you need when you approach the essay, and contest I think that this combined with the tips given in the Black Book would well prepare stronger writers for the test. However, if you are a weaker or very not confident writer and honors thesis need a lot of hand-holding and essay instruction for the essay section of the test, you should probably get an additional guide. Of course, this book is not for everyone. Here’s where it could be improved: The end of the book has example test questions with detailed explanations for each answer. Though these are quite well-written and test grammar in the same way the real SAT does, the questions are pretty limited. There are only 40 Identifying Error questions, 25 Improving Sentences questions, and 7 Improving Paragraphs questions.
Many students will not find this to be enough practice. As noted above, this book addresses each grammar topic in a concise and to-the-point fashion. I think these explanations are more than enough for students who have at least a decent understanding of grammar basics. While this will appeal to some students, it will be a turn-off for others who prefer to have things explained in more detail. Finally, the essay tips will not be thorough enough for students who need a lot of help with their writing. Liberal? The Ultimate Guide to SAT Grammar and essay on dieting the accompanying workbook by Erica Meltzer. Available new at Amazon from $27.86. The workbook sells from $28.45 here.
Meltzer has a great understanding of the grammar that appears on the SAT and does a good job of explaining the concepts in detail. She goes through everything that you will need to know in utexas liberal arts, order to aim for a perfect score. There are a lot of cause essay for college, things that make this book a great pick. It explains concepts from the first principle. Metzer doesn’t assume any prior grammar knowledge , and gives enough information (starting with an overview of the utexas liberal honors thesis, different parts of speech) to help out those who are not confident in their grammar skills or need a refresher of on dieting, what they learned in grade school and high school. The book covers all of the grammar concepts that you will need to know for SAT Writing. Unlike some prep books which leave out the more complex and less-tested material, Meltzer gives a great amount of detail on even the utexas liberal arts honors thesis, rarest types of question, such as diction questions, for which she also includes a list of commonly confused words that have recently appeared on essay contest the SAT. All of the concepts have this level of thoroughness , which means this is utexas liberal arts honors thesis, a great resource for students who are looking for great essays 2nd edition a book that will help them drill the most difficult types of questions. Going along with the previous point, Meltzer only liberal honors thesis covers minimal additional material that does not appear on the test. Great? Most of utexas arts honors, this is foundational knowledge-type material, and she clearly notes that it won’t directly be tested. After introducing each grammar concept, Meltzer gives several example sentences of the concept being used both incorrectly and correctly.
This is photsynthesis, a great feature because it allows students both to see some common mistakes, and to see how they can be fixed. The practice questions are excellent. Utexas Arts Thesis? At the end of each concept-based chapter, Meltzer gives several practice questions. Process? For the most part, these questions ask you to find a grammar mistake in the sentence and utexas liberal thesis fix it. She also has very good cumulative tests after every few sections. Though these tests don’t follow the SAT format, I think they are very helpful because they gives students the dental essay, chance to first make sure they really understand an individual grammar concept (with no help or guessing from multiple choice options!) in the chapter tests, and then follows that with good practice of finding different types of grammar mistakes, which is the liberal, skill you have to develop for the SAT. Additionally, she gives some of the best-written SAT Writing-style practice questions that you will be able to find outside of The Official SAT Study Guide. Her SAT-style questions test grammar concepts in the same way that the SAT does, and cause and effect essay topics for college her writing style is extremely similar to the style used by utexas liberal honors the writers of the essay on urie bronfenbrenner, actual test.
This means that you will have a valuable extra resource of practice questions, in addition to those in The Official SAT Study Guide. She explains every grammar question in The Official SAT Study Guide. Some of my favorite resources in this book are Meltzer’s very detailed appendices. She goes through all of the practice tests in The Official SAT Study Guide and breaks them down by grammar concept tested. This is immensely valuable for arts honors students because when taking those practice tests, they can use these appendices as a guide for understanding what kinds of questions they are missing. Also, if you have a certain grammar concept you want to on dieting have more practice with, you can look up the specific questions in liberal arts honors thesis, the Study Guide that cover that concept. On Dieting? Of course, this book could also be improved. Here’s how: This is a very dense book. While some students will love this writing style, others will find it very difficult to utexas arts get through. While treating less important topics with a lot of thoroughness is what the highest-achieving students will be looking for, for most others it will simply be too much information. Going along with that, unlike Blackstone Review’s book mentioned above, Meltzer’s book is not very visually-friendly . For example, while she does tell which question types most frequently appear on each part of the test, you will need to read closely to get that information, which makes it more difficult to skim and skip around to cover the most important concepts.
The example sentences she uses to explain and test grammar concepts do not look like the one hundred essays, questions on the SAT. While this won’t be a negative for thesis many students (and I personally think they are very effective at essays 2nd edition testing the utexas liberal arts, grammar concepts), some students may want to stick to SAT-style questions. Introduction Politics? While Meltzer does give answer keys to all of her questions in the main text, she does not give detailed explanations for why the answers are right or wrong. This will not work very well for students who need more hand-holding to understand grammar mistakes. The workbook that accompanies the text gives additional practice that really should be included in the main book. As it is, it's expensive to utexas honors have to buy two books to get what should be included in one. Finally, this book does not cover how to approach the essay , and the main text does not include practice questions for dissertation introduction the Improving Paragraphs questions. So if you want to focus in on either of those sections of the test, this will not be the utexas liberal honors thesis, best book for on dieting you. Best SAT Writing Books For Mid-range Scorers (400 – 650) Barron’s SAT Writing Workbook by arts honors thesis George Ehrenhaft.
Available on dissertation politics Amazon from $10.99 (Kindle) This book is liberal honors, great if you are a middle-range writer because it holds your hand like no other for the essay portion of the test. More advanced writers, however, will probably find some of the advice to be simplistic. Essay Bronfenbrenner? There are a lot of liberal arts honors, things that make it great for a student at on dieting this level. It starts with a good, lengthy overview of each question type on liberal honors thesis SAT Writing. If you are less familiar with what you are going to see on SAT Writing or are particularly intimidated by the structure of the test, this will give you a good grounding to dental contest work with. It includes a full diagnostic test with SAT-style questions. After the explanations, this book gives a full diagnostic test of the Writing section of the SAT, including a practice essay question. The questions are very reminiscent of questions that have appeared on past SATs, so they should be helpful for students to understand their strengths and weaknesses. The best part of this is the detailed answer section, which not only gives several sample essay responses, but also goes through each multiple choice question in utexas arts thesis, detail, telling why each correct answer is one hundred, correct, and what grammar rule is violated by each incorrect answer. It gives in-depth instruction for the essay.
This book dedicates a whopping 82 pages to how to write the essay . It takes you through everything you could possibly want to know, in detail. Utexas Thesis? If you pair this with the basic strategy found in the Black Book listed above, you should have no further questions about how to improve your essay score. The grammar explanations are straightforward. All of the main grammar concepts that you will need to essays know for the test are briefly explained. Utexas Liberal Arts Honors? This book does not go into as much detail as Meltzer’s book or the dissertation politics, Blackstone Review book , but it is more than enough for what you will need for utexas liberal arts a mid-range score. After each grammar explanation, the book gives an SAT-style multiple choice question. It’s helpful for students to be able to immediately see the concept put to use in the way it will appear on the test . Essay Bronfenbrenner? All of these multiple choice questions are followed with detailed answer explanations. Utexas Liberal Honors Thesis? There are also several practice questions that are not in the style of on urie bronfenbrenner, SAT questions, which are good for nailing down grammar concepts without the prop of having answer choices. The grammar concepts are divided by what you are most likely to find on each section of the test (Improving Sentences, Identifying Errors, and Improving Paragraphs). While there is liberal, a lot of overlap in the grammar concepts, this could be helpful for cause and effect essay for college students to pinpoint where they are struggling if they tend to do worse on one section. This book also goes into greater detail on the Improving Paragraphs questions than many other test prep books do.
There are a lot of opportunities for practice. Finally, the end of the book has four well-written practice tests, which will be good additional practice if you need more than the ones in The Official SAT Study Guide. All of the arts, questions have detailed answer explanations. Many of the essay, practice questions are not in the style of SAT questions , and some students will prefer to liberal have more SAT-style questions to work with. The grammar explanations do not go into a lot of detail and one hundred great essays 2nd edition can be vague. Utexas Liberal Arts? This lack of cause and effect essay, detail means that you may not get everything you need to utexas liberal arts thesis master the trickiest concepts. Also, some of the grammar is repetitive because it is on urie bronfenbrenner, found in utexas arts, multiple sections (ie., both in Identifying Errors and in Improving Sentences). For SAT Writing Books for Low Scorers (400 and below) If you are getting a very low score on SAT Writing, it may be because you are a non-native speaker of English or are otherwise missing a fundamental understanding of one hundred essays, how English grammar works. Since you can’t run before you walk, I would recommend starting with books that are not specifically aimed at utexas honors the SAT, but are going to give you a strong grammar foundation that you can build upon dissertation, with further study. English Grammar in Use by Raymond Murphy.
Available on honors Amazon from $16.78. On Urie Bronfenbrenner? English Grammar in Use is great for liberal arts honors thesis helping struggling students get to terms with grammar basics , especially verb tenses, their uses and bronfenbrenner special constructions. It also includes lessons on trickier subjects such as “may” vs. “might”, idiomatic preposition use, relative clauses, and participles. The pages are all written in utexas liberal honors thesis, simple, easily understood English. Every lesson is essays, illustrated to further aid comprehension, and they're followed by utexas liberal a full page of practice exercises. This text has been popular for a long time for students learning English as a foreign language, but it is a helpful resource for dissertation introduction anyone who needs a refresher of important grammar foundations.
Easy Grammar Plus by Wanda C. Phillips. Available on Amazon from $28.52. Liberal Thesis? Phillips effectively teaches the basics of grammar and essay bronfenbrenner sentence construction by breaking them down into the different parts of liberal arts thesis, speech. Essays? Every new topic has several pages of exercises for extensive drilling. It's this repetition that really helps the new concepts stick with students. This book is especially good for students who find the liberal honors thesis, wording of essay, other grammar books to be too complex . It is written with a 4th grade vocabulary, so you can focus your attention where it matters - on the grammar. If you are a mid-range or high-range scorer, s tart out utexas arts honors thesis, with reading through the Introduction and Writing sections in the Black Book (apart from the explanations to questions in dental essay, the Official SAT Study Guide ). This will help you get in utexas liberal arts honors thesis, the correct mindset to approach the test and dissertation introduction is good to build general strategy. Take a practice Writing test from utexas liberal honors thesis, The Official SAT Study Guide and score it . Make a note of each question you got wrong or had to guess for. Mark down which section it was in (Improving Sentences, Identifying Errors, or Improving Paragraphs) and also what grammar concept it was testing.
To do this, you can either use the appendix in Meltzer’s book, or you can use the explanations for The Official SAT Study Guide that can be found online. (Note that if you have chosen to on dieting use a book that includes a diagnostic test, you can use that instead and the answer explanations may make understanding your mistakes a lot easier!) In whatever book you choose, skim through the grammar concepts you are most comfortable with to make sure there is nothing that surprises you, but really focus your studying around the concepts that you missed in arts, the practice test. Keep taking the practice tests in The Official SAT Study Guide to check how you are improving. If you are a low-range scorer, start studying a long time in advance (at least 6 months). Ideally, you should cover the material in the foundational books and dissertation politics then move on to one of the other books that focuses specifically on the SAT. Once you have given yourself time to get the basics down, follow the steps above. If you're not sure that book studying is for you, check out our test prep program.
PrepScholar starts with a diagnostic test and then helps you focus your studying on what you need the most work on. Also check out our free resources to utexas liberal arts start prepping for the test. Our blog covers every grammar concept you will find on SAT Writing, as well as general strategies for each section. Want to improve your SAT score by 240 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. Essay? We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 240 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and arts honors thesis it customizes what you study to your strengths and bronfenbrenner weaknesses. Utexas Arts? If you liked this Writing and grammar lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands of photsynthesis, practice problems organized by arts honors individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next.
Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Mary Ann holds a BA in Classics and and effect essay topics Russian from the University of Notre Dame, and an MA from University College London. She has years of tutoring experience and is also passionate about travel and liberal arts honors learning languages. You should definitely follow us on essay on urie bronfenbrenner social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.
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SENIOR THESIS MANUAL - UT College of Liberal Arts
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Philosophers are interested in a constellation of issues involving the utexas thesis concept of essay, truth. A preliminary issue, although somewhat subsidiary, is to decide what sorts of things can be true. Utexas Liberal Arts Honors. Is truth a property of one hundred great essays 2nd edition, sentences (which are linguistic entities in some language or other), or is truth a property of propositions (nonlinguistic, abstract and timeless entities)? The principal issue is: What is truth? It is the arts honors problem of being clear about process what you are saying when you say some claim or other is true. The most important theories of truth are the Correspondence Theory, the Semantic Theory, the Deflationary Theory, the Coherence Theory, and the Pragmatic Theory. They are explained and compared here.
Whichever theory of truth is advanced to settle the principal issue, there are a number of additional issues to be addressed: Can claims about the future be true now ? Can there be some algorithm for finding truth – some recipe or procedure for deciding, for any claim in the system of, say, arithmetic, whether the claim is true? Can the predicate is true be completely defined in liberal arts honors, other terms so that it can be eliminated, without loss of and effect essay topics for college, meaning, from arts thesis, any context in dissertation, which it occurs? To what extent do theories of truth avoid paradox? Is the goal of scientific research to achieve truth? The principal problem is to offer a viable theory as to what truth itself consists in, or, to put it another way, What is the nature of truth? To illustrate with an example – the problem is not: Is it true that there is extraterrestrial life? The problem is: What does it mean to say that it is true that there is extraterrestrial life? Astrobiologists study the former problem; philosophers, the latter.
This philosophical problem of utexas liberal, truth has been with us for a long time. In the and effect for college first century AD, Pontius Pilate ( John 18:38) asked What is truth? but no answer was forthcoming. The problem has been studied more since the arts honors thesis turn of the twentieth century than at any other previous time. On Urie. In the last one hundred or so years, considerable progress has been made in utexas honors, solving the problem. The three most widely accepted contemporary theories of truth are [i] the Correspondence Theory ; [ii] the and effect essay Semantic Theory of Tarski and Davidson; and [iii] the utexas arts honors Deflationary Theory of Frege and Ramsey. The competing theories are [iv] the Coherence Theory , and [v] the Pragmatic Theory . These five theories will be examined after addressing the following question. 2. What Sorts of Things are True (or False)?
Although we do speak of true friends and false identities, philosophers believe these are derivative uses of true and false. The central use of true, the more important one for philosophers, occurs when we say, for example, it's true that Montreal is dental essay contest north of Pittsburgh. Here,true is contrasted with false, not with fake or insincere. Utexas Liberal Honors Thesis. When we say that Montreal is dental north of Pittsburgh, what sort of thing is it that is true? Is it a statement or a sentence or something else, a fact, perhaps? More generally, philosophers want to know what sorts of things are true and what sorts of things are false. This same question is expressed by utexas honors thesis asking: What sorts of things have (or bear) truth-values? The term truth-value has been coined by logicians as a generic term for truth or falsehood. To ask for dissertation introduction the truth-value of P, is to honors, ask whether P is true or whether P is false.
Value in great essays 2nd edition, truth-value does not mean valuable. It is utexas liberal arts thesis being used in a similar fashion to numerical value as when we say that the value of x in x + 3 = 7 is 4. To ask What is the truth-value of the statement that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh? is to politics, ask whether the utexas liberal honors statement that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh is true or whether it is false. (The truth-value of that specific statement is true .) There are many candidates for the sorts of things that can bear truth-values: statements sentence-tokens sentence-types propositions theories facts. assertions utterances beliefs opinions doctrines etc. What sorts of things are these candidates? In particular, should the bearers of truth-values be regarded as being linguistic items (and, as a consequence, items within specific languages), or are they non-linguistic items, or are they both? In addition, should they be regarded as being concrete entities, i.e., things which have a determinate position in space and time, or should they be regarded as abstract entities, i.e., as being neither temporal nor spatial entities? Sentences are linguistic items: they exist in some language or other, either in a natural language such as English or in an artificial language such as a computer language. However, the term sentence has two senses: sentence-token and sentence-type . These three English sentence-tokens are all of the same sentence-type: Saturn is the sixth planet from the dissertation Sun. Saturn is the utexas liberal honors thesis sixth planet from the Sun.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the essay on dieting Sun. Sentence-tokens are concrete objects. They are composed of ink marks on paper, or sequences of sounds, or patches of light on a computer monitor, etc. Sentence-tokens exist in space and time; they can be located in liberal arts thesis, space and can be dated. Sentence-types cannot be. They are abstract objects. (Analogous distinctions can be made for letters, for words, for numerals, for photsynthesis process musical notes on a stave, indeed for any symbols whatsoever.) Might sentence- tokens be the bearers of truth-values? One reason to favor tokens over types is to solve the problems involving so-called indexical (or token reflexive) terms such as I and here and now.
Is the claim expressed by the sentence-type I like chocolate true or false? Well, it depends on who I is referring to. If Jack, who likes chocolate, says I like chocolate, then what he has said is true; but if Jill, who dislikes chocolate, says I like chocolate, then what she has said is arts honors thesis false. If it were sentence-types which were the bearers of truth-values, then the sentence-type I like chocolate would be both true and false – an unacceptable contradiction. The contradiction is avoided, however, if one argues that sentence-tokens are the dental contest bearers of truth-values, for in this case although there is only one sentence-type involved, there are two distinct sentence-tokens. A second reason for utexas honors arguing that sentence-tokens, rather than sentence-types, are the bearers of truth-values has been advanced by nominalist philosophers. Nominalists are intent to process, allow as few abstract objects as possible. Insofar as sentence-types are abstract objects and sentence-tokens are concrete objects, nominalists will argue that actually uttered or written sentence-tokens are the proper bearers of utexas liberal thesis, truth-values. But the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values has its own problems. One objection to the nominalist theory is that had there never been any language-users, then there would be no truths. (And the same objection can be leveled against arguing that it is and effect essay topics beliefs that are the honors bearers of truth-values: had there never been any conscious creatures then there would be no beliefs and, thus, no truths or falsehoods, not even the truth that there were no conscious creatures – an unacceptably paradoxical implication.) And a second objection – to the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values – is on urie that even though there are language-users, there are sentences that have never been uttered and never will be. (Consider, for example, the distinct number of different ways that a deck of playing cards can be arranged.
The number, 8?10 67 [the digit 8 followed by sixty-seven zeros], is so vast that there never will be enough sentence-tokens in the world's past or future to describe each unique arrangement. And there are countless other examples as well.) Sentence-tokens, then, cannot be identified as the utexas liberal bearers of bronfenbrenner, truth-values – there simply are too few sentence-tokens. Thus both theories – (i) that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values, and (ii) that sentence-types are the utexas liberal arts thesis bearers of contest, truth-values – encounter difficulties. Might propositions be the bearers of truth-values? To escape the dilemma of choosing between tokens and types, propositions have been suggested as the primary bearers of liberal arts thesis, truth-values.
The following five sentences are in different languages, but they all are typically used to express the same proposition or statement. The truth of the proposition that Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun depends only on the physics of the solar system, and not in any obvious way on human convention. By contrast, what these five sentences say does depend partly on human convention. Dissertation. Had English speakers chosen to adopt the word Saturn as the name of utexas arts, a different particular planet, the first sentence would have expressed something false. By choosing propositions rather than sentences as the bearers of essay topics, truth-values, this relativity to human conventions does not apply to truth, a point that many philosophers would consider to be a virtue in a theory of truth. Propositions are abstract entities; they do not exist in space and time. They are sometimes said to be timeless, eternal, or omnitemporal entities. Utexas Liberal. Terminology aside, the dental essay contest essential point is liberal arts honors that propositions are not concrete (or material) objects. Nor, for that matter, are they mental entities; they are not thoughts as Frege had suggested in the nineteenth century. The theory that propositions are the bearers of truth-values also has been criticized.
Nominalists object to the abstract character of propositions. Another complaint is that it's not sufficiently clear when we have a case of the same propositions as opposed to similar propositions. This is much like the complaint that we can't determine when two sentences have exactly the process same meaning. Utexas Honors. The relationship between sentences and propositions is a serious philosophical problem. Because it is the more favored theory, and for the sake of expediency and consistency, the theory that propositions – and not sentences – are the bearers of truth-values will be adopted in this article. When we speak below of truths, we are referring to introduction, true propositions. Utexas Liberal Arts Honors Thesis. But it should be pointed out that virtually all the claims made below have counterparts in nominalistic theories which reject propositions.
b. Constraints on Truth and Falsehood. There are two commonly accepted constraints on truth and falsehood: These constraints require that every proposition has exactly one truth-value. Process. Although the point is controversial, most philosophers add the further constraint that a proposition never changes its truth-value in space or time. Consequently, to say The proposition that it's raining was true yesterday but false today is to equivocate and liberal thesis not actually refer to just one proposition. Similarly, when someone at noon on January 15, 2000 in Vancouver says that the proposition that it is raining is true in one hundred, Vancouver while false in liberal arts honors, Sacramento, that person is one hundred essays 2nd edition really talking of two different propositions: (i) that it rains in arts honors thesis, Vancouver at noon on January 15, 2000 and (ii) that it rains in Sacramento at noon on January 15, 2000. The person is saying proposition (i) is true and on dieting (ii) is false. c. Which Sentences Express Propositions? Not all sentences express propositions. Thesis. The interrogative sentence Who won the World Series in 1951? does not; neither does the cause and effect essay topics imperative sentence Please close the window.
Declarative (that is, indicative) sentences – rather than interrogative or imperative sentences – typically are used to express propositions. But do all declarative sentences express propositions? The following four kinds of declarative sentences have been suggested as not being typically used to express propositions, but all these suggestions are controversial. 1. Utexas Arts Thesis. Sentences containing non-referring expressions. In light of the fact that France has no king, Strawson argued that the sentence, The present king of France is bald, fails to express a proposition. In a famous dispute, Russell disagreed with Strawson, arguing that the sentence does express a proposition, and more exactly, a false one. 2. Predictions of future events. What about declarative sentences that refer to events in the future? For example, does the on dieting sentence There will be a sea battle tomorrow express a proposition?
Presumably, today we do not know whether there will be such a battle. Liberal Honors. Because of this, some philosophers (including Aristotle who toyed with the idea) have argued that the sentence, at the present moment, does not express anything that is now either true or false. Another, perhaps more powerful, motivation for adopting this view is the belief that if sentences involving future human actions were to express propositions, i.e., were to express something that is now true or false, then humans would be determined to perform those actions and so humans would have no free will. To defend free will, these philosophers have argued, we must deny truth-values to predictions. This complicating restriction – that sentences about the future do not now express anything true or false – has been attacked by Quine and others. These critics argue that the restriction upsets the essay on urie bronfenbrenner logic we use to reason with such predictions.
For example, here is liberal a deductively valid argument involving predictions: We've learned there will be a run on on dieting, the bank tomorrow. If there will be a run on the bank tomorrow, then the CEO should be awakened. So, the CEO should be awakened. Without assertions in this argument having truth-values, regardless of arts honors thesis, whether we know those values, we could not assess the argument using the canons of deductive validity and invalidity. We would have to say – contrary to deeply-rooted philosophical intuitions – that it is not really an argument at all. (For another sort of dissertation, rebuttal to thesis, the claim that propositions about the future cannot be true prior to the occurrence of the events described, see Logical Determinism.) This very sentence expresses a false proposition and I'm lying are examples of so-called liar sentences. A liar sentence can be used to dental, generate a paradox when we consider what truth-value to utexas liberal arts honors thesis, assign it. As a way out of on urie, paradox, Kripke suggests that a liar sentence is one of those rare declarative sentences that does not express a proposition. The sentence falls into the truth-value gap.
See the article Liar Paradox. 4. Sentences that state moral, ethical, or aesthetic values. Finally, we mention the so-called fact/value distinction. Throughout history, moral philosophers have wrestled with the liberal thesis issue of moral realism. Do sentences such as Torturing children is 2nd edition wrong – which assert moral principles – assert something true (or false), or do they merely express (in a disguised fashion) the speaker's opinions, or feelings or values? Making the latter choice, some philosophers argue that these declarative sentences do not express propositions. We return to the principal question, What is utexas arts honors thesis truth? Truth is presumably what valid reasoning preserves.
It is the goal of scientific inquiry, historical research, and business audits. We understand much of dissertation introduction politics, what a sentence means by understanding the conditions under which what it expresses is liberal honors thesis true. Yet the exact nature of truth itself is essay not wholly revealed by these remarks. Historically, the most popular theory of truth was the Correspondence Theory. First proposed in a vague form by Plato and by Aristotle in his Metaphysics , this realist theory says truth is what propositions have by corresponding to a way the world is. The theory says that a proposition is true provided there exists a fact corresponding to utexas liberal honors thesis, it. In other words, for any proposition p, p is true if and only if p corresponds to photsynthesis, a fact.
The theory's answer to the question, What is truth? is liberal honors thesis that truth is a certain relationship—the relationship that holds between a proposition and its corresponding fact. Perhaps an analysis of the relationship will reveal what all the cause topics for college truths have in common. Consider the proposition that snow is white. Remarking that the proposition's truth is its corresponding to the fact that snow is white leads critics to request an acceptable analysis of this notion of correspondence. Surely the correspondence is not a word by word connecting of a sentence to its reference. It is some sort of exotic relationship between, say, whole propositions and facts. In presenting his theory of logical atomism early in the twentieth century, Russell tried to show how a true proposition and its corresponding fact share the utexas honors thesis same structure. Inspired by essay the notion that Egyptian hieroglyphs are stylized pictures, his student Wittgenstein said the relationship is that of a picturing of facts by propositions, but his development of this suggestive remark in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus did not satisfy many other philosophers, nor after awhile, even Wittgenstein himself.
And what are facts? The notion of utexas arts thesis, a fact as some sort of ontological entity was first stated explicitly in the second half of the nineteenth century. The Correspondence Theory does permit facts to photsynthesis, be mind-dependent entities. McTaggart, and perhaps Kant, held such Correspondence Theories. The Correspondence theories of Russell, Wittgenstein and Austin all consider facts to be mind-independent. Arts Honors Thesis. But regardless of their mind-dependence or mind-independence, the theory must provide answers to questions of the following sort. Contest. Canada is north of the U.S. Liberal. can't be a fact. A true proposition can't be a fact if it also states a fact, so what is the great ontological standing of a fact? Is the fact that corresponds to Brutus stabbed Caesar the same fact that corresponds to Caesar was stabbed by Brutus, or is it a different fact?
It might be argued that they must be different facts because one expresses the relationship of stabbing but the other expresses the relationship of being stabbed, which is different. In addition to the specific fact that ball 1 is on the pool table and the specific fact that ball 2 is on the pool table, and so forth, is there the specific fact that there are fewer than 1,006,455 balls on liberal arts honors, the table? Is there the general fact that many balls are on the table? Does the existence of general facts require there to be the Forms of Plato or Aristotle? What about the negative proposition that there are no pink elephants on dental contest, the table? Does it correspond to the same situation in liberal, the world that makes there be no green elephants on the table? The same pool table must involve a great many different facts. These questions illustrate the difficulty in counting facts and distinguishing them. The difficulty is well recognized by advocates of the Correspondence Theory, but critics complain that characterizations of facts too often circle back ultimately to saying facts are whatever true propositions must correspond to in order to be true. Davidson has criticized the notion of fact, arguing that if true statements correspond to anything, they all correspond to the same thing (in True to the Facts, Davidson ).
Davidson also has argued that facts really are the true statements themselves; facts are not named by them, as the Correspondence Theory mistakenly supposes. Defenders of the Correspondence Theory have responded to these criticisms in a variety of ways. Sense can be made of the photsynthesis term correspondence, some say, because speaking of liberal arts honors thesis, propositions corresponding to facts is merely making the general claim that summarizes the remark that. (i) The sentence, Snow is white, means that snow is white, and (ii) snow actually is white, and so on for all the other propositions. Great Essays 2nd Edition. Therefore, the Correspondence theory must contain a theory of means that but otherwise is liberal honors not at fault. Other defenders of the Correspondence Theory attack Davidson's identification of facts with true propositions.
Snow is a constituent of the fact that snow is essay white, but snow is not a constituent of a linguistic entity, so facts and true statements are different kinds of entities. Recent work in possible world semantics has identified facts with sets of possible worlds. The fact that the cat is on the mat contains the possible world in which the cat is on the mat and Adolf Hitler converted to arts thesis, Judaism while Chancellor of Germany. Essay On Urie. The motive for this identification is that, if sets of liberal arts honors, possible worlds are metaphysically legitimate and precisely describable, then so are facts. To capture what he considered to be the essays essence of the Correspondence Theory, Alfred Tarski created his Semantic Theory of liberal honors thesis, Truth. In Tarski's theory, however, talk of correspondence and of facts is eliminated. (Although in early versions of his theory, Tarski did use the term correspondence in trying to explain his theory, he later regretted having done so, and dropped the term altogether since it plays no role within his theory.) The Semantic Theory is the essay on urie bronfenbrenner successor to the Correspondence Theory. It seeks to preserve the utexas honors core concept of that earlier theory but without the problematic conceptual baggage. For an illustration of the great theory, consider the utexas liberal arts thesis German sentence Schnee ist weiss which means that snow is essay white.
Tarski asks for utexas liberal honors thesis the truth-conditions of the proposition expressed by that sentence: Under what conditions is that proposition true? Put another way: How shall we complete the following in English: 'The proposition expressed by the German sentence Schnee ist weiss is true . Introduction Politics. '? His answer: We can rewrite Tarski's T-condition on utexas liberal honors thesis, three lines: The proposition expressed by essay on dieting the German sentence Schnee ist weiss is true if and only if snow is arts honors thesis white. Line 1 is about truth. Line 3 is not about photsynthesis process truth – it asserts a claim about the utexas liberal honors nature of the world. Thus T makes a substantive claim.
Moreover, it avoids the main problems of the earlier Correspondence Theories in that the terms fact and correspondence play no role whatever. A theory is a Tarskian truth theory for language L if and only if, for each sentence S of L , if S expresses the proposition that p, then the theory entails a true T-proposition of the bi-conditional form: In the essay topics example we have been using, namely, Schnee ist weiss, it is quite clear that the T-proposition consists of a containing (or outer) sentence in English, and a contained (or inner or quoted) sentence in German: There are, we see, sentences in utexas liberal thesis, two distinct languages involved in photsynthesis process, this T-proposition. If, however, we switch the liberal honors inner, or quoted sentence, to an English sentence, e.g. to Snow is white, we would then have: In this latter case, it looks as if only one language (English), not two, is involved in expressing the essay T-proposition. But, according to Tarski's theory, there are still two languages involved: (i) the language one of utexas honors, whose sentences is being quoted and (ii) the language which attributes truth to the proposition expressed by that quoted sentence.
The quoted sentence is said to be an great essays element of the object language , and the outer (or containing) sentence which uses the predicate true is in the metalanguage . Tarski discovered that in order to honors, avoid contradiction in on urie, his semantic theory of truth, he had to restrict the object language to a limited portion of the metalanguage. Among other restrictions, it is the metalanguage alone that contains the truth-predicates, true and false; the object language does not contain truth-predicates. It is essential to see that Tarski's T-proposition is not saying: This latter claim is certainly true (it is a tautology), but it is utexas arts honors thesis no significant part of the analysis of the concept of truth – indeed it does not even use the words true or truth, nor does it involve an object language and a metalanguage. Tarski's T-condition does both.
a. Great Essays. Extending the Semantic Theory Beyond Simple Propositions. Tarski's complete theory is intended to utexas arts, work for one hundred (just about) all propositions, expressed by non-problematic declarative sentences, not just Snow is white. Arts. But he wants a finite theory, so his theory can't simply be the infinite set of T propositions. Cause And Effect. Also, Tarski wants his truth theory to reveal the logical structure within propositions that permits valid reasoning to preserve truth. To do all this, the theory must work for liberal more complex propositions by showing how the truth-values of these complex propositions depend on essay bronfenbrenner, their parts, such as the truth-values of their constituent propositions. Truth tables show how this is liberal thesis done for the simple language of Propositional Logic (e.g. the complex proposition expressed by on dieting A or B is true, according to the truth table, if and utexas honors thesis only if proposition A is true, or proposition B is true, or both are true). Tarski's goal is to define truth for even more complex languages. Tarski's theory does not explain (analyze) when a name denotes an politics object or when an object falls under a predicate; his theory begins with these as given.
He wants what we today call a model theory for quantified predicate logic. Arts Honors Thesis. His actual theory is very technical. It uses the dental essay contest notion of Godel numbering, focuses on liberal arts honors thesis, satisfaction rather than truth, and essay approaches these via the process of recursion. The idea of using satisfaction treats the truth of a simple proposition such as expressed by Socrates is mortal by saying: If Socrates is utexas honors a name and is mortal is a predicate, then Socrates is essay mortal expresses a true proposition if and only if there exists an object x such that Socrates refers to utexas honors, x and is mortal is satisfied by x. For Tarski's formal language of predicate logic, he'd put this more generally as follows: If a is a name and cause topics Q is liberal thesis a predicate, then a is Q expresses a true proposition if and 2nd edition only if there exists an object x such that a refers to x and Q is satisfied by x. The idea is to define the predicate is true when it is applied to the simplest (that is, the non-complex or atomic) sentences in the object language (a language, see above, which does not, itself, contain the truth-predicate is true). The predicate is true is a predicate that occurs only in the metalanguage, i.e., in the language we use to describe the object language.
At the second stage, his theory shows how the truth predicate, when it has been defined for propositions expressed by sentences of a certain degree of grammatical complexity, can be defined for propositions of the next greater degree of arts thesis, complexity. According to Tarski, his theory applies only to artificial languages – in particular, the classical formal languages of symbolic logic – because our natural languages are vague and unsystematic. Other philosophers – for example, Donald Davidson – have not been as pessimistic as Tarski about analyzing truth for natural languages. Davidson has made progress in extending Tarski's work to any natural language. Doing so, he says, provides at the same time the central ingredient of a theory of meaning for the language. Dental Essay. Davidson develops the original idea Frege stated in his Basic Laws of Arithmetic that the meaning of a declarative sentence is given by certain conditions under which it is true—that meaning is given by honors thesis truth conditions. As part of the contest larger program of research begun by utexas honors thesis Tarski and Davidson, many logicians, linguists, philosophers, and cognitive scientists, often collaboratively, pursue research programs trying to elucidate the truth-conditions (that is, the logics or semantics for) the propositions expressed by such complex sentences as:
Each of introduction, these research areas contains its own intriguing problems. All must overcome the difficulties involved with ambiguity, tenses, and indexical phrases. b. Can the Semantic Theory Account for Necessary Truth? Many philosophers divide the liberal honors class of propositions into two mutually exclusive and bronfenbrenner exhaustive subclasses: namely, propositions that are contingent (that is, those that are neither necessarily-true nor necessarily-false) and those that are noncontingent (that is, those that are necessarily-true or necessarily-false). On the Semantic Theory of Truth, contingent propositions are those that are true (or false) because of some specific way the world happens to be. For example all of the following propositions are contingent : The contrasting class of propositions comprises those whose truth (or falsehood, as the case may be) is dependent, according to the Semantic Theory, not on some specific way the world happens to be, but on any way the world happens to be.
Imagine the world changed however you like (provided, of course, that its description remains logically consistent [i.e., logically possible]). Even under those conditions, the truth-values of the utexas liberal arts thesis following (noncontingent) propositions will remain unchanged: However, some philosophers who accept the Semantic Theory of Truth for contingent propositions, reject it for noncontingent ones. They have argued that the one hundred essays truth of noncontingent propositions has a different basis from the truth of contingent ones. The truth of utexas arts, noncontingent propositions comes about, they say – not through their correctly describing the way the world is – but as a matter of the and effect for college definitions of utexas, terms occurring in the sentences expressing those propositions. Noncontingent truths, on this account, are said to be true by definition , or – as it is sometimes said, in a variation of photsynthesis process, this theme – as a matter of utexas thesis, conceptual relationships between the concepts at play within the propositions, or – yet another (kindred) way – as a matter of the meanings of the sentences expressing the propositions. It is apparent, in this competing account, that one is invoking a kind of theory of dissertation politics, linguistic truth. In this alternative theory, truth for utexas liberal arts honors a certain class of propositions, namely the class of noncontingent propositions, is to and effect topics, be accounted for – not in utexas, their describing the way the world is, but rather – because of certain features of our human linguistic constructs.
c. The Linguistic Theory of Necessary Truth. Does the dissertation introduction politics Semantic Theory need to be supplemented in this manner? If one were to adopt the Semantic Theory of Truth, would one also need to adopt a complementary theory of truth, namely, a theory of arts, linguistic truth (for noncontingent propositions)? Or, can the Semantic Theory of Truth be used to explain the truth-values of all propositions, the contingent and noncontingent alike? If so, how?
To see how one can argue that the Semantic Theory of Truth can be used to explicate the essay truth of noncontingent propositions, consider the following series of propositions, the first four of which are contingent, the utexas fifth of dissertation, which is noncontingent: There are fewer than seven bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than eight bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than nine bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than ten bumblebees or more than ten. Utexas Liberal Thesis. There are fewer than eleven bumblebees or more than ten. Each of these propositions, as we move from the second to the fifth, is slightly less specific than its predecessor. Each can be regarded as being true under a greater range of variation (or circumstances) than its predecessor. When we reach the fifth member of the series we have a proposition that is true under any and all sets of circumstances. (Some philosophers – a few in the seventeenth century, a very great many more after the dissertation politics mid-twentieth century – use the idiom of liberal arts, possible worlds, saying that noncontingent truths are true in all possible worlds [i.e., under any logically possible circumstances].) On this view, what distinguishes noncontingent truths from contingent ones is not that their truth arises as a consequence of facts about our language or of meanings, etc.; but that their truth has to do with the scope (or number) of possible circumstances under which the proposition is true. Contingent propositions are true in some, but not all, possible circumstances (or possible worlds). Great 2nd Edition. Noncontingent propositions, in liberal arts thesis, contrast, are true in and effect topics for college, all possible circumstances or in none.
There is no difference as to the nature of truth for the two classes of propositions, only in the ranges of possibilities in which the propositions are true. An adherent of the Semantic Theory will allow that there is, to be sure, a powerful insight in the theories of linguistic truth. But, they will counter, these linguistic theories are really shedding no light on the nature of truth itself. Thesis. Rather, they are calling attention to how we often go about one hundred great essays ascertaining the truth of liberal, noncontingent propositions. While it is certainly possible to ascertain the truth experientially (and inductively) of the noncontingent proposition that all aunts are females – for and effect essay topics for college example, one could knock on a great many doors asking if any of the residents were aunts and if so, whether they were female – it would be a needless exercise.
We need not examine the utexas arts honors thesis world carefully to figure out the dental contest truth-value of the proposition that all aunts are females. We might, for example, simply consult an utexas arts honors thesis English dictionary. Great Essays. How we ascertain , find out utexas liberal honors , determine the truth-values of noncontingent propositions may (but need not invariably) be by nonexperiential means; but from that it does not follow that the nature of photsynthesis, truth of noncontingent propositions is fundamentally different from that of contingent ones. On this latter view, the Semantic Theory of Truth is adequate for both contingent propositions and noncontingent ones. In neither case is the Semantic Theory of Truth intended to utexas liberal honors, be a theory of how we might go about finding out what the on dieting truth-value is of any specified proposition. Indeed, one very important consequence of the Semantic Theory of Truth is that it allows for honors the existence of propositions whose truth-values are in and effect essay topics for college, principle unknowable to human beings. And there is a second motivation for promoting the Semantic Theory of Truth for noncontingent propositions. How is it that mathematics is able to be used (in concert with physical theories) to explain the nature of the world? On the utexas arts Semantic Theory, the answer is that the noncontingent truths of mathematics correctly describe the world (as they would any and every possible world).
The Linguistic Theory, which makes the introduction politics truth of the noncontingent truths of mathematics arise out of utexas, features of language, is usually thought to have great, if not insurmountable, difficulties in grappling with this question. The Correspondence Theory and the Semantic Theory account for the truth of essay, a proposition as arising out of a relationship between that proposition and features or events in the world. Coherence Theories (of which there are a number), in contrast, account for the truth of a proposition as arising out of a relationship between that proposition and other propositions. Coherence Theories are valuable because they help to reveal how we arrive at our truth claims, our knowledge. We continually work at fitting our beliefs together into utexas liberal a coherent system.
For example, when a drunk driver says, There are pink elephants dancing on the highway in front of us, we assess whether his assertion is true by considering what other beliefs we have already accepted as true, namely, Elephants are gray. This locale is not the habitat of elephants. There is neither a zoo nor a circus anywhere nearby. Severely intoxicated persons have been known to experience hallucinations. But perhaps the most important reason for rejecting the drunk's claim is this: Everyone else in essay topics, the area claims not to see any pink elephants. In short, the drunk's claim fails to cohere with a great many other claims that we believe and have good reason not to abandon.
We, then, reject the liberal honors drunk's claim as being false (and take away the car keys). Specifically, a Coherence Theory of Truth will claim that a proposition is essay contest true if and only if it coheres with ___ . For example, one Coherence Theory fills this blank with the beliefs of the majority of persons in honors thesis, one's society. Another fills the one hundred great essays blank with one's own beliefs, and yet another fills it with the beliefs of the intellectuals in one's society. The major coherence theories view coherence as requiring at least logical consistency. Rationalist metaphysicians would claim that a proposition is honors true if and only if it is photsynthesis consistent with all other true propositions. Utexas Liberal Thesis. Some rationalist metaphysicians go a step beyond logical consistency and claim that a proposition is true if and only if it entails (or logically implies) all other true propositions. Leibniz, Spinoza, Hegel, Bradley, Blanshard, Neurath, Hempel (late in his life), Dummett, and Putnam have advocated Coherence Theories of truth.
Coherence Theories have their critics too. The proposition that bismuth has a higher melting point than tin may cohere with my beliefs but not with your beliefs. On Dieting. This, then, leads to the proposition being both true for me but false for you. Arts Honors. But if true for me means true and false for you means false as the Coherence Theory implies, then we have a violation of the essay on urie law of non-contradiction, which plays havoc with logic. Most philosophers prefer to thesis, preserve the law of non-contradiction over dental contest, any theory of truth that requires rejecting it. Liberal Arts Honors Thesis. Consequently, if someone is essay bronfenbrenner making a sensible remark by saying, That is true for me but not for you, then the person must mean simply, I believe it, but you do not. Utexas Liberal Honors Thesis. Truth is not relative in the sense that something can be true for bronfenbrenner you but not for me.
A second difficulty with Coherence Theories is that the beliefs of any one person (or of any group) are invariably self-contradictory. A person might, for example, believe both Absence makes the heart grow fonder and Out of sight, out of mind. But under the utexas thesis main interpretation of cohere, nothing can cohere with an inconsistent set. Dental Contest. Thus most propositions, by failing to cohere, will not have truth-values. This result violates the law of the excluded middle. And there is utexas honors a third objection. Contest. What does coheres with mean?
For X to cohere with Y, at the very least X must be consistent with Y. All right, then, what does consistent with mean? It would be circular to say that X is consistent with Y means it is possible for X and Y both to be true together because this response is presupposing the very concept of truth that it is utexas liberal arts honors supposed to topics, be analyzing. Some defenders of the Coherence Theory will respond that coheres with means instead is harmonious with. Opponents, however, are pessimistic about the prospects for explicating the concept is harmonious with without at some point or other having to invoke the concept of joint truth . A fourth objection is that Coherence theories focus on the nature of verifiability and not truth. They focus on the holistic character of verifying that a proposition is true but don't answer the principal problem, What is truth itself? a. Postmodernism: The Most Recent Coherence Theory. In recent years, one particular Coherence Theory has attracted a lot of attention and some considerable heat and fury. Postmodernist philosophers ask us to carefully consider how the statements of the most persuasive or politically influential people become accepted as the common truths. Although everyone would agree that influential people – the movers and shakers – have profound effects upon the beliefs of other persons, the liberal arts thesis controversy revolves around whether the acceptance by others of their beliefs is wholly a matter of their personal or institutional prominence. The most radical postmodernists do not distinguish acceptance as true from being true ; they claim that the photsynthesis process social negotiations among influential people construct the utexas arts honors truth.
The truth, they argue, is not something lying outside of human collective decisions; it is not, in particular, a reflection of an objective reality. Or, to put it another way, to the extent that there is an objective reality it is politics nothing more nor less than what we say it is. We human beings are, then, the ultimate arbiters of what is true. Consensus is truth. The subjective and utexas arts honors the objective are rolled into one inseparable compound. These postmodernist views have received a more sympathetic reception among social scientists than among physical scientists.
Social scientists will more easily agree, for example, that the proposition that human beings have a superego is a construction of (certain) politically influential psychologists, and that as a result, it is (to be regarded as) true. In contrast, physical scientists are – for the most part – rather unwilling to regard propositions in their own field as somehow merely the product of consensus among eminent physical scientists. They are inclined to believe that the photsynthesis process proposition that protons are composed of honors, three quarks is true (or false) depending on whether (or not) it accurately describes an objective reality. Essay. They are disinclined to utexas arts honors thesis, believe that the photsynthesis process truth of such a proposition arises out of the pronouncements of eminent physical scientists. In short, physical scientists do not believe that prestige and social influence trump reality. A Pragmatic Theory of liberal thesis, Truth holds (roughly) that a proposition is dental contest true if it is utexas liberal useful to believe. Peirce and James were its principal advocates. Utility is the on urie bronfenbrenner essential mark of truth. Beliefs that lead to liberal, the best payoff, that are the dissertation introduction best justification of our actions, that promote success, are truths, according to the pragmatists. The problems with Pragmatic accounts of truth are counterparts to the problems seen above with Coherence Theories of utexas liberal arts honors thesis, truth.
First, it may be useful for someone to believe a proposition but also useful for someone else to dissertation introduction, disbelieve it. For example, Freud said that many people, in order to avoid despair, need to believe there is utexas arts honors a god who keeps a watchful eye on everyone. Dissertation Politics. According to one version of the Pragmatic Theory, that proposition is true . However, it may not be useful for other persons to believe that same proposition. They would be crushed if they believed that there is a god who keeps a watchful eye on everyone. Thus, by symmetry of argument, that proposition is false . In this way, the Pragmatic theory leads to a violation of the law of non-contradiction, say its critics.
Second, certain beliefs are undeniably useful, even though – on other criteria – they are judged to be objectively false. For example, it can be useful for some persons to believe that they live in arts honors, a world surrounded by on urie people who love or care for them. Utexas. According to this criticism, the Pragmatic Theory of Truth overestimates the strength of the connection between truth and usefulness. Truth is what an ideally rational inquirer would in the long run come to essays 2nd edition, believe, say some pragmatists. Truth is the ideal outcome of rational inquiry. The criticism that we don't now know what happens in the long run merely shows we have a problem with knowledge, but it doesn't show that the meaning of true doesn't now involve hindsight from the perspective of the future. Yet, as a theory of truth, does this reveal what true means? What all the theories of truth discussed so far have in common is the utexas honors assumption that a proposition is true just in case the proposition has some property or other – correspondence with the facts, satisfaction, coherence, utility, etc. Deflationary theories deny this assumption. The principal deflationary theory is the Redundancy Theory advocated by Frege, Ramsey, and Horwich.
Frege expressed the idea this way: It is worthy of essay, notice that the sentence I smell the scent of violets has the same content as the sentence It is true that I smell the honors thesis scent of violets. So it seems, then, that nothing is added to the thought by my ascribing to it the property of truth. (Frege, 1918) When we assert a proposition explicitly, such as when we say I smell the scent of violets, then saying It's true that I smell the scent of violets would be redundant; it would add nothing because the two have the same meaning. Today's more minimalist advocates of the Redundancy Theory retreat from this remark about essay on dieting meaning and say merely that the two are necessarily equivalent.
Where the concept of truth really pays off is when we do not, or can not, assert a proposition explicitly, but have to deal with an indirect reference to it. For instance, if we wish to say, What he will say tomorrow is true, we need the truth predicate is utexas arts honors thesis true. Admittedly the proposition is an process indirect way of saying, If he says tomorrow that it will snow, then it will snow; if he says tomorrow that it will rain, then it will rain; if he says tomorrow that 7 + 5 = 12, then 7 + 5 = 12; and so forth. Utexas Arts. But the phrase is true cannot be eliminated from What he will say tomorrow is true without producing an unacceptable infinite conjunction. The truth predicate is true allows us to generalize and say things more succinctly (indeed to make those claims with only a finite number of utterances). In short, the Redundancy Theory may work for certain cases, say its critics, but it is not generalizable to all; there remain recalcitrant cases where is true is not redundant. Advocates of the process Redundancy Theory respond that their theory recognizes the essential point about utexas liberal arts honors needing the concept of truth for on dieting indirect reference. Utexas Arts Honors. The theory says that this is all that the concept of truth is needed for, and that otherwise its use is redundant. The Performative Theory is a deflationary theory that is not a redundancy theory. It was advocated by and effect topics Strawson who believed Tarski's Semantic Theory of Truth was basically mistaken.
The Performative Theory of Truth argues that ascribing truth to a proposition is not really characterizing the utexas liberal arts honors thesis proposition itself, nor is it saying something redundant. Photsynthesis. Rather, it is telling us something about the speaker's intentions . The speaker – through his or her agreeing with it, endorsing it, praising it, accepting it, or perhaps conceding it – is licensing our adoption of (the belief in) the proposition. Utexas Arts Honors. Instead of saying, It is essay true that snow is white, one could substitute I embrace the claim that snow is utexas thesis white. The key idea is that saying of some proposition, P, that it is essays true is to say in utexas liberal, a disguised fashion I commend P to you, or I endorse P, or something of the sort. The case may be likened somewhat to that of promising . When you promise to pay your sister five dollars, you are not making a claim about the proposition expressed by great I will pay you five dollars; rather you are performing the action of promising her something.
Similarly, according to utexas liberal arts thesis, the Performative Theory of Truth, when you say It is true that Vancouver is one hundred great 2nd edition north of Sacramento, you are performing the act of giving your listener license to believe (and to act upon the belief) that Vancouver is north of utexas honors, Sacramento. Critics of the Performative Theory charge that it requires too radical a revision in our logic. One Hundred. Arguments have premises that are true or false, but we don't consider premises to be actions, says Geach. Utexas. Other critics complain that, if all the ascription of is true is doing is gesturing consent, as Strawson believes, then, when we say. Please shut the door is true, we would be consenting to the door's being shut. Because that is photsynthesis absurd, says Huw Price, something is wrong with Strawson's Performative Theory. The Prosentential Theory of Truth suggests that the arts honors thesis grammatical predicate is true does not function semantically or logically as a predicate. Photsynthesis. All uses of is true are prosentential uses. When someone asserts It's true that it is snowing, the person is asking the hearer to consider the sentence It is snowing and is saying That is true where the remark That is true is arts taken holistically as a prosentence, in analogy to a pronoun. A pronoun such as she is a substitute for the name of the person being referred to. Similarly, That is true is a substitute for the proposition being considered.
Likewise, for the expression It is true. According to the Prosentential Theory, all uses of true can be reduced to uses either of That is true or It is true or variants of these with other tenses. Because these latter prosentential uses of the word true cannot be eliminated from our language during analysis, the Prosentential Theory is not a redundancy theory. Critics of the essay topics for college theory remark that it can give no account of what is common to all our uses of the word true, such as those in the unanalyzed operators it-will-be-true-that and it-is-true-that and it-was-true-that. For generations, discussions of truth have been bedeviled by the question, How could a proposition be true unless we know it to utexas liberal honors thesis, be true? Aristotle's famous worry was that contingent propositions about the photsynthesis future, such as There will be a sea battle tomorrow, couldn't be true now, for fear that this would deny free will to the sailors involved. Advocates of the Correspondence Theory and utexas liberal honors thesis the Semantic Theory have argued that a proposition need not be known in on dieting, order to be true. Truth, they say, arises out of a relationship between a proposition and the way the world is.
No one need know that that relationship holds, nor – for utexas liberal honors that matter – need there even be any conscious or language-using creatures for that relationship to obtain. In short, truth is an objective feature of a proposition, not a subjective one. For a true proposition to be known, it must (at the very least) be a justified belief. Justification, unlike truth itself, requires a special relationship among propositions. For a proposition to be justified it must, at the very least, cohere with other propositions that one has adopted. On this account, coherence among propositions plays a critical role in the theory of knowledge. Nevertheless it plays no role in a theory of truth, according to advocates of the Correspondence and Semantic Theories of one hundred great, Truth. Finally, should coherence – which plays such a central role in arts honors thesis, theories of knowledge – be regarded as an objective relationship or as a subjective one? Not surprisingly, theorists have answered this latter question in divergent ways.
But the pursuit of that issue takes one beyond the theories of truth. An account of what true means does not have to tell us what is true, nor tell us how we could find out what is true. Process. Similarly, an account of arts, what bachelor means should not have to tell us who is a bachelor, nor should it have to tell us how we could find out who is. However, it would be fascinating if we could discover a way to tell, for any proposition, whether it is process true. Perhaps some machine could do this, philosophers have speculated.
For any formal language, we know in liberal, principle how to essay, generate all the sentences of liberal arts thesis, that language. Essay On Dieting. If we were to build a machine that produces one by one all the many sentences, then eventually all those that express truths would be produced. Arts Honors. Unfortunately, along with them, we would also generate all those that express false propositions. We also know how to build a machine that will generate only sentences that express truths. Essay. For example, we might program a computer to generate 1 + 1 is not 3, then 1 + 1 is not 4, then 1 + 1 is not 5, and so forth. However, to liberal honors, generate all and only those sentences that express truths is quite another matter. Leibniz (1646-1716) dreamed of dissertation introduction, achieving this goal. By mechanizing deductive reasoning he hoped to build a machine that would generate all and only truths. As he put it, How much better will it be to utexas liberal arts honors thesis, bring under mathematical laws human reasoning which is the most excellent and essay useful thing we have.
This would enable one's mind to be freed from having to think directly of things themselves, and yet everything will turn out correct. His actual achievements were disappointing in this regard, but his dream inspired many later investigators. Some progress on the general problem of capturing all and only those sentences which express true propositions can be made by liberal arts honors limiting the focus to a specific domain. For instance, perhaps we can find some procedure that will produce all and only the truths of arithmetic, or of chemistry, or of Egyptian political history. Here, the key to progress is to appreciate that universal and probabilistic truths capture or contain many more specific truths. If we know the universal and probabilistic laws of quantum mechanics, then (some philosophers have argued) we thereby indirectly (are in a position to) know the more specific scientific laws about chemical bonding. Essay Bronfenbrenner. Similarly, if we can axiomatize an utexas liberal honors thesis area of mathematics, then we indirectly have captured the infinitely many specific theorems that could be derived from those axioms, and we can hope to find a decision procedure for the truths, a procedure that will guarantee a correct answer to the question, Is that true? Significant progress was made in the early twentieth century on the problem of one hundred great essays, axiomatizing arithmetic and utexas arts thesis other areas of cause and effect topics, mathematics. Let's consider arithmetic. Utexas Liberal Honors Thesis. In the process 1920s, David Hilbert hoped to represent the sentences of utexas liberal, arithmetic very precisely in a formal language, then to generate all and only the theorems of arithmetic from uncontroversial axioms, and thereby to show that all true propositions of arithmetic can in principle be proved as theorems. Dental Essay. This would put the concept of truth in arithmetic on a very solid basis.
The axioms would capture all and only the truths. However, Hilbert's hopes would soon be dashed. In 1931, Kurt Godel (1906-1978), in his First Incompleteness Theorem, proved that any classical self-consistent formal language capable of utexas arts thesis, expressing arithmetic must also contain sentences of photsynthesis process, arithmetic that cannot be derived within that system, and hence that the propositions expressed by those sentences could not be proven true (or false) within that system. Utexas Liberal. Thus the concept of truth transcends the concept of proof in classical formal languages. This is a remarkable, precise insight into essay the nature of truth. Can is utexas arts true be defined so that it can be replaced by its definition? Unfortunately for the clarity of this question, there is no one concept of definition. A very great many linguistic devices count as definitions. Essay On Dieting. These devices include providing a synonym, offering examples, pointing at objects that satisfy the term being defined, using the term in honors thesis, sentences, contrasting it with opposites, and contrasting it with terms with which it is often confused. (For further reading, see Definitions, Dictionaries, and Meanings.) However, modern theories about definition have not been especially recognized, let alone adopted, outside of essay contest, certain academic and specialist circles. Many persons persist with the earlier, naive, view that the role of a definition is only to offer a synonym for arts honors thesis the term to be defined.
These persons have in mind such examples as: 'hypostatize' means (or, is essay on urie a synonym for) 'reify' . If one were to liberal, adopt this older view of definition, one might be inclined to demand of a theory of cause, truth that it provide a definition of is true which permitted its elimination in all contexts in the language. Tarski was the first person to show clearly that there could never be such a strict definition for is true in utexas liberal thesis, its own language. The definition would allow for a line of reasoning that produced the Liar Paradox (recall above) and introduction thus would lead us into self contradiction. (See the discussion, in the article The Liar Paradox, of Tarski's Udefinability Theorem of 1936.) Kripke has attempted to avoid this theorem by using only a partial truth-predicate so that not every sentence has a truth-value. In effect, Kripke's repair permits a definition of the truth-predicate within its own language but at the expense of allowing certain violations of the law of utexas thesis, excluded middle. d. Can a Theory of dissertation introduction politics, Truth Avoid Paradox? The brief answer is, Not if it contains its own concept of truth. If the utexas honors thesis language is made precise by being formalized, and if it contains its own so-called global truth predicate, then Tarski has shown that the language will enable us to reason our way to a contradiction. That result shows that we do not have a coherent concept of truth (for a language within that language).
Some of our beliefs about truth, and about related concepts that are used in the argument to photsynthesis process, the contradiction, must be rejected, even though they might seem to be intuitively acceptable. There is no reason to believe that paradox is to be avoided by rejecting formal languages in favor of utexas honors thesis, natural languages. Process. The Liar Paradox first appeared in natural languages. And there are other paradoxes of truth, such as Lob's Paradox, which follow from principles that are acceptable in either formal or natural languages, namely the principles of utexas liberal arts, modus ponens and conditional proof. The best solutions to the paradoxes use a similar methodology, the systematic approach.
That is, they try to remove vagueness and be precise about the ramifications of their solutions, usually by showing how they work in a formal language that has the essential features of essay on urie bronfenbrenner, our natural language. The Liar Paradox and Lob's Paradox represent a serious challenge to utexas, understanding the logic of dental essay contest, our natural language. Liberal Arts Honors Thesis. The principal solutions agree that – to resolve a paradox – we must go back and systematically reform or clarify some of our original beliefs. For example, the essay solution may require us to utexas honors, revise the meaning of is true. However, to be acceptable, the one hundred essays 2nd edition solution must be presented systematically and be backed up by an argument about the general character of our language. Utexas Liberal Thesis. In short, there must be both systematic evasion and dissertation politics systematic explanation. Also, when it comes to developing this systematic approach, the goal of establishing a coherent basis for a consistent semantics of natural language is much more important than the goal of explaining the naive way most speakers use the utexas liberal arts terms true and not true.
The later Wittgenstein did not agree. He rejected the systematic approach and elevated the need to preserve ordinary language, and our intuitions about it, over the need to create a coherent and consistent semantical theory. e. Dissertation Politics. Is The Goal of Scientific Research to Achieve Truth? Except in special cases, most scientific researchers would agree that their results are only approximately true. Nevertheless, to make sense of this, philosophers need adopt no special concept such as approximate truth.
Instead, it suffices to utexas arts honors thesis, say that the researchers' goal is to achieve truth, but they achieve this goal only approximately, or only to some approximation. Other philosophers believe it's a mistake to say the researchers' goal is to achieve truth. These scientific anti-realists recommend saying that research in, for example, physics, economics, and meteorology, aims only for essay on dieting usefulness. When they aren't overtly identifying truth with usefulness, the arts honors instrumentalists Peirce, James and Schlick take this anti-realist route, as does Kuhn. They would say atomic theory isn't true or false but rather is useful for predicting outcomes of experiments and for explaining current data. Giere recommends saying science aims for the best available representation, in the same sense that maps are representations of the on urie bronfenbrenner landscape. Maps aren't true; rather, they fit to a better or worse degree.
Similarly, scientific theories are designed to fit the world. Scientists should not aim to create true theories; they should aim to construct theories whose models are representations of the arts thesis world.
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Mahalo Announces Second Quarter 2008 Results. CALGARY, ALBERTA--(Marketwire - Aug. 14, 2008) - NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO U.S. NEWSWIRE SERVICES OR DISSEMINATION IN THE UNITED STATES. Utexas Arts Honors? ANY FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH THIS RESTRICTION MAY CONSTITUTE A VIOLATION OF U.S. SECURITIES LAW. Mahalo Energy Ltd. Essay? (Mahalo or the Company) (TSX:CBM) announces its results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2008. Summary of Results______________Three Months Ended________ Six Months Ended __________________________________________ June 30__________________June 30 ________________________________________________ %________________________% ______________________________2008____2007__Change____ 2008____2007__Change -------------------------------------------------------------------- -------- -------------------------------------------------------------------- -------- Financial ($000's except per share) Petroleum and natural gas. ____________________16,233__10,871______49%__29,651__21,303______39% Operating netback (1)________9,461__ 5,378______76%__16,887__11,458______47% Net income (loss)__________(31,503)__ (171)________ (31,998) (1,207) Per share - basic __diluted____________________(0.53)__ 0.00____________(0.54)__(0.02) Funds from operations (1)____6,369__ 3,545______80%__11,740__ 7,038______67% Per share - basic (1)________0.11____0.06____________ 0.20____0.12 Capital expenditures________13,637__13,364______ 2%__22,144__22,183______ 0% Proceeds from sale of oil and gas assets__________________-______91________________-__14,274 Net debt, end of utexas arts thesis, period. ____________________67,451__52,038______30%__67,451__52,038______30% Operational Average daily sales volumes (boe) (1)__________ 3,283__ 2,805______17%__ 3,343__ 2,715______23% Average selling price ($/boe)____________________ 54.34__ 42.58______28%__ 48.74__ 43.35______12% Operating netback ($/boe)____31.67__ 21.06______50%__ 27.76__ 23.32______19% -------------------------------------------------------------------- -------- -------------------------------------------------------------------- -------- (1) Refer to advisories regarding non-GAAP financial measures and barrel of essay, ____oil equivalent (boe) measures at arts thesis, the end of the and effect essay topics, MDA. Q2 2008 Highlights.
- Increased funds from honors thesis operations by cause, 80% over second quarter 2007. - Increased operating netback by 76% over second quarter 2007. - Increased operating netback per unit by 50% over second quarter 2007 while average selling price per unit increased 28% over utexas, the same period. - Locked in a number of forward physical sales contracts at prices in excess of US $10.00 per MMbtu. - Drilled 14 (8.57net) successful coal bed methane wells in the United States. - Announced intention to sell Canadian resource assets; focus on United States Coalbed Methane and Shale assets and opportunities. - Closed new US $105 million four-year committed credit facility. - Appointed Senior Vice-President, US Exploration, a Vice- President, US Land, and politics, a Controller to Mahalo's senior management team. During the three months ended June 30, 2008, the Company generated funds from operations of $6.4 million on sales revenues of arts honors, $16.2 million. During this period, Mahalo recorded a net loss of introduction politics, $31.5 million. The comparability of the Company's net earnings in utexas liberal the three and six months ended June 30, 2008 with the corresponding periods of 2007 was significantly impacted by a $32.3 million write- down of Canadian property and equipment as more fully discussed in the Company's MDA.
Mahalo is currently in the process of disposing of a significant portion of its Canadian resource assets. The non- cash write-down reduced current earnings but did not impact funds from operations. The second quarter of cause essay for college, 2008 saw a number of dramatic changes for liberal arts thesis Mahalo. On May 21, 2008, the photsynthesis process, Company announced a decision to pursue the sale of utexas arts honors thesis, its Canadian resource assets and focus on its United States coal bed methane (CBM) and process, shale gas assets and opportunities. During the quarter, the Company was also successful in recruiting a number of highly qualified professionals for its Tulsa management team; this will be of significant benefit as it ramps up its CBM drilling and pursues further shale gas program initiatives.
On June 30, 2008, the Company closed a new US$ 105 million, long term credit facility, replacing its existing $75 million facility which was due to expire in early 2009. Mahalo believes that the new credit facility will provide a more balanced capital structure and utexas arts honors, allow increased flexibility for essay the Company to execute its business plan and continue to achieve positive results for its shareholders. Mahalo has decided to retain certain Canadian CBM properties, including its primary Mannville property at Corbett Creek, Alberta. Mahalo believes that the Canadian Mannville coals hold significant potential; the utexas liberal honors, Company will continue to develop and test concepts and techniques to on urie, unlock this huge unconventional resource. The sales of all other Canadian assets, primarily conventional oil and gas properties, are well underway with a number of letters of liberal arts honors, intent having been signed. The disposition of certain other minor assets is still being negotiated.
The Company is confident that with the completion of these asset sales, the transition to a firmly focused unconventional natural gas company with improved financial flexibility will have been achieved. The Company has added three key individuals to lead its United States operation. Mr. Patrick Ryan has joined our team as Senior Vice-President, Exploration and General Manager, US Operations. On Dieting? Mr.
Ryan (B.S. Geology, M.S. Geology, and utexas liberal, MBA) has over 30 years of oil and gas experience with a majority in the Mid-Continent area of the photsynthesis process, United States. Most recently, he was heavily involved in Woodford Shale development in the Arkoma Basin with Newfield Exploration. Mahalo is excited about the strong technical attributes that he brings to our Company. In addition, Mr. Liberal Honors Thesis? Sam Gordin has joined our team as Vice President, US Land and Business Development and and effect topics, Kevin Humphrey CPA joined us as Controller US Operations. The Company is in the process of further strengthening the team in utexas liberal arts honors thesis the Tulsa office with other key individuals. The addition of essay, these highly experienced and utexas liberal honors, qualified individuals sets the stage for Mahalo to move quickly to evaluate and develop its shale gas resources. The Company also established a new, four year US $105 million credit facility with Ableco Finance LLC.
The new facility is composed of photsynthesis process, a US $65 million revolving credit facility (with an initial borrowing base set at US $50 million), a US $25 million term facility (fully funded at closing), and a US $15 million delay draw term facility. Arts? Mahalo intends to essay, use the utexas liberal honors, enhanced flexibility offered by the new facility to help fund future development initiatives and one hundred great 2nd edition, acquisitions. The Company participated in drilling a total of liberal arts honors thesis, 15 (9.57 net) wells of which 1 (1.0 net) well was in Canada and 14 (8.57 net) wells were in the United States. The Company enjoyed a 100 percent success rate and all are gas wells. Total capital investment for the quarter of $13.6 million included $2.2 million for topics for college land, $1.0 million for seismic, $8.9 million for drilling and completions and $1.5 million for facilities and production equipment. Sales of oil and gas averaged 3,283 boe per day during second quarter 2008 compared with 3,403 boe per day in utexas arts first quarter 2008. The reduction was caused by dissertation introduction politics, high decline gas wells in utexas arts honors Canada; production from United States operations was generally stable over the period. The potential sale of the politics, Canadian operations and resulting curtailed capital investment in new wells during the quarter resulted in an overall decline in Canadian production. One successful gas well was drilled in Canada; however, the well has not been fracture stimulated or tied in. The Hartshorne CBM play that Mahalo is developing in the Arkoma basin of honors thesis, Oklahoma continues to dissertation politics, yield impressive results with each well showing gas production very soon after initial completion and production rates rapidly rising to expected levels. The Company has also managed to keep capital costs per well within planned amounts.
New volumes brought on stream in the United States through CBM drilling did not result in increased overall production for the quarter due to a number of factors. Extremely hot weather played a role in production disruption as all Oklahoma operators had difficulty maintaining normal run time due to utexas, compression overheating issues. CBM production is by nature very pressure sensitive, and as such, compression down time had a major disruptive effect on overall volumes. Compressor issues were felt in both Mahalo field compression as well as major mid-stream providers that Mahalo uses to process, transport gas to utexas thesis, the Henry Hub. In addition to down time, Mahalo has identified gathering system issues that need to essay topics for college, be rectified. Utexas Liberal Arts Thesis? Many new wells achieved rates well over one hundred great, prognosis which was confirmation of the positive economics of the play. These same wells, however, also caused hydraulic inefficiencies in our gathering lines and as such have suppressed older and more pressure sensitive production. Mahalo has commenced a full coupled reservoir and gathering system modeling project that should alleviate the utexas arts honors thesis, issues at hand and prevent major issues in one hundred the future. Finally, Mahalo has begun an arts thesis, aggressive re-entry program whereby new horizontal laterals are being added to existing wells. One Hundred Great 2nd Edition? The average cost to drill and case a new lateral has been less than $0.4 million which greatly increases the arts thesis, value of new wells due to dissertation introduction, lower capital costs.
To prepare for these activities, Mahalo will have approximately 4 wells shut in and prepared for re-entry at any point in time that would account for additional deferred production. In total, from all these issues, the Company estimates that there is at present approximately 3.0 Mmcf per day of production net to Mahalo which has been deferred. It is important to note that this production should be fully recoverable in the near future and in no way compromises the Company's reserve volumes. Detailed study of these issues and remedial action is well underway to allow recovery of these production volumes, but the precise timing of such recovery remains uncertain. Mahalo has spent considerable time and honors thesis, effort evaluating the potential of its significant shale gas resource; a 2006 Contingent Resource Study by Sproule and essay on dieting, Associates Ltd. estimated Mahalo interest discovered resource at approximately 3.5 trillion cubic feet.
With the addition of key individuals with vast operational experience in shale gas evaluation and development, the Company will commence a shale gas pilot program in the third quarter of 2008. This program will include further land acquisition, seismic, the drilling of utexas arts thesis, three wells and the evaluation of several advanced completion techniques. The Company will follow up with a continuing program of drilling and evaluation that will be scaled appropriately depending on the results of the initial pilot program. As well, the Company will continue with its highly successful CBM drilling program with one to bronfenbrenner, two rigs running continuously in Oklahoma. With the utexas liberal thesis, sale of the Canadian assets, a new focus on Caney and Woodford shale gas development and dental, continuing CBM development, the Company looks forward to liberal honors thesis, growing production and strong economic returns from a focused approach to essay contest, unconventional gas development in the United States. Mahalo's has filed its unaudited consolidated financial statements and related managements' discussion and liberal honors thesis, analysis for the three and six months ended June 30, 2008 on SEDAR. Process? The reports can be accessed electronically from the SEDAR system at www.sedar.com. For additional information on the Company, please go to the Company's profile on liberal thesis SEDAR or the Company's website at www.mahaloenergy.com.
Mahalo is a junior, unconventional natural gas producer, focusing on the development and production of coal bed methane and shale gas prospects in the United States and coal bed methane in dental contest Canada. Except for historical financial information contained herein, the matters discussed in utexas liberal this document may be considered forward- looking statements. Such statements include declarations regarding management's intent, belief or current expectations. Prospective investors are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve a number of risks and uncertainties; actual results could differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements. Among the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements are: (i) that the photsynthesis, information is of a preliminary nature and may be subject to further adjustment, (ii) the possible unavailability of financing, (iii) risks related to the exploration and development of oil and gas properties, (iv) the liberal thesis, impact of price fluctuations and the demand and pricing for oil and natural gas, (v) the seasonal nature of the business, (vi) start-up risks, (vii) general operating risks, (viii) dependence on third parties, (ix) changes in politics government regulation, (x) the effects of competition, (xi) dependence on senior management, (xii) impact of economic conditions, and (xiii) fluctuations in currency exchange rates and interest rates. The forward-looking statements contained in arts this document are made as of the date hereof and are expressly qualified by this cautionary statement. Mahalo undertakes no obligation to update publicly or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, unless so required by contest, law. Non-GAAP financial measures. The Company uses and makes reference to funds from operations, funds from operations per share, operating netback and net debt. These terms do not have any standardized meaning, are not defined under Canadian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and are therefore referred to as non-GAAP financial measures. Utexas Arts Thesis? These non-GAAP measures should not be considered as an alternative to, or more meaningful than net earnings, cash provided by operating, financing and investing activities or other measures of financial performance or liquidity calculated in accordance with Canadian GAAP.
The non-GAAP financial measures, as calculated and essay on urie, used by the Company, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by utexas arts honors thesis, other companies. Funds from operations represent cash from operating activities before change in and effect topics related non-cash working capital. Funds from liberal arts thesis operations per share are calculated using the weighted average shares outstanding, consistent with the calculation of earnings per share. These measures are used by Mahalo to assess its operating results and its ability to photsynthesis process, generate funds to finance future capital investments and service debt. Operating netback presents a measure of net oil and gas revenue relative to realized commodity prices by deducting royalties and operating and arts thesis, transportation costs from oil and gas sales revenues. This non-GAAP measure is also used by the Company to assess comparability of politics, petroleum sales and directly related costs between periods. There is no GAAP measure that is reasonably comparable to operating netback as calculated by the Company. Net debt as calculated by the Company represents long-term debt, less working capital (excluding unrealized gain or loss on financial instruments) and is used by the Company to utexas, assess financial strength. There is no GAAP measure that is reasonable comparable to photsynthesis, net debt as calculated by the Company. Management considers these non-GAAP financial measures as useful supplemental measures to analyze operations, compare performance between periods and honors thesis, provide shareholders and potential investors with additional information.
These non-GAAP measures are also used by photsynthesis, certain research analysts to value and compare oil and gas exploration and production companies, and are frequently included in published research when providing investment recommendations. Barrel of utexas arts honors, oil equivalent (boe) volumetric measures. The oil and gas industry commonly expresses production, sales and reserves volumes on a barrel of oil equivalent (boe) basis whereby natural gas volumes are converted at a ratio of six thousand cubic feet (Mcf) to one barrel (bbl) of crude oil. The boe measure is used by the Company to introduction, aggregate oil and gas volumes. The measure is also considered to be useful for comparisons with other industry participants. The conversion ratio is based on an approximate energy equivalency of these commodities at liberal arts thesis, the burner tip and does not represent a value equivalency at the well head. This conversion may therefore be misleading, particularly if used in isolation. (c) 2008 Marketwire.
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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to utexas arts new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to your best advantage.
Just like how you dress your best for an interview, it’s important to give your resume the same treatment — to make sure it’s polished and presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of cause and effect for college, styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to get some ideas for updating your own resume. Arts Honors Thesis. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of one hundred essays 2nd edition, beautiful resume templates. Click the image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. Liberal Arts. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space.
But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Dental Contest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the illusion of arts thesis, depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the dental contest, colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and liberal thesis, red to essay symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to help them stand out. Arts Honors. A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look. Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of attracting attention. Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of and effect essay for college, negative space.
There seems to utexas liberal be a trend, at photsynthesis process least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Here’s a little about me” header at the top of arts thesis, this resume, may help you create rapport with the person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is something you can use over and over again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and whittles down the information to only the one hundred great essays 2nd edition, basics (skills and utexas liberal arts thesis, past positions).
Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on process textured paper can give an arts, impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N. Carter, printed on cause and effect essay topics a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel.
When applying for a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about utexas liberal you and complement or enhance the text, like in dental, this resume design by Rachel Winter. Utexas Liberal Arts Honors. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. On Urie Bronfenbrenner. It doesn’t have to be the center of attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes?
Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into liberal arts thesis, your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the dental, same graphic on your cover letter to utexas thesis give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is readable. You’ve only process got one name. Make it memorable. If it’s unique, highlight it.
Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume. Give the hiring manager something to zero in utexas liberal arts, on. Cause Essay. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Liberal Honors Thesis. Need to show your qualifications on the run? Post your resume online and essay on dieting, make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done.
You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of utexas liberal arts, your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. And Effect Essay Topics. This template from honors, Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the cause, same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the utexas liberal arts thesis, infographic route, think of essay, effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Utexas Liberal Arts Thesis. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned.
Use a sidebar in and effect topics for college, your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to liberal honors separate her personal and contact information from dental essay contest, her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the utexas arts honors, breadth of his skills and essay on urie bronfenbrenner, experience. Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in various areas, such as management and design. The size of the utexas liberal honors thesis, circles corresponds with his amount of experience — a fresh way to great illustrate core competencies. Give the utexas honors thesis, person looking at essay on dieting your resume an excuse to honors thesis find out more about you. Great Essays 2nd Edition. Including a link to utexas thesis your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. Dental. If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume.
Tamas Leb has included space to honors thesis do so on this resume template, and it makes an essay on urie bronfenbrenner, impressive statement, even at arts honors thesis a glance. 2nd Edition. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and think about liberal arts thesis innovative ways to essay on dieting present your information. Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Utexas. Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. The vertical timeline on bronfenbrenner the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the utexas liberal arts honors thesis, candidate’s career history.
This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an topics, accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on utexas arts honors thesis your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of on urie bronfenbrenner, using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes don’t have to liberal arts honors thesis be fancy to make a good impression. If competition is stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and dissertation introduction, include more information than the limited area of utexas liberal arts honors thesis, a one-page resume allows for. On Urie. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd.
This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. There may be times when it’s ok to let your sense of liberal thesis, humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Essay Bronfenbrenner. Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes.
The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. Liberal Arts Honors Thesis. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to do what you can to get noticed. For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is on dieting, both appropriate for liberal, her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and dental, a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at.
No long-winded explanations of utexas arts, job roles here. Photsynthesis Process. Just the utexas honors thesis, essentials — enough to get someone interested in wanting to dental essay know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and liberal arts honors thesis, lots of essay, white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and utexas, clear headings for each section. Need to one hundred great 2nd edition keep your resume fairly conservative?
A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Even if your industry doesn’t allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an liberal honors thesis, accent color. Resumes don’t always have to read from left to right, top to bottom. You can play with the layout of your resume to make the one hundred 2nd edition, best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to navigate, similarly to how Orlando Silva designed this template. Utexas. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to essay on dieting designing your resume.
But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Honors. Put these skills into action! Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and contest, graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in utexas liberal, art to essay on urie bronfenbrenner explore design. and loved it.
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Effectiveness of E-Learning Essay Sample. Computer-aided instruction (CAI) is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place. CAI uses a combination of utexas honors thesis text, graphics, sound and video in enhancing the learning process. On Urie Bronfenbrenner! The computer has many purposes in the classroom, and it can be utilized to help a student in all areas of the curriculum. Computer-assisted instruction allows the students to be active participants in utexas liberal thesis, their learning and to browse all the topics in dissertation, their own pace. “CAI may help students develop creative abilities and induce changes in the cognitive and affective outcomes”. According to honors Burkill (1998), CAI serves the purpose of providing flexibility in developing new knowledge and supporting competence in the use of information technology.1 The use of computers in education started in the 1960s.
With the advent of essay topics for college convenient microcomputers in the 1970s, computer use in schools has become widespread from primary education through the university level and even in liberal arts honors, some preschool programs. Instructional computers are basically used in one of two ways: either they provide a straightforward presentation of data or they fill a tutorial role in which the student is tested on comprehension. If the essay on dieting computer has a tutorial program, the student is asked a question by the computer; the student types in an answer and then gets an immediate response to the answer. If the answer is liberal thesis correct, the student is routed to more challenging problems; if the answer is incorrect, various computer messages will indicate the flaw in procedure, and the program will bypass more complicated questions until the essay bronfenbrenner student shows mastery in that area. There are many advantages to using computers in educational instruction. They provide one-to-one interaction with a student, as well as an instantaneous response to the answers elicited, and allow students to proceed at their own pace. Computers are particularly useful in subjects that require drill, freeing teacher time from some classroom tasks so that a teacher can devote more time to individual students. A computer program can be used diagnostically, and, once a student’s problem has been identified, it can then focus on the problem area. Finally, because of the privacy and individual attention afforded by a computer, some students are relieved of the embarrassment of giving an incorrect answer publicly or of going more slowly through lessons than other classmates.2 E-learning is essentially the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge.
E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual education opportunities and liberal arts digital collaboration. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in the form of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio. The information and communication systems, whether networked or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process. 3 The term will still most likely be utilized as reference in-classroom educational experiences via technology, even as advances continue in regard to devices and curriculum. Background of the Study.
One type of Computer-aided instruction (CAI) is the E-learning which Centro Escolar University adapted and will be the focus of this study. Utilizing E-learning is one of the one hundred essays 2nd edition ways of educating Nursing students of Centro Escolar University (CEU). It was 3 years ago since CEU started to utexas arts use this type of Computer-aided instruction which is considered to be the transformation of education through technology. Every student has his or her respective computer and is given a chance to browse all the topics all over again at their own pace. Every topic has corresponding questions to dissertation introduction be answered. Their answers will be then be checked and posted on their screen. The researchers wanted to determine the effects of Computer-aided Instruction adapted by arts CEU College of Nursing to the Level IV students Batch 2012 in terms of: knowledge, skills and attitude.
Setting of the Study. The study would be held with the essay topics for college graduates of Bachelor of Science in Nursing Batch 2011-2012 at the school campus Centro Escolar University Mendiola, Manila in order to gain a deeper insight into the effects of E-learning in their learning. Box no. 1 shows the effects of liberal e-learning as a whole to CEU Nursing students and essay on urie the problems they usually encounter. Box no. 2 shows the processing of the study. Box no.3 shows the outcome of the study. After implementing the processes, the honors researchers were able to determine the 2nd edition effects of e-learning in the learning of the CEU Nursing students. From the outcome researchers will give recommendation to improve the program for honors, the benefit of the students.
Statement of the Problem. The study aimed to determine the effects of E- learning in the learning of CEU nursing students. Specifically, this sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the strategies that enhance the learning of the nursing students via e-learning? 2. What are the problems encountered by the CEU Nursing students in e-learning? 3. What are the dissertation politics effects of e-learning in learning of the CEU Nursing students? Assumptions of the Study. During the process of analyzing the possibilities regarding some consequences on the research status, the utexas liberal thesis following assumptions were made: The e-learning help the nursing students of CEU to easily to enhances their knowledge on all concepts especially in rendering nursing interventions to the patient. With regards to the problem they encountered in e-learning they are mainly technical such as computer mal function specifically logging of photsynthesis computer program Significance of the Study.
This study is expected to be a help in the following fields: To the college of nursing, this may help them to utexas honors evaluate e- learning as a whole so that the nursing educators may be able to adopt the most effective teaching strategies that they see in e- learning. To the dissertation students, this may help them study in different ways in order to attain excellence in terms of their academics and skills Successful e-Learning programs require specific conditions and constant monitoring and a lot more research has yet to be done by the future researchers before an utexas arts honors thesis, acceptable universal model can be developed. Essay! This research will serve as a basis on their future researches. This study discusses some of the means of effectively evaluating, designing and managing e- learning programs and hopes to accurately envisage what the future may hold for the development of this strategy to the nursing profession. This may also be of help to attain a higher quality of learning. Scope and Delimitations of the Study. This study focused on the effects of E-learning to the learning or academic performance of the level IV nursing students batch 2011-2012 in Centro Escolar University only. The study will deal with the strategies that enhances the learning via e-learning, the utexas honors effects of e-learning and cause topics the problems encountered by liberal arts the said group of students. On Urie Bronfenbrenner! The respondents were limited to the 4th year students of liberal arts thesis Centro Escolar University College of Nursing enrolled in the S.Y. Politics! 2011-201.
Definition of Terms: To ensure maximum understanding and appreciation of the researched, some relevant terms are defined in liberal, this section; Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) – This is an example of dissertation politics a teaching strategy presented with the aid of a computer to share knowledge, skills and information to utexas liberal arts thesis the students. CEU level IV Nursing student – This are the students who take up Bachelor of Science in Nursing and who is enrolled in e-learning program of the institution. Develop- To bring out the capabilities or possibilities of. E-Learning – It is a way of delivery of knowledge, training or education program by `electronic means to essay enhance the capabilities of the student. Effects – The process of bringing or producing a result whether it is positive or negative and advantage or disadvantage to the student. Teaching strategies – The process of sharing knowledge or thoughts to honors thesis the students with the help of process a computer. Review of Related Literature and Studies. This chapter includes the discussions on related foreign and local studies which provide relevant facts about the effects of computer aided-instruction to the students.
FOREIGN LITERATURE. In a classroom utilizing CAI, students often work independently or in pairs at computers around the room. Software effectively guides students through a series of interrelated activities and instruction, addressing a variety of learning styles. Nickerson (1995) points out that while technology does not promote understanding in utexas arts honors thesis, and of itself, it is a tool that can help students view learning as a constructive process and use simulations to on dieting draw students’ attention.1 In relation to this topic it is said that CAI is very helpful for liberal, the students with regards to their education. The used of on dieting modern technology have great impact on the students compare to arts honors the traditional one. Essay On Urie Bronfenbrenner! The Computer has become a part of life for many Filipinos, whether doing presentations, homework, researches, or using the Internet. Due to modern technology, the utexas liberal arts honors demands of many people vary but these are still attained. Complicated tasks become easy and faster to accomplish through the emergence of computers.
In the late 1970s, computers made their way into on dieting, early childhood classrooms in utexas honors thesis, the United States. In the Philippines, schools have been adapting the same practice of using computers as early as preschool. According to on dieting psychology and brain physiology research, people from the outside world access to knowledge and information, 80% of people’s vision through to get from the image. “Most of the human brain, memory is the scene in order to blur the utexas image into right-brain. Thought process is essay bronfenbrenner left-brain side of the right brain can remember to read the liberal arts honors thesis image, while it symbolic, language-oriented process.” Psychologists confirmed that the same thing If you use a simple symbol or text calls for 10 seconds, with pictures only offer half the time, with realistic images only need 1 / 3 of time. Since the 90’s into the computer at an unprecedented rate quickly becoming ubiquitous, especially in the economic developed areas of Shanghai, CAI (computer Assistant Instruction computer-Aided Instruction), as the richest of teaching and learning of modern technology means the introduction application of secondary education has become a possibility. Multimedia technology has the liberal thesis set of graphics, images, sounds, animation, text and other information functions, while the large amount of on dieting information after the computer network, information to change the speed sharing of information resources of the high, belongs to the past any kind of media cannot be compared. It is CAI teaching techniques into the background of such a large area of secondary school teaching.
New English textbooks based on liberal honors “structure — function” system as the subject prepared. In the teaching process, especially in the stage of importing new courses to develop students to learn through hearing the new language materials, habits, through natural communication display the new language materials; create a scenario for students to dissertation conduct classroom communicative activities. The CAI teaching letters to a large number of liberal honors abstract symbols by optimizing the dental plan, voice, language environment, fully embodies the language features. Requires a lot of English language environment, the word number, and information processing best hero is none other than the natural non-multimedia. If we can give full play to the advantages of multimedia to accommodate a variety of conventional audio-visual means of long, so that teachers based on teaching requirements, through a simple operation can be put on CD-ROM, disk, etc. Utexas Liberal Thesis! as the carrier of images, animation, spelling, writing, the application of language teaching information can be readily transferred out to make it flow in a different interface, and the students had used video and audio systems on display, attracting students to participate in learning. And my teachers according to learning needs and learning conditions, arbitrary control of the transmission of essay teaching information density and transmission speed of information transmission channel of thesis arbitrary choice and expanded at on urie bronfenbrenner, any time to utexas arts honors thesis study the efficiency and quality of feedback, then the teaching of English in one hundred great essays 2nd edition, the texts and pictures, colour, scene, the image realistic, interesting multimedia graphic environments, teaching effectiveness will be further improved. 5 In relation with this it is said that computer aided instruction is much helpful because people can have a better knowledge if it is presented through images and utexas honors thesis others. Development of dental essay contest information Technology and knowledge information society transfer brought huge change of education filed in the world. In fact, Educational infra of Philippines was meagre before 4. 5 years. Also computing and Internet infra it will not support to education environment.
But Philippine education environment changed fast during 2000. 2006 years. Philippines making e-Learning systems for remote education environment. And, there is progressing various project with more interest about e-Learning. Arts Honors! The prime advocates that spearhead the essay on urie drive to utexas liberal incorporate e-Learning technologies into the Philippines school system are educators from prominent universities like the University of the essay Philippines which has established in 1995 the UP Open University (UPOU), as an alternative to traditional classroom. Utexas Liberal! It has started offering fully accredited classes in 2001. The use of essay for college e-learning facilities is a shared responsibility of the institution, the community, the teachers, and the learners. The design and development of e-learning facilities are not the hard part in promoting e-learning in the university. It is, therefore, recommended that any institution that wishes to develop e-learning facilities give importance to understanding teachers’ attitudes to change and formulate incentives so that integrating e-learning into teaching and learning becomes a reality.1 E-learning can be regarded as a relatively new concept in the Philippines and is still in its embryonic stage.
Although open and utexas liberal honors distance learning has been documented to be introduced in the Philippines way back in 1952 through the Farmers’ School-on-the-Air program over a one kilowatt radio station in the province of Iloilo, the development of distance education, much so of the e-learning environment lags far behind more industrialized countries due to dissertation politics a relatively lack of infrastructure, investment, and a pedagogy applicable to utexas liberal thesis many Filipinos. The main barriers are: requirement for change; costs; poorly designed packages; inadequate technology; lack of skills; need for a component of bronfenbrenner face to-face teaching; time intensive nature of utexas liberal e-learning; computer anxiety. A range of dissertation solutions can solve these barriers. The main solutions are: standardization; strategies; funding; integration of e-learning into the curriculum; blended teaching; user friendly packages; access to technology; skills training; support; employers paying e-learning costs; dedicated work time for e-learning. Most universities are also investing in e-learning for all different student categories, including health. In recent years, e-learning has become a high pro?le approach for pre-registration health students and for continuing professional development. Utexas Liberal Arts! Despite e-learning’s high pro?le, e-learning is not straightforward and very often raises many issues.
There is a slow adoption of e-learning mainly due to underdeveloped infrastructure, high cost and the propensity of the cause topics Filipinos to maintain the liberal arts thesis status quo instead of implementing changes in training and learning system and processes. Dental Essay! The design for a good formula to utexas liberal suit the Filipino preference will open the opportunity for growth of topics for college e-learning in the Philippines. Liberal Honors! It will benefit individuals who place high value on education and the desire to succeed. Even those self-motivated and dedicated adult learners are most likely to benefit from the program. And those who belong to large organizations such as universities, big communities, large and medium-sized businesses that can reduce their training costs and improved learning standards. E-learning strategies covering the different educational sectors have recently been published. The Department for great essays, Education and Skills strategy, ‘Harnessing Technology: Transforming Learning and utexas arts honors Children’s Services’ provides a joined up approach across schools, colleges, universities and adult and community learning organizations.
Its three objectives comprise: ‘Learning and help to improve outcomes for children and young people, through shared ideas, lessons and help for professionals, ‘Engage “hard to reach” learners, with special needs support, more motivating ways of cause and effect essay learning, and more choice about how and where to learn, ‘Build an open accessible system, with more information and arts thesis services online for parents and carers, children, young people, adult learners and cause and effect essay employers; and more cross-organization collaboration to arts thesis improve personalized support and on dieting choice, ‘Achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness, with online research, access to shared ideas and lesson plans, improved systems and utexas liberal honors thesis processes in children’s services, shared procurement and easier administration. E-learning establishes linkages and strengthens solidarity among eLearning practitioners, industry partners and institutions. It shows that both education providers (managers and trainers) and learners feel that e-learning is cause effective and improves education and training; the utexas liberal key bene?t of e-learning is the ?exibility it provides. Access to the site and introduction politics motivation to participate are fundamental to online learning. The initial session in the course was expanded to include learning activities designed to support participants to enter and utilize the program in order to liberal honors minimize anxiety and promote technological confidence. Resources included printed instruction sheets to navigate the site and activities utilizing links to materials and practice technical skills such as sending a brief posting or attaching a file. 3 The Department of Education (DepEd) put emphasis on the need to develop e-learning via its five-year Information and Communication Technology for Education (ICT4E) Strategy Plan. ICT4E aims to integrate ICT into every school’s curricula, develop programs, establish infrastructure and come up with a system for evaluating the introduction politics program’s effectiveness. DepEd has also strove to strengthen its Educational Technology Unit and conduct literacy training among teachers. Two years ago, more than 6,600 schools participated in arts honors thesis, DepEd’s Internet Connectivity Project. During that time, only 1,936 schools had Internet access.
Today, more than 3,127 schools are connected. Topics For College! Low student-computer and teacher-computer ratios pose the biggest challenge to the program, according to an education department report on ICT4E. Infrastructure and teacher competencies are also areas of concern as computer literacy is not a requirement for utexas liberal arts honors thesis, teacher certification and licensure. But despite all this, the department remains optimistic about the ICT4E program, saying that “meeting challenges by using the tools available creatively is key to effectively integrating ICT.” DepEd also encourages businesses and other organizations to share their expertise. To date, more than 10,000 teachers have undergone digital-literacy training in cause topics for college, partnership with the private sector. The ReImaginED Executive Training, a series of consultations and workshops to help division and regional education administrators use the ICT4E program, is also being implemented. Philippines have adopted this technology for years which has been of great help to the Filipino students, workers and educators, etc. It comes with great cost but the benefits received by the Filipino people are sufficient enough to compete with other countries.
In using the E-learning, home works, reviews, guide and utexas liberal arts many other academic related things are made easier and better to essay enhance the arts thesis student’s capability of process using advanced technology. Which in years, may grow into a lot more comprehensive technology. Science and technology is of great help to the Filipino society especially the Filipino nursing students for review and for preparation to exams. Kathleen Cotton found on her analysis about Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) that software can be used to help students develop their writing skills and contribute to higher quality written work. In addition to improving students’ writing abilities, use of utexas thesis writing software can foster positive attitudes toward computers, course content, and photsynthesis process school in general. Computer software provides many instructional benefits, but (CAI) can have a much greater impact on student learning. In a classroom utilizing CAI, students often work independently or in pairs at computers around the honors room. Software on each computer effectively guides students through a series of interrelated activities and instruction, addressing a variety of learning styles.6 In this study because computers can display instructions or descriptions on demand, play audio of instructions or descriptions that students can hear through headphones and show video of a person talking to them, interspersed with visual depictions of material relevant to the activity, CAI is essay effective at delivering this content to students without ever tiring or getting impatient. Students enjoy working in a CAI environment because it provides them with immediate, positive feedback, grades all students fairly and provides them with more control over the speed at which instruction is delivered. According to the article “Computer-Aided Instruction(CAI) Within Clinical Nursing Education”, their purpose is to add to a knowledge base for the successful implementation of CAI within clinical nursing education.
This is based upon a two year study of CAI use within the clinical component of one course within a baccalaureate nursing program. Liberal Thesis! Hales and Hannah have stated that the integration of the computer within nursing education needs to be planned. Hales also stated that there was a need for a body of knowledge that describes the planning and implementing of CAI. This literature would formulate a knowledge base for essays 2nd edition, the effective and liberal arts honors thesis efficient use of CAI for not only dissertation introduction politics classroom teaching, but also clinical teaching. 7 This study conclude the importance of utexas liberal honors assisting students to feel comfortable and confident as possible in patient care experiences that cannot be over emphasized. The use of simulations within clinical nursing education helps students to increase their confidence and bronfenbrenner comfort as they start new clinical experiences. Simulations offer students a safe way to utexas arts get acquainted with some clinical situations prior to the real clinical experience. Photsynthesis Process! Learning can be enhanced with the appropriate use of simulations within clinical nursing education. Utexas Arts Honors Thesis! According to the article “E-learning benefits nurse education and helps shape students’ professional identity” the properties intrinsic to the technologies used in e-learning allow students more flexibility over the identities they adopt. They can also experiment with the identity of “professional nurse” in essays, a safe environment where they can make mistakes without harming patients. 8 This study means that e-learning may restrict some learning opportunities for student nurses, although it may also facilitate the process of identity shift in ways that face to utexas arts honors thesis face teaching does not . According to the article “Expanding nursing education through e-learning: A case study in Malaysia”, the introduction politics School of Health Sciences, University Saints Malaysia (SHS) is planning to expand its contribution to produce more graduate nurses by offering a nursing degree through e-learning.
After three years of using e-learning by four lecturers in seven nursing courses, we conducted a study to get the lecturers feedback and to compare the students’ preference and their actual experiences in e-learning. Lecturers’ feedback were collected based on six open-ended questions. Feedback from all the 36 final year nursing students were collected using Constructivist On-line Learning Environment Survey (COLLES)–the Student Experience/Preferred Form. Arts Honors! Results show that lecturers and students have positive perception on e-learning. We believe blended learning is the most suitable approach to implement e-learning and social constructivism theory provides the dynamic view of learning. To increase success in e-learning implementation for the nursing program, lecturers should be educated regarding proper instructional design so that their content delivery blends well with the technology and pedagogy. 9 Based in this study e-learning has a powerful and dissertation effective tool for utexas arts, expanding nursing education to meet the demand for a labor force that is knowledgeable, highly skilled and equipped with positive values. Michael Szabo’s (2001) study showed that much research has been focused on the effectiveness of CAI, which is one hundred demonstrated through improved test scores (Williams Brown, 1990). Effectiveness has also been measured through “heightened affective responses, or better attitudes, reduced learning time, higher course completion rates, increased retention duration, and finally cost”. Generally the effectiveness of CAI has been determined by comparing CAI with traditional classroom instruction (Clark, 1985).10 LOCAL STUDIES. According to the study entitled “Issues in Learning, Effectiveness in an ICT-Based Philippine Education Environment”, learning across the world is rapidly changing and bringing about utexas liberal thesis this change is the use of information and communications technology (ICT) or simply, computers, which has advanced the access to information and is providing a richer, more immediate and relevant opportunities for those who have embraced it.
The use of ICT for introduction politics, education is revolutionizing the traditional classroom and encourages learners to progress outside of the four walls of classrooms, is more personalised and has become a powerful motivational tool. Today, the use of ICT in education is greatly helping developing countries to catch up with the education race becoming a great equalizer and utexas providing access to ICT-based learning can help close the dissertation introduction politics wide digital divide. Utexas Honors! ICT-based learning is now recognized as an one hundred great, effective tool in meeting the education objectives and serve previously unserved sectors. The main rationale for this is an increasingly technology-oriented and globalizing world where the use of ICT in liberal arts, education has become a critical factor to ensure that a country’s workforce is skilled and prepared to meet the challenges of development and global employment opportunities. Thus, as ICT becomes part of the Philippine basic education landscape, the inclusion of basic learning competencies in bronfenbrenner, computers to educate our Filipino learners so that they can be globally competitive and raise their personal and national esteem, and realize a progressive life will be no less than strategic. However, because of the fast pace in utexas liberal thesis, technology development, in the span of less than a generation, students have gone from studying with notebooks and textbooks to laptops, netbooks and, now, iPads. But despite the prevalence of technology on campuses, studies indicate that computers alone can’t keep students from falling into the same weak study habits from dental days of pen and notebooks.
ICT-based learning has in fact presented new issues for learners. The drop-out rates for learners who rely on ICT based modes of delivery is not significantly lower and in some instances even higher than traditional settings. The lack of liberal arts face-to-face intervention between learners and cause for college their teachers in liberal thesis, the case of distance education learners also gives rise to motivational issues which is cause and effect topics for college a major factor in drop-out rates. ICT-based learning using learning management systems and internet-based learning applications is also not exempt from the utexas liberal thesis intermittent inconveniences and less than stable delivery of the technology. One of the most challenging tasks that educators are facing when using ICT in their lesson and course delivery is maintaining the dissertation politics learner’s attention and ability to be engaged. This problem is not due to the technology itself, since learners are in fact benefiting from the efficiency of ICT learning, but it is the fact that the time allotted for learning a given subject in a typical semester hasn’t changed, but the amount of information that needs to be covered continues to grow. Educators and trainers are therefore now faced with a different situation, that of choosing the right amount and quality of content that learners need to cover and retain rather than to utexas arts honors thesis try to absorb as much information as possible. Quantity is once again not necessarily better than quality. Studies showed that learner performance are significantly better when students use more powerful strategies when studying computer materials. These involve techniques and methods of using computer and internet features and applications that allow learners to process filter information better and structure their learning experiences around topics that excite them. When students are given the opportunity to pursue their own learning interests rather than what teachers tell them to, they tend to have better chances of choosing the right course major according to their interest, as well as their outside activities.
Methods and Procedure. This chapter presents the honors discussion on essay the research methodology study, the subjects, sampling technique, research instruments, procedure of data gathering and statistical treatment that will be used for accurate analysis and interpretation of the fata gathered. Liberal Arts Honors! Method. The researchers used descriptive method technique to gather the effects of e-learning in the learning of the nursing students of Centro Escolar University. Photsynthesis! According to Polit (8th edition), descriptive research focuses on the understanding causes of behavior, conditions, and situations and in which data gathering is arts thesis done through observation, survey and interview.1 This was employed to gather the necessary data about the essay for college evaluation of the 4th year nursing students in the effects of e-learning in the learning of the liberal arts Centro Escolar University nursing students. Respondents of the Study. Respondents composed of on dieting 96 4th year nursing students who took up e- learning at Centro Escolar University. It composed of male and female students and utexas liberal honors thesis their age range is from 18-21 years old. Sampling Technique.
The sampling method that was used is randomize sampling technique. In random sampling, each item or element of the photsynthesis process population has an equal chance of being chosen at each draw. A sample is random if the method for obtaining the sample meets the criterion of utexas liberal arts thesis randomness (each element having an equal chance at on dieting, each draw). The actual composition of the sample itself does not determine whether or not it was a random sample.2 Researchers selected a group of subjects for study from a larger group. Each individual is chosen entirely by chance and each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. Every possible sample of utexas thesis a given size has the same chance of selection. Data Gathering Instrument. Researchers used questionnaire as a tool in gathering data.
Likert Scale is used, wherein each of the four responses would have a numerical value which would be used in order to analyze the dental essay contest effects of e-learning, the following likert scale was used: Score| Verbal Interpretation| Limits| 4- Highly Effective| Very useful in producing intended effect/result| 3.5-4.0| 3- Effective| Produces an utexas liberal, intended effect/result| 2.5-3.49| 2- Ineffective| Does not produce and intended effect/result| 1.5-2.49| 1- Highly Ineffective| Having no beneficial use or incapable of functioning usefully| 0.5-1.49| | Score| Verbal Interpretation| Limits| 4- Always| Problems that encountered all the times| 3.5-4.0| 3- Often| Problems that encountered most of the contest time| 2.5-3.49| 2- Seldom| Problems encountered sometimes| 1.5-2.49| 1- Never| Never been encountered problems.| 0.5-1.49| Validation of the Instrument. The researchers prepared questionnaire was recheck and validated by experts and professionals in E-learning.
Valuable suggestions were given to liberal arts make it topically substantial and technically accurate. Data Gathering Procedures. Phase I: The researchers identified the problem, send research proposal to Dean for her approval and after approval, collection of related literature studies about the topic to get a bigger idea was done. Phase II: The researchers interviewed the 4th year nursing students of batch 2012 about the introduction politics activities in e-learning. Phase III: The researchers formulated questionnaires based on the statement of the problem, checked by the research adviser and send to mathematics department for validation. Phase IV: The researchers revised the questionnaire and utexas liberal honors thesis distributed the essay questionnaires to the 96 4th year nursing students from batch 2012 who took up e- learning. The data gathered were tallied. Phase V: Consultation to the Math Department for the statistical treatment.
Data gathered were tabulated, interpreted and analyzed. Send the research output to the English Department for honors, editing. Revising and finalizing the corrected research output. Statistical Treatment of Data. Researchers used Standard Deviation’s formula. Standard Deviation is the square root of the photsynthesis process mean of the squared deviations from the mean of utexas honors a distribution. A measure of variability which reflects the typical deviation from the mean.3. Phase I:The researchers identified the problem, send research proposal to Dean for dental contest, her approval and honors after approval, collection of related literature studies about the topic to get a bigger idea was done.
Phase II:The researchers interviewed the 4th year nursing students of batch 2012 about the activities in e-learning. Phase III:The researchers formulated questionnaires based on the statement of the problem, checked by the research adviser and send to mathematics department for validation. Phase IV:The researchers revised the questionnaire and distributed the questionnaires to the 96 4th year nursing students from for college batch 2012 who took up e- learning. The data gathered were tallied. Phase V: Consultation to utexas liberal thesis the Math Department for the statistical treatment. Data gathered were tabulated, interpreted and analyzed. Essay! Send the research output to the English Department for editing. Revising and finalizing the corrected research output. According to the interpretation, information technology helps meet today’s medical students’ needs by providing multiple curriculum delivery methods. Utexas Arts! Video Presentation, Exercises/Quizzes and Modules are highly effective.
Video presentation is an e-learning technology that uses the Internet to deliver curriculum while giving the student control of the content’s delivery. There have been few studies conducted on the effectiveness of streaming video in medical schools. The results demonstrated a positive effect on program outcomes as streaming video became more readily available to students. Based on these findings, streaming video technology seems to be a viable tool to complement in-class delivery methods, to accommodate the one hundred great 2nd edition needs of utexas medical students, and to provide options for meeting the challenges of delivering the undergraduate medical curriculum. As necessary as ongoing assessment is for both teachers and students, many teachers complain that constant testing and quizzes stifles their creativity and destroys student interest, at a time when motivation is mandatory for the current crop of media-saturated students.
Teachers can assess student learning and evaluate the quality of on urie bronfenbrenner their own teaching, without losing the interest of their students is to implement quick quizzes throughout daily instruction to ensure that students understand what you’re teaching and — when they don’t — to understand where your teaching has missed the mark. Based from the gathered data, it is utexas honors found that there are many problems encountered using E-learning’s and some of them are technical skills to dissertation access computer technology and the E- learning. They noted that the complex nature of the E content demanded high technical literacy of participants engaged in them, they found technological requirement challenging due to a lack of familiarity with the university E- learning system and recently updated ICT facilities, as well as with the multimedia operations themselves. Students felt they needed not only to be familiar with new technologies but also able to deal with technical problems encountered. Technological challenges are broadly defined as challenges surroundings issues of familiarity with new technology and technical problems encountered using E- leanings and some of the liberal arts study support that access from the home page was slow and based on the data gathered majority of the student answered seldom.3. Effects of E-learning. EFFECTS| Mean| SD| VerbalInterpretation| 1. Enhanced knowledge on all the dental essay contest concepts in Nursing care management| 3.54| 20. 76| 20.
Highly Effective| 2. Enhanced knowledge about anatomy and physiology| 3.38| 20.95| Effective| 3. Enhanced knowledge about pathophysiology of different diseases| 3.61| 29.94| Highly Effective| 4. Liberal! Enhanced knowledge about drugs and its effect to the body along with nsg. Care mgt.| 3.34| 15.11| Effective| 5. Decreased motivation in reading books related to nursing| 2.38| 24.22| Ineffective| 6. Introduction! Dependency to technology with regards to studying is increased| 2.57| 12.35| Effective| 7. Helps students for preparation in the Philippines Board Examination| 3.12| 14.41| Effective| 8. Decreased usage of library sources| 2.66| 10.7110.71| Effective| 9. Has long period of time between questions| 2.7| 9.94| Effective| 10. Liberal Arts Honors! E-learning helps to improve outcomes for children and young people through ideas, lessons and help for essay bronfenbrenner, professionals| 3.09| 10.39| Effective| 11. It decreases teacher-student interaction| 2.83| 7.79| Effective| 12. Students work independently in different activities offered by utexas arts E-learning| 3.04| 10.42| Effective| The table 3 illustrates the mean score of the essay on urie effects of E-Learning. Two of the arts effects of process e-learning are with verbal interpretation of arts honors thesis highly effective: enhanced knowledge on all the concepts in nursing care management with 3.54 and enhanced knowledge about patho-physiology of different diseases with 3.61.
While the cause essay others are with verbal interpretation of effective: enhanced knowledge about anatomy and physiology with 3.38, enhanced knowledge about drugs and its effect to utexas liberal arts thesis the body along with nursing care management with 3.34, dependency to technology with regards to studying is increased with 2.57, helps students for preparation in essay on urie bronfenbrenner, the Philippines Board Examination with 3.12, decreased usage of utexas library sources with 2.66, has long period of time between questions with 2.7, e-learning helps to improve outcomes for children and young people through ideas, lessons and help for professionals with 3.09, it decreases teacher-student interaction with 2.83 and students work indepenently in and effect topics, different activities offered by E-learning with 3.04. One of the liberal arts effects of e-learning is verbally interpreted as ineffective which is the decreased motivation in reading books related to nursing with 2.38. Overall, the outcome of the questions in verbal interpretation is Effective. Summary of findings. 1. Effects of Different Strategies in E-Learning. Majority of the respondents agreed that modules, simulations, exercises/quizzes, video presentation that are used as an e-learning strategy help them to enhance their knowledge.
These strategies improved their critical thinking ability and refresh their minds on their past topics or lessons. 2. Problems Encountered in E-learning. The two often encountered problems in introduction politics, e-learning are: computers hang during session and inadequate time to read and copy the lectures. While the arts thesis other three problems which are seldom encountered are: access from the home page was slow, the essays layout and structure of the software are difficult to navigate, and correct answers are marked wrong and inadequate time to analyze questions. 3. Effects of E-learning. Enhanced knowledge on all the arts honors concepts in Nursing Care Management and pathophysiology of different diseases were found to be highly effective when it comes to the effects of e-learning to the learning of the respondents.
Majority of the results on the effects categorically found to be effective. Introduction! Conclusion. Based on the findings, the researchers come up with the following conclusions: We therefore conclude that E-learning offers great promise for enhancing the quality of education beside traditional classroom. However, not only liberal arts honors thesis separate learning but also face to face learning has advantages as well as downsides. In that case, many researchers believe that the combining two educational methods can be effective ways in improving educational future. E-learning is effective at delivering contents like instructions or descriptions that students can hear through headphones and show video presentations related to the activity to students without ever tiring or getting impatient. Students enjoy working in an E-learning environment because it provides them with immediate, positive feedback, grades all students fairly and provides them with more control over essay the speed at which instruction is delivered. After a thorough analysis of utexas arts data, the research study suggests that E-learning as a part of the curriculum of the nursing students from the batch 2009-2012 had been an effective method of essay learning. Though the teacher-student interaction is decreased, the utexas arts level of independence and competence of the students is enhanced. It is photsynthesis process therefore recommended to the College of Nursing to implement the said subject as part of the curriculum for the future batches of utexas liberal arts nurses in Centro Escolar University.
Polit, Denise E.Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice 8th Edition. New York USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Inc. Yabut, MS, Urgiano, Santos, De Guzman, Ph.D “Statistics”. Appendix B p. 260 B. Electronic Source. http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v16n1/ragasa%20pdf.html 4/2/2008 5http://eng.hi138.com/?i6379. http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v16n1/ragasa%20pdf.html 4/2/2008 http://pppjj.usm.my/mojit/articles/pdf/August05/06-Article-036- pdf http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/computer-assisted+instruction http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/130589/computer-assisted-instruction-CAI 1http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/profdev/profdev180.shtml. Paradise, Andrew. 2008 State of the Industry Report.
Rep. Alexandria: ASTD Research Department, 2008. Tavangarian D., Leypold M., Nolting K., Roser M.,(2004). Is e-learning the Solution for Individual Learning? Journal of e-learning, 2004. http://www.nursingtimes.net/e-learning-benefits-nurse-education-and-helps-shape-students-professional-identity/5011215.article Patrick D. Bridge, Ph.D., Matt Jackson, Ph.D., and Leah Robinson, Ed.S. (2009) (Sandra Romo 2010) Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Effectiveness of cause and effect essay topics for college E-Learning. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!
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computer homework MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES WORKSHEETS. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES WORKSHEETS. The Multiple Intelligence theory suggests that no one set of utexas liberal arts thesis, teaching strategies will work best for essay on urie bronfenbrenner, all students at all times. Utexas. All children have different proclivities in essay the seven intelligences, so any particular strategy is likely to be successful with several students, and yet, not for others. Because of these individual differences among students, teachers are best advised to honors thesis, use a broad range of teaching strategies with their students. Photsynthesis Process. As long as instructors shift their intelligence emphasis from presentation to thesis, presentation, there will always be a time during the on urie, period or day when a student has his or her own highly developed intelligence(s) actively involved in learning. Key Points in MI Theory.
Each person possesses all seven intelligences - MI theory is not a type theory for determining the one intelligence that fits. Liberal Arts Thesis. It is essay on urie a theory of utexas liberal arts thesis, cognitive functioning, and it proposed that each person has capacities in essay all seven intelligences. Most people can develop each intelligence to utexas, an adequate level of competency - although an on urie bronfenbrenner, individual may bewail his deficiencies in arts a given area and consider his problems innate and intractable, Gardner suggests that virtually everyone has the capacity to essay, develop all seven intelligences to a reasonably high level of performance if given the appropriate encouragement, enrichment, and instruction. Intelligences usually work together in complex ways - Gardner points out that each intelligence as described above is actually a fiction; that is no intelligence exists by itself in thesis life (except perhaps in very rare instances in savants and brain-injured individuals.) Intelligences are always interacting with each other. There are many ways to be intelligent within each category - there is great no standard set of attributes that one must have to be considered intelligent in a specific area. Utexas Liberal Arts. Consequently, a person may not be able to read, yet be highly linguistic because he can tell a terrific story or has a large, oral vocabulary.
Similarly, a person may be quite awkward on the playing field, yet possess superior bodily-kinesthetic intelligence when she weaves a carpet or creates an inlaid chess table. MI theory emphasizes the dissertation, rich diversity of ways in which people show their gifts within intelligences as well as between intelligences. “All students can learn and honors, succeed, but not all on on dieting, the same day in utexas arts thesis the same way.” - William G. Spady. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES TEST. Where does your true intelligence lie? This quiz will tell you where you stand and what to do about it.
Read each statement. If it expresses some characteristic of yours and sounds true for the most part, jot down a T. Dissertation Introduction. If it doesn't, mark an F. If the statement is liberal honors thesis sometimes true, sometimes false, leave it blank. 1. _____ I'd rather draw a map than give someone verbal directions. 2. Dental Essay. _____ I can play (or used to play) a musical instrument. 3. _____ I can associate music with my moods. 4. _____ I can add or multiply in my head. 5. _____ I like to work with calculators and computers. 6. _____ I pick up new dance steps fast. 7. _____ It's easy for me to liberal thesis, say what I think in an argument or debate. 8. _____ I enjoy a good lecture, speech or sermon.
9. _____ I always know north from essay south no matter where I am. 10. Liberal Honors. _____ Life seems empty without music. 11. _____ I always understand the directions that come with new gadgets or appliances. 12. _____ I like to work puzzles and essays 2nd edition, play games. 13. Utexas Liberal Honors Thesis. _____ Learning to ride a bike (or skates) was easy. 14. _____ I am irritated when I hear an argument or statement that sounds illogical. 15. _____ My sense of essays 2nd edition, balance and utexas liberal arts honors, coordination is good. 16. _____ I often see patterns and relationships between numbers faster and easier than others. 17. Photsynthesis. _____ I enjoy building models (or sculpting). 18. _____ I'm good at liberal arts, finding the fine points of 2nd edition, word meanings.
19. _____ I can look at an object one way and utexas liberal arts honors thesis, see it sideways or backwards just as easily. 20. _____ I often connect a piece of essay bronfenbrenner, music with some event in my life. 21. Arts Honors. _____ I like to work with numbers and figures. 22. _____ Just looking at essay, shapes of utexas liberal arts honors, buildings and structures is pleasurable to me. 23. Essay On Dieting. _____ I like to hum, whistle and sing in utexas liberal thesis the shower or when I'm alone. 24. _____ I'm good at photsynthesis process, athletics. 25. _____ I'd like to study the structure and logic of languages. 26. _____ I'm usually aware of the expression on my face.
27. _____ I'm sensitive to the expressions on utexas liberal arts honors, other people's faces. 28. Essay On Dieting. _____ I stay in utexas liberal arts touch with my moods. Photsynthesis. I have no trouble identifying them. 29. _____ I am sensitive to the moods of utexas liberal thesis, others. 30. _____ I have a good sense of 2nd edition, what others think of utexas honors thesis, me. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE SCORING SHEET. Place a check mark by each item you marked as true. Add your totals. Cause Essay For College. A total of liberal honors, four in any of the categories A through E indicates strong ability.
In categories F and G a score of one or more means you have abilities as well. The Seven Multiple Intelligences in Children. Children who are strongly: reading, writing, telling stories, playing word games, etc. books, tapes, writing tools paper diaries, dialogues, discussion, debate stories. experimenting, questioning, figuring out introduction politics puzzles, calculating, etc.
things to explore and think about, science materials, manipulatives, trips to the planetarium and science museum. in images and pictures. designing, drawing, visualizing, doodling, etc. art, LEGOs, video, movies, slides, imagination games, mazes, puzzles, illustrated books, trips to utexas liberal honors, art museums. through somatic sensations. dancing, running, jumping, building, touching, gesturing, etc.
role play, drama, movement, things to build, sports and physical games, tactile experiences, hands-on learning. via rhythms and melodies. singing, whistling, humming, tapping feet and hands, listening, etc.. sing-along time, trips to photsynthesis process, concerts, music playing at home and school, musical instruments. by bouncing ideas off other people. leading, organizing, relating, manipulating, mediating, partying, etc. friends, group games, social gatherings, community events, clubs, mentors/apprenticeships. deeply inside themselves. setting goals, meditating, dreaming, being quiet, secret places, time alone, self-paced projects, choices. CHECKLIST FOR ASSESSING STUDENTS' MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES.
Name of Student: ___________________________________. In each of the following categories, check all items that apply. _____ writes better than average for age. _____ spins tall tales or tells jokes and utexas liberal thesis, stories. _____ has a good memory for dissertation introduction, names, places, dates, or trivia. _____ enjoys word games. _____ enjoys reading books. _____ spells words accurately (preschool: does developmental spelling that is advanced for age) _____ appreciates nonsense rhymes, puns, tongue twisters, etc. _____ enjoys listening to the spoken word (stories, commentary on the radio, talking, books) _____ has a good vocabulary for utexas liberal arts, age.
_____ communicates to on urie bronfenbrenner, others in a highly verbal way. Other Linguistic Strengths: _____ asks a lot of utexas thesis, questions about photsynthesis process how things work. _____ computes arithmetic problems in his/her head quickly (preschool: math concepts are advanced for utexas liberal arts thesis, age) _____ enjoys math class (preschool: enjoys counting and doing other things with number)
_____ finds math computer games interesting (no exposure to essay on dieting, computers: enjoys other math or counting games) _____ enjoys playing chess, checkers, or other strategy games (preschool: board games requiring counting squares) _____ enjoys working on logic puzzles or brain teasers (preschool: enjoys hearing logical nonsense such as in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland) _____ enjoys putting things in utexas arts thesis categories or hierarchies. _____ likes to experiment in a way that shows higher order cognitive thinking processes. _____ thinks on a more abstract or conceptual level than peers.
_____ has a good sense of cause-effect for age. Other Logical-Mathematical Strengths: _____ reports clear visual images. _____ reads maps, charts, and essay contest, diagrams more easily that text (preschool: enjoys visuals more than text) _____ daydreams more than peers. _____ enjoys art activities. _____ draws figures that are advanced for age.
_____ likes to view movies, slides, or other visual presentations. _____ enjoys doing puzzles, mazes, Where's Waldo? or similar visual activities. _____ builds interesting three-dimensional constructions for age (e.g., LEGO buildings) _____ gets more out of pictures than words while reading. _____ doodles on workbooks, worksheets, or other materials.
Other Spatial Strengths: _____ excels in one or more sports (preschool: shows physical prowress advanced for liberal, age) _____ moves, twitches, taps, or fidgets while seated for a long time in one spot. _____ cleverly mimics other people's gestures or mannerisms. _____ loves to take things apart and put them back together again. _____ put his/her hands all over one hundred great 2nd edition, something he/she's just seen. _____ enjoys running, jumping, wrestling, or similar activities (older: show this in utexas liberal arts thesis a more restrained way, e.g., woodworking, sewing, mechanics) or good fine-motor coordination in photsynthesis process other ways.
_____ has a dramatic way of expressing himself/herself. _____ reports different physical sensations while thinking or working. _____ enjoys working with clay or other tactile experiences (e.g., finger-painting) Other Bodily-Kinesthetic Strengths: _____ tells you when music sounds off-key or disturbing in utexas thesis some way other way. _____ remembers melodies of songs. _____ has a good singing voice. _____ plays a musical instrument or sings in choir or other group (preschool: enjoys playing percussion instruments and/or singing in essay topics for college a group) _____ has a rhythmic way of speaking and/or moving. _____ unconsciously hums to himself/herself. _____ taps rhythmically on the table or desks as he/she works.
_____ sensitive to environmental noises (e.g., rain on the roof) Other Musical Strengths: _____ enjoys socializing with peers. _____ seems to liberal honors, be a natural leader. _____ gives advice to friends who have problems. _____ seems to be street smart. _____ belongs to clubs, committees, or other group organizations (preschool: seems to be part of essay contest, a general education social group) _____ enjoys informally teaching other kids. _____ likes to play games with other kids.
_____ has two or more close friends. _____ has a good sense of empathy or concern for others. _____ others seek out his/her empathy or concern for liberal thesis, others. _____ others seek out his/her company. Other Interpersonal Strengths: _____ displays a sense of independence or a strong will. _____ has a realistic sense of introduction politics, his/her strengths and arts thesis, weaknesses. _____ does well when left alone or to politics, play or study. _____ marches to the beat of a different drummer in his/her style of living and learning. _____ has an arts, interest or hobby that he/she doesn't talk much about.
_____ has a good sense of photsynthesis process, self-direction. _____ prefers working alone to working with others. _____ accurately expresses how he/she is feeling. _____ is able to arts, learn from his/her failures and essay, successes in life. _____ has high self-esteem. Other Intrapersonal Strengths: Excerpted from thesis Armstrong, Thomas. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, Alexandria, Virginia, Association for Supervision and contest, Curriculum Development (1994). MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES: STRATEGIES IN THE CLASSROOM. The following list provides a survey of the techniques and materials that can be employed in teaching through the utexas liberal arts honors, multiple intelligences.
lectures, debates large- and small-group discussions books, worksheets, manuals brainstorming writing activities word games sharing time storytelling, speeches, reading to essay bronfenbrenner, class talking books and cassettes extemporaneous speaking journal keeping choral reading individualized reading memorizing linguistic facts tape recording one's words using word processors publishing (e.g., creating class newspapers) mathematical problems on the board Socratic questioning scientific demonstrations logical problem-solving exercises creating codes logic puzzles and liberal, games classifications and categorizations quantifications and calculations computer programming languages science thinking logical-sequential presentation of subject matter Piagetian cognitive stretching exercises Heuristic. charts, graphs, diagrams, and one hundred essays, maps visualization photography videos, slides, and utexas liberal honors, movies visual puzzles and mazes 3-D construction kits art appreciation imaginative storytelling picture metaphors creative daydreaming painting, collage, visual arts idea sketching visual thinking exercises graphic symbols using mind-maps and other visual organizers computer graphics software visual awareness activities optical illusions color cues telescopes, microscopes, and binoculars visual awareness activities draw-and-paint/computer- assisted-design software picture literacy experiences. creative movement, mime hands-on thinking field trips the classroom teacher competitive and cooperative games physical awareness and essay, relaxation exercises all hands-on activities crafts body maps use of utexas liberal thesis, kinesthetic imagery cooking, gardening, and other messy activities manipulatives virtual reality software kinesthetic concepts physical education activities communicating with body language/ hand signals tactile materials and experiences body answers. musical concepts singing, humming, whistling playing recorded music playing live music on cause essay topics, piano, guitar, or other instruments group singing mood music music appreciation playing percussion instruments rhythms, songs, raps, chants using background music linking old tunes with concepts discographies creating new melodies for concepts listening to utexas liberal arts honors, inner musical imagery music software supermemory music. cooperative groups interpersonal interaction conflict mediation peer teaching board games cross-age tutoring group brainstorming sessions peer sharing community involvement apprenticeships simulations academic clubs interactive software parties / social gatherings as context for dental, learning people sculpting. independent study feeling-toned moments self-paced instruction individualized projects and utexas honors thesis, games private spaces for study one-minute reflection periods interest centers personal connections options for homework choice time self-teaching programmed instruction exposure to inspirational/ motivational curricula self-esteem activities journal keeping goal setting sessions.
Excerpted from Armstrong, T. Multiple Intelligences In The Classroom . Alexandria, VA: Association for photsynthesis, Supervision and Curriculum Development (1994). “If we are to achieve a richer culture. we must weave one in which each diverse human gift will find a fitting place.”